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CORRECTIONS in the lists of members and officers of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, 1 January, 1813. Published in the 
first volume, new series, page 4, fyc. 
August, 1814. 

Res. member deceased. Rev. John Elliot, D.D. Boston, 14 Feb. 1813. 

Res. members elected. James Savage, Esquire, Boston, 28 Jan. 1813. 
" " " Dr. Ephraim Eliot, Boston, 24 Aug. 1813. 

Corr. members elected. Hon. Elias Boudinot, LL.D. Burlington, N. J. 
Rev. Eliphalet Nott, D.D. Pres. Union Coll. Schenectady, N. Y. and his Ex. 
John Cotton Smith, Sharon, Conn. 29 April, 1813. John Pintard, Esquire, 
N. York, 28 October, 1813. Hon. Dewitt Clinton, N. York, 28 April, 1814. 


Corr. Secretary. Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. 1813. 
Librarian. James Savage, Esquire, 1814. 

Comm. for pub. 2d vol. new series. Rev. Abiel Holmes and Thaddeus M. 
Harris, S. T. DD. Hon. Josiah Quincy, and Rev. Joseph M'Kean. 



Article Page 

I. Report on the Western Indians ..... 1 

II. Sketch of the Society for prop. Gospel, &c. . . .45 

III. Wonder-working Providence, &c 49 

IV. Notice of Edward Johnson . . . . . .95 

V. Residence in Massachusetts, 16SG . . . . .97 

VI. Islands of Tristan d'Acunha ...... 125 

VII. Declaration for Episcopacy in Connecticut, 1722, . . 128 

VIII. Rev. J. Moss's Letter on this declaration . . . 129 

IX. Rev. J. Webb's " " "....« 131 

X. Sentiments of several Boston Ministers on the above . 133 

XI. Relation of the late occurrence, " " " . 137 

XII. Historical Sketch of Brookline, Mass 140 

XIII. Births, deaths, &c. in Billerica, 1G54— 1704 . . 162 

XIV. Historical Sketch of Charlestown, Mass. . . . 163 

XV. Sketch of Ancient and Hon. Art. Company . . . 185 

XVI. Dr. Colman's Letter to the late Gov. Belcher . . 186 

XVII. Letter on the condition of Georgia, 1735 . . . 188 

XVIII. Remarks on Bishop Seeker's Sermon . . . 190 

XIX. Heads of Inquiry, relative to Connecticut. (See vol. 

vii. first ser. p. 231.) 216 

XX. Answer to several queries respecting New Haven . . 217 

XXI. " " " " " New London . 219 

XXII. Letter from the Connec. Delegates to first Congress . 221 

XXIII. British account of the affair of 19 April, 1775 . . 224 

XXIV. Journal of the expedition against Quebec, 1775 . 227 

XXV. Historical Sketch of Amherst, New Hampshire . . 247 

XXVI. Letter from the Gen. Association of Connecticut 

to their brethren in Boston, 1774 .... 255 

XXVII. Answer to the above . . . . m . . 257 

XXVIII. Extracts from Dr. Stiles' literary Diary . " . .260 

XXIX. Gov. Andros' Letter, 1686 " 

XXX. Bills of Mortality for Middleborough, 1805—1813 . 261 

XXXI. Account of a fossil tooth, &c. 1706 .... 263 

XXXII. Letter from General Court to Dr. Owen, 1663 . 265 

XXXIII. Indian names of White Hills and Piscataqua . 266 

XXXIV. Necessaries for going to Virginia, 1626 . . . 267 

XXXV. Account of the Loganian Library, Philadelphia . 269 

XXXVI. Author of a " View of religious liberty, N. York" .270 

XXXVII. Memoir of Rev. J. S. Buckminster . . .271 

XXXVIII. Correction of Hutchinson, on American coins . 274 

XXXIX. T. Hollis, Esq. Letter to Rev. Dr. A. Eliot . . 276 
XL. Rev. Dr. Eliot's Answer . . . . . . " 

XLI. Circular Letter of the Historical Society . . . 277 
XLII. Prospectus of Hubbard's History . . . .281 

XLIII. " " Historical Society's Collections . . 284 

XLIV. Donations to the Historical Society .... 285 


Alden, Timothy, 

Andros, Edmund, 


Bartlett, Josiah, 

Chickering, Joseph, 

Colman, Benjamin, 

Committee for publishing, 
xlii. xliii. xliv. and the 
prefaces and notes to the 
several articles. 

[Cutler, Timothy,] 

[Deane, Silas,] 

Dudley, Joseph, 

Dunton, John, 

Eliot, Andrew, 


[Endicot, John, 

Farmer, John, 

Gage, Thomas, 

Hazard, Eben, 



xi. xix. 


xv i. 






xviii. xxvii. xl. 



xiii. xxv. 


xxxv. xxxvi. 

Hollis, Thomas, xxxix. 

[Holmes, Abiel,] ii. 

Johnson, Edward, iii. 

[Mather, Cotton,] x. 

Meigs, Return J. xxiv. 

Miller, Jeremiah, xxi. 

Moss, Joseph, viii. 

Pierce, John, xii. 

Quincy, Samuel, xvii. 

[Savage, James,] xxxvii. 

xxxviii. and notes to iii. 

Schermerhorn, John F. i. 

Seaver, Benjamin F. vi. 

Smith, John, xxxiv. 

Stiles, Ezra, xxviii. 

Thompson, Isaac, xxx. 

[Throop, Benjamin,] xxvi. 

Webb, Joseph, ix. 

Wooster, David, xx. 






« —1813. 











v. xxix. 




vii. viii 

ix. x. xi. 









xxxix. xl. 

1773. 1778. xxviii. 

1774. xix. xx. xxi. xxii. xxvi. 

1775. xxiii. xxiv. 

1805. '8. '9. '10. Ml. '13. xxx. 

1806. xxxiii. 

1808. xxxv. xxxvi. 

1809. iv. 
1811. vi 
1813. xli. 

1813, 1814. xliv. 

1814. i. ii. xxxvii. xxxviii. xlii. 



Communicated by Mr. John F. Schermerhorn to the Secretary of the 
Society for propagating the Gospel among the Indians and Others 
in North America. 

[The Society for propagating the Gospel, taking into consideration 
that the Indian tribes in New England are almost extinct, and that at 
no distant period it may be expedient to extend some portion of the 
income of the fund, appropriated to Indians, to tribes in the remote 
parts of North America, commissioned Messrs. Samuel J. Mills and 
John F. Schermerhorn, in 1812, to procure exact information of the 
state of such remote tribes, with particular reference to future missions, 
whenever they may be judged practicable and expedient. The fol- 
lowing Report was communicated to the Society at their annual meet- 
ing, 26 May, 1814, and referred to their Select Committee, who au- 
thorized the publication of it in the Historical Collections. It is grate- 
fully received, and readily inserted, as an important document in the 
aboriginal history of our country. Edit.] 

Rev. Sir, 

BY your communication of May 28, 1812, it ap- 
pears, that Samuel J. Mills and myself were appointed by 
your Society, to obtain some information concerning those 
tribes of Indians, which reside west of the Alleghany 
mountains and the Mississippi river ; and to endeavour 
particularly to obtain answers to the following inquiries: 

1. What is the name of the tribe? its origin and his- 
tory ? 

2. What its local situation, and the extent of the terri- 
tory which it occupies? 

3. What its numbers and language ? How extensively 
is its language understood? 

4. Whether it is independent ? or, 



5. Whether in any degree dependent on the govern- 
ment of the United States, or any particular state ? or 
connected with or subject to any other tribe or tribes of 
Indians ? 

6. What grants of money, goods, or other aids it re- 
ceives, either from the national or any state government? 

7. Whether the gospel has ever been propagated 
among them ? If so, when ? By whom ? and with what 
success ? 

8. Is there any church in the nation ? If so, 

9. Of what religious denomination ? When, and by 
whom established, and what its present numbers and 
state ? 

10. Is there any school in the nation ? If so, when and 
by whom established, and what is its character and state ? 

11. Are they in peculiar need of religious instruction, 
or of schools ? 

12. Are they favourably disposed to receive either? 
and in what way can they best be supplied ? 

Much confusion has been introduced on part of the 
subject of the first inquiry, and many erroneous impres- 
sions left, from causes which, in themselves, are trifling. 
I mean in giving names to the different tribes. 

La Hontan, Du Pratt and Charlevoix, Carver, Loskeil 
and others, describe many of the same tribes, concerning 
which they write, by different names. It was formerly a 
very common practice with the traders to give fictitious 
names to the different tribes, in order that they might not 
be suspected of any evil views and intentions by the In- 
dians, were they to converse in their presence concerning 
their tribes. Thus it has sometimes happened, that writ- 
ers have been deceived, taking the proper name of the 
tribe, and the fictitious name of the trader, to designate 
different tribes, and have accordingly described them as 
such. These things would lead us to suppose, that the 
former and present number of Indian tribes were much 
greater than they are in reality. In describing the tribes, 
I will designate them by the names by which they are 
known and described by the agents of the general govern- 
ment. The origin and history of the different tribes, ex- 
cept those things which relate to affairs since we have 


taken possession of the country, are involved in uncertain 
tradition and fable. 

The tribes are all independent of each other, though in 
general they are in alliance, and occasionally meet to con- 
cert measures for their general good ; as was the case in 
October, 1812, when there was a general council of 
Creeks, Chactavvs, Cherokees and Chickesaws. They 
are, however, not independent of the United States ; al- 
though we have guaranteed to them their territorial claims, 
still they are not at liberty to dispose of their lands, but to 
the United States. In short, they are considered minors ; 
we, as their guardians. 

I have not been able to procure all the information that 
is desirable, concerning many of the Indian tribes. I ex- 
pected to have been able to present you with much im- 
portant information concerning the tribes which dwell and 
wander in Ohio, and the Indiana and Illinoi territories. 
For this purpose, I wrote to Capt. Hendrick, a Stock- 
bridge Indian of intelligence and hopeful piety, who has 
for some time resided among the Delawares on the White 
River, (I. T.) Expecting, on my return, Capt. Hen- 
drick's particular information of these tribes, I was less 
particular in my inquiries concerning them, while in Ohio 
and Indiana territory, than I otherwise should have been. 
I shall, however, lay before you such information as I 


The Wyandots are a part of the Huron nation, which 
reside in the British dominions, on Lake Huron. Their 
language bears an affinity to that of the Six Nations, ma- 
ny of whom, particularly the Senecas, reside with them. 
With this tribe reside also many of the Delawares, Mun- 
sees, and Shawnees. The country they claim is in the 
north-west part of the Ohio, and their principal place of 
residence on the upper and lower Sandusky. Their num- 

Before the arrival of Mr. Schermcrborn, with the papers forming this Re 
port, Mr. Mills returned from the mission, and, in a letter to the Secretary, 
observed : " We could not ascertain satisfactorily, the situation of any tribe 
north of the Ohio, on account of the disturbances occasioned by the war. 
The Indians in this portion of our western country, are generally engaged in 
the war against the States ; and before the termination of it may, at least the 
greater part of them, go west of the Mississippi river." Edit. 


ber of warriors was estimated by Benjamin Hawkins, at 
the treaty of Granville in 1795, at 300. The probable 
number of souls is about 1000. 

The synod of Pittsburgh have had a mission among 
this nation for some years, and have met with considera- 
ble success. There have been several hopeful converts 
to Christianity, and many of the young children have been 
instructed in reading and writing, in which they made 
good proficiency. The storm of war drove them from 
their peaceable habitation, and they have sought refuge 
among the white inhabitants. They arrived at Zanes- 
town, near Urbana, in November, 1812. They sided 
with us in the war. The Moravians have also had a mis- 
sion among this nation. What is its present state, I can- 
not say. The synod of Pittsburgh feel encouraged to 
proceed in their mission, but are in want of funds; any 
assistance from any society would be gratefully accepted. 

The United States have had several treaties with this 
nation, by which it was stipulated, in 1795, that the Unit- 
ed States should pay to them $1000 in merchandise, as 
a perpetual annuity. In 1806 it was further agreed to 
pay them, as a perpetual annuity, $1000 in cash. In 
1808, the United States gave them a gratuity of $1666! 
in merchandise, and stipulated to pay the further sum of 
$400, as a perpetual annuity. This tribe receives annu- 
ally from the United States $1000 in merchandise, and 
$1400 in cash. 


This tribe originally, from the best accounts I can ob- 
tain, had its residence east of the Alleghany mountains 
in Georgia, on Savannah river. Afterwards, part of them 
removed to Lancaster county, Pennsylvania and some 
settled in the Creek nation, and are now incorporated 
with them and speak the Sooanogee language. This 
tribe has been at war with almost all the Indians. The 
Six Nations and Cherokees have been their most power- 
ful foes, by whom they have been driven across the Ohio. 
Since they have been north of the Ohio, they have had 
several places of residence on the Sciota, the Wabash, 
and at present, those that remain east of the Mississippi, 


reside near and on the Auglaize river, and on the Wa- 
bash, about Tippacanoe, (Indiana Ter.) Half of this 
tribe, at least, reside on the St. Francis river, (Louisiana.) 
This tribe has always been reputed the most brave and 
skilful warriors among the Indians. The prophet, who 
enticed the Indians to take up the hatchet in this war 
against us, and his brother Tecumseh, are said to be of 
this tribe; though others affirm, that they are Algon- 
quincs. The language of this tribe is said to bear an af- 
finity to the Delaware. The territorial limits between 
the Shawnoes, Wyandots, Delawares, Miamis, Eel river, 
Weas, Putawatamies, Ottoways, Pinkeshaws and Kick- 
apoos, are, in fact, not settled among themselves, and can- 
not therefore be accurately defined. It is for this reason, 
probably, that the United States, in their purchases of 
lands in the Ohio and Indiana territory, have held mutu- 
al treaties with those Indians, in order to gain their gene- 
ral consent to the sale, and so prevent future difficulties. 
Strictly speaking, the Delawares and Shawnoes have no 
right to the lands in this part of the country. They have 
been permitted to dwell here by the Miamis and Wyan- 
dots, who are the real owners of the soil. This nation has 
been greatly reduced. Their present numbers are, per- 
haps 500 warriors, and 1600 souls. Half of them reside 
in Louisiana. By the treaty of Granville in 1795, the 
United States settled on them a perpetual annuity of 
$1000 in merchandise. 


Of this nation I can say but little. They reside on the 
river St. Joseph, near fort St. Joseph, about the lower 
parts of lake Michigan. Their language is said to bear 
an affinity to the Chippeway, and Barton found some re- 
semblance between them and the Indians of Darien. 
Their number of warriors, at the treaty of Granville, was 
estimated at 350 ; the probable number of souls 1200. 
They have received from the United States, since 1795, 
$1000 in merchandise, which is a perpetual annuity. 
From 1806, they receive $500 for 10 years annually. 
From 1808, a perpetual annuity of $400, and also at this 
time, a gratuity of $1666, 33. From 1810, a perpetual 


annuity of $500 more. So that they receive from the 
United States a perpetual annuity of $1000 in merchan- 
dise, and $900 in cash, besides the limited annuity and 


These reside on White river, a branch of the Wa- 
bash, in Indiana territory. They are the remnant of the 
old Delaware confederacy, which consisted of five tribes: 
the Chikohocki, Wanami, Munsey, Wabinga and Ma- 
hiccon, or Mohegan. They formerly resided on the sea 
coast from Delaware bay to Connecticut river. Some 
few families of the Mohegan still reside in Connecticut : 
some in New-Stockbridge, (N. Y.) but the body of the 
nation in Indiana territory, where the Wyandols, as early 
as 1751, and the Miamis since, have given them a tract 
of land to live on, but will not acknowledge that the Del- 
awares have a right to sell it. The Delawares have, for 
several years, requested the Mohegans of New-Stock- 
bridge, to come and settle with them ; and in that case 
would consent to receive a missionary among them. 
Many of the Stockbridge Indians have been to view the 
country ; some are there now, and in all probability, ere 
long all will remove there. This would prove a great 
blessing to the Delawares, for their brethren, the Stock- 
bridge Indians, have made great progress in agriculture 
and civilization; besides having a church formed among 
them, and at least thirty professors of religion. 

The language of the Delawares must be considered as 
an original language ; at least, it bears no affinity to the 
Iroquois or Mohawk, nor to the Algonquine or Chippe- 
way language.- — See a very excellent dissertation on the 
Mohegan language, a branch of the Delaware nation, by 
Jonathan Edwards, D. D. Dr. Barton, however, is of 
opinion, that there is an affinity between the Delaware and 
Chippeway languages. The number of warriors in the 
Indiana territory has been estimated at 300 in 1795 ; the 
probable number of souls, 1000. Some of this nation 
have settled west of the Mississippi, on the St. Francis. 
The United States, in 1795, engaged to give them a per- 
petual annuity of $1000 in merchandise; from 1805, 


$ 600 annually for 15 years, and a gratuity at this time of 
$ 1200. In 1810, they further stipulated to pay them in 
cash $500, as a perpetual annuity. So that they are to 
receive yearly forever $ 1000 in merchandise, and $ 500 
in cash. 

Miamies. Weas. Eel River. 

These were originally one nation. They have the 
same language and the same territory in common. Char- 
levoix observes, that the Miamies and lllinoi Indians are 
of the same stock. From the earliest accounts we have, 
they have resided on the Miamie rivers and on the Wa- 
bash. La Hontan remarks, that their language bears an 
affinity to the Algonquine ; Dr. Barton says, to the Del- 
aware ; Charlevoix, to the Illonese. Which of these, if 
any, is correct, 1 am not able to say. The society of 
Friends, at Baltimore, have been engaged for some time 
past to introduce agriculture among them. They have 
in a measure succeeded, and many of them now raise con- 
siderable quantities of corn. The agent for Indian af- 
fairs in that part of the country spoke very flatteringly 
before this war, of the prospect of the Indians turning 
their attention to agriculture and civilization, and adopt- 
ing the manner of life among the whites. 

The number of warriors among these tribes does not 
exceed 500 ; the probable number of souls, 2000. The 
population of the Miamies is as great as both the others. 

The Miamies receive from the United States since 
1795, $1000 in merchandise, as a perpetual annuity. 
By the treaty of 1806, they received a gratuity of $400, 
and a perpetual annuity of $600 in cash ; by that of 1810, 
a gratuity of $1500, and a perpetual annuity of $700 
more. So that their perpetual annuity is $1000 in mer- 
chandise, and $1300 in cash. 

The Weas receive, since the treaty of Granville in 
1795, $500 in merchandise, as a perpetual annuity ; by 
the treaty of 1806, $250 in cash, as a perpetual annuity; 
and by that of 1810, a gratuity of $1500, and a perpetual 
annuity of $400 in cash. 

Eel River, it was stipulated in 1795, should receive 
$500 in merchandise, as a perpetual annuity ; in 1806, 


$250 in cash, a perpetual annuity, and in 1810, $350 per- 
petual. Their perpetual annuity is $500 in merchandise, 
and $600 in cash. 


Reside towards the head of Illinoi river, and about 
lake Michigan. This tribe is supposed to be a part of 
the Shawnoese tribe. Their language, La Hontan says, 
is Algonquine. Their number of warriors, as estimated 
at the treaty of Granville, was 300 ; the probable number 
of souls, 1000. They receive from the United States, 
by the treaty of 1795, $500 in merchandise, as a perpet- 
ual annuity. By that of 1810, there was settled on them 
a perpetual annuity of $500 in cash, accompanied with a 
gratuity of $1500. Their perpetual annuity is $500 in 
merchandise, and $500 in cash. 


Reside near fort Outinon. They have disposed of a 
great part of their territory, which formerly extended 
from the Ohio both sides of the Wabash, some distance 
above Vincennes, and near to the Illinoi. Their num- 
ber of warriors in 1795, was estimated at 250 ; probable 
number of souls 800. It was stipulated by the treaty of 
Granville, that they should receive, as a perpetual annui- 
ty, $500 in merchandise. In 1805, they received a gra- 
tuity of $700, and were to receive $200 annually for 10 
years. In 1807, they received a gratuity of $1100, and 
the United States agreed to pay them, as a perpetual an- 
nuity, $300 in cash. Their perpetual annuity is $500 in 
merchandise, and $300 in cash. 

Kaskaskias, Piorias, Cohakias and lllonese are nearly 
all destroyed by the Sacs and Foxes, for killing in cool 
blood and in time of peace, the Sac's chief, Pontiac. 
Those few that remain of the Kaskaskias, reside near Kas- 
kaskia, and are very much adulterated with French blood. 
There are a few families of the Piorias, that reside on the 
Illinoi river, near the lake ; the other are a few wandering 
families. The whole number of souls does not probably 
exceed 500. The Kaskaskias receive from the United 
States, by the treaty of Granville, $500, as a perpetual 


annuity. In 1803, the United States stipulated to give 
them $500 in cash annually, forever. They also gave 
them, as a gratuity, at this time, $480 ; appropriated $300 
to building them a chapel, and to pay $100 annually, to- 
wards the support of a Catholick priest. 

Sauks, or Sacs. 

These principally reside in four villages. " The 1. 
at the head of the rapid Des Moines, on the west shore of 
Missisippi. 2. On the priarie, 60 miles above, on the 
east side of the Missisippi river. 3. On the river De 
Roche, about 3 miles from its entrance. 4. On the riv- 
er Jovva." Pike. They are a very warlike nation, but 
are more to be dreaded for deceit and stratagem, than 
courage. Their language, general Pike considers pecu- 
liar to themselves, and original. I am apprehensive, how- 
ever, that on close investigation, it would be found that 
the nations in the Illinois territory have a near affinity to 
each other. The number of warriors in this tribe is 700 ; 
probable number of souls 2850. They receive from the 
United States, from 1803, a perpetual annuity of $300. 
They and the Foxes, who are in the closest league and 
may be considered as one nation, received, at the same 
time, a gratuity of $2234, 50. 

Foxes, Reynards, or Ottaganmeis. The Foxes reside 
in three villages : 1. On the west of the Missisippi river, 
6 miles above the rapids Des Moines. 2. Twelve miles 
in the rear of the lead mines. 3. On Turkey river, half 
a league from the entrance. This tribe, as also the Sacs, 
attend considerably to agriculture, and raise, particularly, 
great quantities of corn, beans, pumpkins and melons. 
This tribe and the Sauks are in a close league, offensive 
and defensive. Their language is similar to that of the 
Sauks. Their numbers — warriors 400; souls 1750. 
Their annuity from the United States, $400 perpetual. 


In the opinion of Carver and Pike, this nation, within a 
century and a half, has emigrated from the west side of 
the Missisippi to this part of the country. Their lan- 



guage is that of the Otto's on the river Platte of the Mis- 
souri. They reside on the rivers Ouscousing, De Roche, 
Fox, and on Green Bay, in 7 villages. 1. At the en- 
trance of Green Bay. 2. The end of the same. 3. 
Wuckan on Fox river. 4. At Little Puckway. 5. 
Portage of the Ouscousing. 6 and 7. On Roche river. 
They are reported brave ; but their bravery resembles 
more the ferocity of the tyger than the resolution of a 
man. A neighbouring chief drew their character thus: 
" A white man should never lie down without precaution 
in their villages." They generally speak, as do all the 
neighbouring nations, the Chippeway language. Their 
numbers are — warriors 450; souls 1950. 

Menomene, or Fols-avoines. 

This tribe in all probability has also emigrated from 
the west side of the Missisippi, as its language differs 
entirely from that of the neighbouring nations. The 
Chippeway language, however, is perfectly understood 
by them, and all their publick business is done in it. 
Their own language is said to be very difficult to acquire. 
They reside in 7 villages about Green Bay and Fox riv- 
er. ]. At Menome river, north of Lake Michigan, and 
15 miles from Fox river. 2. On Green Bay. 3. At 
Little Shakalin. 4. Portage of Shakalin. 5. Stenkin- 
gon, Winebago Lake. 6. On a small lake of Fox river. 
7. Behind the bank of the dead. This tribe is respected 
by their neighbours for their bravery and independent 
spirit, and esteemed the peculiar friends of the whites. 
Their territory is not properly defined. Their hunting 
grounds are the same as the Winebagoes, on the Ous- 
cousing, Roche, and Fox rivers, and on Green Bay, &c. 
Their numbers — warriors 300 ; souls 1350. 

Algonquins, or Chippeways. 

This nation is divided into several clans or tribes. 
When the French first arrived in Canada, they were found 
on the banks and gulf of St. Lawrence to Montreal, and 
on the coast of Labrador. They extended also up the 
Ottawas river to its source. We now find them ex- 
tending between the Straits of Detroit and Michigan lake ; 


on the south borders of lake Superiour ; the heads of the 
Missisippi, Red river and lake Winipie ; up the Dau- 
phine river and Sashashawin to Fort George; from thence 
with the course of Beaver river to Elk river, and with it 
to its discharge into the lake of the hills; from this, 
east to the isle a la Crosse, and by the Missisippi to 
Churchill. All this must be considered the country of 
the Algonquins, except a portion about Hudson's straits, 
which is claimed by the Esquimaux. This nation was 
formerly very numerous and powerful, but are now great- 
ly reduced by their eternal wars, the small pox, and 
excessive fondness for spirituous liquors. While the 
French retained possession of Canada, they were continu- 
ally fomenting wars between them and the lroquoise. 
The upper tribes have also been engaged in a war of ex- 
termination with the Sioux nation, from time immemori- 
al. General Pike, in 1805, while on his way to the heads 
of the Missisippi, succeeded in persuading them to bury 
the hatchet, and plant the tree of peace. This nation is 
divided into different clans or tribes, which w r ander 
through a vast extent of territory. They do not attend 
to the cultivation of the earth, but make great use of wild 
rice, which grows in abundance on the lakes and fens. 
Theii; language is copious highly sonorous, and easily ac- 
quired. "It is understood by all the tribes from the gulf 
of St. Lawrence, excepting the Sioux, to lake Winipie." 
Pike. They are divided into several villages or clans. 

1. On an island in Leach Lake, formed by the Missi- 
sippi, containing warriors 150; souls 1100. 

2. Crecs residing on the heads of the Missisippi, 
around Red lake. Warriors 200 ; souls 800. 

3. Musconogees, on Red river of lake Winipie, and 
mouth of Dauphine river. Warriors 100 ; souls 350. 

4. The lroquoise Chippeways, in the lake of the 
Two Hills, near the mouth of the Ottawas river. War- 
riors 500 ; souls 2000. M'Kenzie. These have two 
Catholick priests among them, and are at least christened 

5. Ottaways, East side of lake Michigan. They re- 
ceive from the United States, as a perpetual annuity, 
$1000 in merchandise, and $800 in cash. They also re- 



ceived a gratuity in 1808, of $3333, 33. Their number 
of warriors 300 ; of souls 1200. 

6. Chippeways. East of Huron lake, in Michigan ter- 
ritory. They receive from the United States a perpet- 
ual annuity of $1000 in merchandise, and $800 in cash. 
Their numbers, perhaps, warriors 300; souls 1200. 

7. Algonquines, residing about Rainy lake and river, 
and lake of the Woods. Numbers are, warriors 100; 
souls 300. 

8. Fols-avoin-Sauters reside on the waters of St. 
Croix and Chippeway rivers. Numbers, 104 warriors; 
420 souls. 

9. Knistenaux. These are also part of the Chippeway 
nation, and speak the Algonquine language. They have, 
however, for some time, been separated from the parent 
stock, and in alliance with the Assinboin, a revolted 
branch of the Saoux. They reside on the Assinboin riv- 
er and the Sashashawine. According to M'Kenzie and 
Pike, their warriors are 500 ; souls 2500. According to 
Breckenridge, only 300 warriors. It was my design to 
mention the tribes according to the natural divisions of 
the country ; but many being so nearly allied in language, 
I thought it advisable to notice those which speak the 
same language next each other. 

The following tribes reside east of the Missisippi, and 
north of the Ohio, to the lakes. 









Eel River 




Warriors. Souls. 






























Perpetual Annuities, 
merchan. cash. 
















Kaskaskias, &c. 

Me no me ne 
Sauters, orFols- 



















$9,500 $9,750 

5,204 19,220 


This tribe formerly resided on the Atlantick coast, near 
Charleston, (S. C.) According to tradition they drove 
off some tribe which possessed their present territory. 
They still claim a great portion of the mountainous part 
of Tennessee towards the south-east, and some part of 
Georgia contiguous to it. Their situation is. high and 
healthy, and portions of their land very fertile. They 
have made greater progress in civilization and agriculture,, 
than any Indian tribe within the United States. Many 
have large fine farms, and raise large quantities of corn 
and other grain ; also flocks and herds, and make then- 
own clothing. Many also, I am sorry to add, have a 
number of slaves! Their language bears no affinity to 
that of either of the neighbouring tribes. Loskiel ob- 
serves, that it is a mixture of Shawnoese and Iroquoise. 
And Barton thinks it bears an affinity to the language of 
the six nations. They receive from the United States 
by the treaty of 1794, $500 in merchandise. In 1798, 
they received a gratuity of $5000, and $100 more in 
merchandise, as a perpetual annuity. In 1806, $2000 
for four years, and to Black-Fox, a chief, $100 annual- 
ly, and gratuity of $2000. The number in this nation, 
as taken by Rev. G. Blackburn, is 12,395 souls ; proba- 
bly 3000 warriors. There was a mission established in 
this tribe by Rev. Gideon Blackburn, in 1804. His 
attention was more particularly directed to the rising 
generation. He gave the rudiments of a common En- 
glish education to 400 or 500 children, and instructed 



them at the same time in the principles of the christian 
religion. There was some hopeful converts ; one among 
the scholars. He was necessitated to forsake the mission 
for want of support. When he came to settle the affairs 
of the mission he found himself $500 out of pocket ; and 
has since been obliged to sell his farm at Marysville, 
chiefly to pay this debt, and those which were necessari- 
ly incurred, while engaged in the mission, through the 
neglect which his private concerns suffered. This sum 
has never been refunded to him. If missionaries are left 
to go to this warfare at their own charges, the field will 
soon be forsaken. Mr. Blackburn left the mission in 
1810. Since that time the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian church have continued a school in the na- 
tion. One of the half breed, formerly a pupil of Mr. B„ 
has also had a school. A Moravian has been in the na- 
tion for several years ; what has been his success 1 know 
not. But while Mr. B. had his school in operation, and 
as many scholars as he could accommodate, the Mora- 
vian had not more than two or three that attended him. 

The plan Mr. B. pursued was to clothe and board the 
scholars, and furnish the school with books at the ex- 
pense of the mission. As soon as a scholar arrived, the 
Indian dress was laid aside, and he was clothed after the 
American mode. The children were never suffered to 
address an instructer, but in the English language. No- 
thing was done by compulsion ; but by disgracing them 
for bad conduct, and rewarding merit and good behaviour. 
Their amusements were those of children among our- 
selves ; at all times endeavouring to introduce something 
which might be useful. The school was opened and 
closed by prayer, and singing, and reading the scriptures. 
The progress made by the children will be seen by an ex- 
tract of a history of one of the schools, containing near 
fifty scholars, and some letters accompanying this report. 
Mr. B. distributed some hundred bibles, catechisms and 
tracts among the children, as rewards, &c. 

Here is a door opened for the spread of the gospel. It 
is the opinion of Mr. B. had he been supported in the mis- 
sion, that, ere this, he might have been able to extend 


the mission to the Chickesaws and Chactaws, if not also 
to the Creeks. 


This tribe still claim the lands between the Missisip- 
pi, Ohio, and Tennessee rivers, to the mouth of Duck 
river — up Duck river to nearly opposite Lick Creek — 
from thence to the head of the North branch of BufTaloe 
river, thence in a line nearly S. S. E. unto the mouth 
of India Creek of the Tennessee — down the Tennessee 
river to the bottom of Muscle shoals, from thence in a 
straight line to where the 12° west longitude from Phil- 
adelphia intersects the 33°, 30' north latitude, and with 
this parallel of latitude to the Missisippi. The States of 
South Carolina and Georgia have formerly sold all their 
lands, as also part of the Cherokees' ; the United States, 
however, since these sales, have granted to the tribes 
their respective territories by treaty. 

The Chickesaws were once a very powerful nation, and 
their name was a terrour to all the surrounding tribes: 
they carried their wars even to Mexico and New Spain, 
and looked upon all the tribes on the Mobile, &c. as their 
brethren. They are not now what they once were ; for 
although they have adopted the Yazoos, Coroas, Chiachi- 
Qumas, Oufi-Ougulas, and Tapowsas, still they are but 
a handful ; and " to them it has literally happened, that he 
that taketh the sword shall perish by the sword." Du 

This nation was formerly from the west of the Missi- 
sippi, at which time their warriors were estimated at 
10,000. Their language, according to Du Pratz, was 
once spoken by all, or nearly all, the nations in the lower 
Louisiana, and appears to have been the court language 
of i hose regions. 

The New-York Missionary Society have had a mission 
here for a few years ; but meeting with little success, it 
has been discontinued. Mr. Blackburn informed me, that 
Colbert, one of the chiefs, observed, " that he perceived 
the missionary was not qualified for the station, and there- 
fore dismissed him." They are by no means unfriendly 


to missions, for Mr. B. has been applied to by one of the 
chiefs to open a school among them ; and that they are 
sincere in this is evident from the fact, that the Indians 
do support a school at their own expense. The teacher 
is a vagabond ; but has agreed not to get drunk, except 
on Saturdays and Sundays. I am also persuaded, that the 
agent, Mr. Robertson, would favour the object. It is also a 
very fortunate circumstance, that the publick interpreter 
is a serious man, and hopefully pious ; as I was informed 
by Mr. Bullen, the former missionary among them. 
This tribe has made great progress in civilization and 
agriculture. In general they are removing out of their 
old villages, and clearing up small plantations, on which 
they raise corn and other kinds of grain, potatoes, melons, 
and cotton. The women spin, weave, and knit, and have 
very comfortable dwellings. Many of them have large 
herds of cattle and droves of swine, which live, winter 
and summer, in the woods, without much attention. 
Those who live on the publick roads sell great quantities 
of corn, and sometimes prepare a comfortable meal for a 
hungry traveller. — A number of the Chickesaws have re- 
moved west of the Missisippi. The number of souls in 
this nation is 3500 ; and 1000 warriors. They receive 
from the United States, by the treaty of 1802, a gratuity 
of $700, and $3000 as a perpetual annuity; in 1807, 
they received a gratuity of $20000. G. Colbert and O. 
Koy, $1000 each ; and the king $100 annually. 


Reside south of the Chickesaws, and claim the country 
from the Missisippi to the dividing ridge between the 
waters of the Tombigby and Coose rivers, and extending 
south to a little below the 32° of north latitude. From 
the mouth of Yazou they sold the land for perhaps 30 
miles back. They have two traditions among them of 
their origin : one, that they came from the west, the 
other, that they sprung out of a large Indian mound on 
Pearl river. Du Pratz observes, that they were said to 
have sprung out of the ground by the neighbouring 
tribes, in allusion to their sudden appearance in the coun- 


try, not knowing from whence they came. An old In- 
dian gave a very rational explication of the tradition, that 
they sprung out of the mound between the forks of 
Pearl river. The banks of these streams are a marsh, 
and at that time probably formed an impassable ravine. 
There is an embankment, which served as a fortification 
from one branch to the other, and which, with the ravines, 
encloses an area of nearly three miles. He observed to 
the agent, S. Dinsmore, " that their ancestors, when they 
arrived in this country, knew not what the inhabitants 
were; for their own protection, therefore, they cast up 
this mound, and enclosed and fortified this area, to plant 
their corn, and as a defence against enemies. This mound 
served as a place for look-out, to give notice of the ap- 
proach of invaders. When this was accomplished, they 
sent our their hunters to see what were the inhabitants 
of the land. These on their return reported, that they 
could dwell in safety, that the land was good, and game 
in abundance. On this they left their encampment as it 
may be called, and settled in different parts of the coun- 
try. From this arose the tradition that they sprung or 
crept out of the mound." They undoubtedly came 
from the west. Their language is the same as the 
Chickesaws, with a trifling variation in the pronuncia- 
tion. The Chickesaws pronounce their words short and 
emphatick. The Chactaws lengthen out their syllables 
with something of a musical cadence. These two tribes 
can understand each other better, perhaps, than we can a 
Scotchman when he speaks English. This nation is 
making great improvements in agriculture and civiliza- 
tion ; the chiefs encourage it ; and myself have seen, in 
one of their houses, spinning, weaving, and knitting ; and 
themselves clothed in cloth of their own manufacture. 
They raise great quantities of corn ; and also conside- 
rable stocks of cattle, and horses, hogs, poultry, &c. 

The number of this nation was formerly very great. 
Du Pratz mentions, that they hud 25000 warriors. At 
present they are about 15000 souls, probably 4000 war- 
riors. It is calculated, that between 2 and 3000 of this 
nation have already emigrated west of the Missisippi ; 


and it is the opinion of their agent, that, if the United 
States would encourage it, they might all be removed in 
a few years without difficulty. 

They have received from the United States, in 1802, a 
gratuity of $2000 ; in 1808, a gratuity of $48000 ; John 
Pitchlyn, $2500; and each of the chiefs $500. Also 
a perpetual annuity of $3000, and $150 to each of their 
chiefs, during their continuance in office. 

I have had considerable conversation with the agent of 
this nation on the subject of missions among them. He 
expressed himself favourable to the object, and wished a 
school might be immediately opened at the agency. He 
assured me, that the Indians were panting for instruction, 
and had earnestly requested him to have schools establish- 
ed among them. He thinks the use of any quantity of 
land might be obtained toward the support of the mis- 


Is a fictitious name given to this nation by the traders, 
from the circumstance of the country they inhabit being 
intersected by Creeks. This country was formerly in- 
habited by many independent nations; some of which 
are nearly or quite extinct ; and those that remain are con- 
federated and known by the name of Creeks. The 
Muscogees, or Middle Creeks, were intruders here, and 
drove off the Seminoless, or Lower Creeks ; and finally 
so far subdued them, as to compel them to peace and a 
union. So also with many other nations, which now 
constitute this confederacy. That the Creeks are a con- 
federacy of different nations, is evident from the different 
languages that are spoken among them. I was informed 
by the interpreter, who accompanied the king of the 
Tauchebatchee district to Fort St. Stephens, and whom 
I met there in April last, on my return from New Or- 
leans, that there were the following languages spoken in 
the nation at different towns— the Muscogee, Ouchee, 
Savanogee, Alabama, Naches, Hitchetee, Tuskegee, 
Oukehaee, and Queseda. Half of the nation nearly speak 


the Muscogee language. This nation resides south of 
the Cherokee. The boundary between them is the high 
tower ; from thence west to the boundary line between 
the Chactaws and Chickesaws. On the west they are 
bounded by Mobile Bay, Alabama river, and the divi- 
ding ridge of the waters of the Coose and Tombigby. 
Their east and south boundary I am not able to describe. 
They extend, however, some distance into East Florida. 

This nation have made considerable improvements in 
agriculture and civilization. Their conduct towards the 
Americans has generally been marked with deceit and 
insolence ; and we have had more difficulty to restrain 
them than any other nation. They have frequently com- 
mitted murders and depredations in time of peace. They 
are now at open war ; and, were it necessary, I could 
trace this to its origin ; but, as this is unconnected with 
my object, I shall omit it. 

The agent of this nation is opposed to the spread of 
the gospel among them. He appears to be anxious to 
make an experiment, what can be made of man, free from 
the restraints of the gospel and revelation. If he has not 
found, ere this, that the child of nature, like her scenes, ap- 
pears most perfect and beautiful at a distance, where the 
fancy completes the picture, he is blind indeed. This 
gentleman has been amusing, for some years, two Mora- 
vians with the prospect of preaching to them, as soon as 
they have made sufficient attainments to understand the 
gospel. At present they are engaged at the agency in 
mechanical employments. I cannot learn, that there is 
even a school among them to give them instruction, and 
thus prepare them to understand the gospel. The num- 
bers in this nation are probably 20000 souls ; 5000 war- 
riors. Some of this confederacy have emigrated west of 
the Missisippi. They received from the United States, 
in 1797, a gratuity of §6000, and a perpetual annuity of 
$1500; in 1803, a gratuity of $25000 and $1000 for 
10 years, and also a perpetual annuity of $3000 ; in 1C06, 
$1000 for eight years, and $10000 for ten years, there- 
after, besides 2 blacksmiths, for eleven years. 



The Indians in the south western parts of the United 
States proper, or in the states of Tennessee, Georgia and 
Missisippi territory, are the following : 
















Perpetual Annuities. 
Gratuities, merchan. cash. 




$600 $3000 

$600 $13800 
9500 9250 

10100 23050 




Total of the Tribes 
between the Ohio 
and the Lakes. 

Total in the U. S. 
west of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. 

Of the tribes in the United States proper, the Chero- 
kees, Chickesaws and Chactaws appear the most favour- 
able for the establishment of a mission with the prospect 
of success. To the Cherokees, the general assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church have turned their attention, and 
are looking for missionaries of a proper character, to send 
among them. This tribe, therefore, w 7 e will ieave out of 
consideration, and take a view of the others — Chickesaws 
and Chactaws. These two tribes are more numerous 
than the aggregate of all the tribes between the Ohio and 
the lakes ; and also speak the same language. From 
these circumstances solely, other things being equal, a 
mission would be more desirable, and the prospect of 
success greater, than among either of the small tribes in 
Indiana or lllinoi. There are other reasons which induce 
us to give these nations the preference. They have al- 
ready made great progress in agriculture and civilization, 
and are by degrees casting off the Indian habit, and adopt- 
ing the modes of the whites. They are generally removing 
out of their villages, giving up the hunting life, clearing 
small plantations, and raising clomestick animals. They 
have already experienced, many of them, the blessings 
which flow from this change of habits, and are anxious to 
make further improvements ; and many of them feel that 


this is the only way left to save themselves from extermi- 
nation and ruin. It is not to he expected, that they are 
anxious to have preaching, for of this they little know 
the advantages, though Mr. Bullen. informed me many of 
the Chickesaws gave earnest attention, and appeared 
much affected under preaching. It is, however, more 
than probable, that they are anxious to have their chil- 
dren educated ; and it will perhaps herealter appear, that 
the most effectual way to introduce Christianity among 
the Indians is, to train and instruct the rising generations 
in the way they should go. From the application of the 
Chickesaw chief to Mr. Blackburn, and the fact that they 
support a school at their own expense; and from what 
the agent observed, it appears evident, that schools, at 
least, might be established among them. Another thing 
very worthy of consideration is, that the agents of these 
tribes are men of reputable character, regular habits, 
and, if I have been correctly informed, professors of reli- 
gion ; and would doubtless encourage, at least, the at- 
tempt of planting a mission among them. 

For the reasons that have been given, a mission among 
those tribes promises more success than one among the 
Creeks; for their languages are different in different vil- 
lages, and, above all, their agent is hostile to missions. 
The same reasons induce me also to fix on these tribes in 
preference to any in Louisiana. It would be highly de- 
sirable, in a missionary view, to find a tribe uncontamina- 
ted by the vices of the whites ; and where the iniquitous 
trader by his treachery has never learned the Indian to 
deceive, or by his persuasion to get drunk ; but it is in 
vain to attempt to find a tribe in Louisiana, that has not 
had intercourse w 7 ith the Spanish, French, British, or 
American trader. It is to be observed here, that we held 
no conferences with the Indians of those tribes on the 
subject of a mission amon^ them at some future day. 
The situation of our national affairs, and that of those tribes 
themselves, was such as rendered it inexpedient. More- 
over, the inquiries you desired might be made, were many 
of them of such a nature, had they been made to the 



Indians they would have led, at this peculiar juncture, to 
suspicions of some evil designs, which, perhaps, it would 
have been impossible to remove. Neither did we con- 
sider ourselves authorized, provided we could obtain the 
consent of these tribes, to stipulate, that a mission would 
certainly be established among them at any future time. 
It was, therefore, thought unadvisable to attempt to as- 
semble a council of the tribes. The time, when this So- 
ciety shall feel it their duty, and have ability to turn their 
particular attention to the Indians of the west, might be 
so far distant, as completely to defeat the object which it 
was intended to promote. The Indians are very scrupu- 
lous in expecting the performance of obligations on our 
part, and by delay might have supposed themselves 
trifled with, and neglected.* 

* " Respecting the tribes, residing in the Missisippi territory principally," 
Mr. Mills observes : " They very much need religious instruction ; and the 
establishment of schools among them might, most likely would, prove very 
beneficial to them. Many of the Cherokees very much regretted that Mr. 
Blackburn could not continue with them. They were ready to appropriate a 
considerable tract of land to be improved for the benefit of the school The 
salutary effects of the mission were apparent even to the Indians themselves. 
I believe that there is not at present a school among either the Cherokees, Chac- 
taws, or Creeks. I was told there Wf=s a school among the Chkkesaws, but 
could not learn accurately the state of it. No long time since, tire Chickesaw 
chief, or rather one of the principal men of that nation, made application to 
Mr. Blackburn to take up his residence with him, and pursue his own course 
of education with the children in the tribe. He engaged to furnish as many 
scholars as he could teach, and likewise to appropriate a tract oi land for the 
benefit of the establishment. Mr. Robertson is agent of Indian affairs with 
this nation. He will favour any institution, which may be introduced for the 
benefit of the natives. Mr. Meigs is the agent residing with the Cherokees ; 
he is also disposed to favour the religious instruction of the Indians. He was 
always ready to assist Mr. Blackburn. Mr. Dinsmore is agent for the Chactaws. 
He is decidedly in favour of the establishment of schools among the natives, 
but would not so readily favour a missionary at the present time, unless he 
came in the character of a school master. He thinks the missionary should 
be acquainted with the language of the tribe he instructs, as but little confi- 
dence can be placed in interpreters. He was inclined to think that the Indians 
of that tribe would grant the use of as large a tract of land, as could be im- 
proved for the benefit of a school, should one be introduced among them. 
This tribe, as well as the other tribes in the Missisippi territory, are making 
considerable advances towards civilization. The Chactaw women made in 
the course of the last year 18 or 20,000 yards of cloth. No attempt has ever 
been made to introduce schools, or to give religious instruction to those belong- 
ing to this tribe. The present agent for the Creeks, if report be true, would 
not favour any institution among these Indians, of a religious kind The [ire- 
sent season cannot be deemed a favourable one for the commencement of 
schools, or for sending religious teachers among these Indians Their minds 
are much agitated by the present unhappy state of our national affairs. Some 
of them are evidently hostile to the United States.''— Letter to Secretary. 



The country west of the Missisippi lias been explored 
chiefly by Lewis and Clark, who went to the Pacifick, by 
the Missouri and Columbia rivers ; by General Pike, 
who ascended the Missisippi, the Ossage, and went to the 
head waters of the Arkensaw and Rio Del Norte, and 
returned by the way of St. Fee-Antonio to Natchitoches ; 
by Dr. Silby, who ascended the Red river, and visited 
the adjacent country. What I shall note concerning (he 
Indians, west of the Missisippi, is chiefly taken from 
manuscripts furnished by Mr. Breckenridge, judge of the 
district Point-Coupee, who has himself ascended the Mis- 
souri to the Mandane villages, and visited several other 
parts of Louisiana, and who also had access to the manu- 
scripts of Lewis and Clark and Dr. Silby. I shall, at the 
same time, compare this information with that furnished 
by General Pike. The Cew observations concerning the 
Indians, south of the Arkensaw river, are taken chiefly 
from Silby ; those on Rio Del-Norte, and in New Mexico, 
and between the Arkensaw, the Platte and Missouri, and 
the heads of Missisippi, from Pike; those on the Mis- 
souri above the Platte, and to the west and north, from 
Breckenridge, Lewis and Clark, and M'Kenzie. Many 
of the tribes south of the Arkensaw are nearly extinct. 
Of those that remain, the chief that 1 shall attempt, is 
merely to give their names, numbers, and, if possible, their 


Formerly resided on Red river, about 400 miles above 
Natchitoches ; at present they reside 20 miles west of the 
main branch of Red river, and only 120 miles by land, 
west of Natchitoches. The French formerly had a set- 
tlement here. They have a tradition among them, it is 
said, of a deluge. The number of warriors, according to 
Breckenridge, is 100 ; souls 400. But according to an- 
other account, that I have seen, they are 3 or 400 warriors. 
Their language has no known affinity to any other already 
mentioned; but it is spoken by several neighbouring 

24 report concerning 


Reside 50 miles above Natchitoches, on Bagan-Piere, 
The French formerly had a settlement and factory at this 
place. These people observe, the French were the peo- 
ple the Americans are now. This tribe live in a fixed 
village, and do not exceed 100 souls; 30 men, They 
speak Caddo language. 


Reside on the Sabine, 60 miles from Natchitoches* 
Their numbers, men 40 ; souls 200. Language Caddo. 


Reside 40 miles from Natchitoches, below the Yatta- 
sies. Numbers, 20 men ; 100 souls. Their language 
differs from all others, and is extremely difficult to ac- 
quire. They speak Caddo. 

Aleche or Egeish 

Live near Nagadoches, but are nearly extinct. The 
small pox a i'ew years since committed great ravages 
among them. Their language, as far as it is known, is 
peculiar to the tribe ; but the Caddo language is spoken 
and understood by them. Their numbers do not exceed 
40 or 50 souls ; 15 men. 


Reside on the Trinity river, near where the road from 
Antonio to Natchitoches crosses it. They aie about 
60 men ; 200 souls, and have a language peculiar to 
themselves, but speak Caddo. 


Live on a branch of the Sabine. Their language is 
Caddo, and their numbers 80 men ; souls 300. This 
tribe give their name to the province of Texas. 


Live in the same neighbourhood, S. W. of Sabine 
river. Their numbers 80 men ; 300 souls. 

the western indians. 25 


Reside on the Trinity river, about 60 miles south of 
Nacogdoches. They have 100 men ; 320 souls. Speak 
Caddo, but have a different language. 


Reside 200 miles S. W. of Naeogdoches, on the west 
side of the Colorado, and wander towards the bay. This 
tribe has only 80 men ; 250 souls. Their language is 
original, says Breckenridge. It would, perhaps, be safer 
to say concerning those remnants of tribes, whose lan- 
guage we do not understand, that we are ignorant to what 
language theirs bears an affinity. 


Reside on the bay of St. Bernard, near the Gaudaloupe 
river. They speak the Attaeapas, but have a different 
language. Their numbers are 200 men ; 680 souls. 


Live on an island or peninsula in the bay of St. Ber- 
nard. Their numbers are 500 men; 1800 souls; at 
war with the Spaniards. Language original ; but speak 
the Attaeapas. 


Are a very numerous nation, and are divided into sev- 
eral elans or tribes, which are spread over different parts of 
the country, from the bay of St. Bernard to Vera -Cruz. 
Numbers, perhaps, 2,000 warriors; 7,500 souls. Speak 
an original language. 

Tan-ka-ways, or Tankards, 

Are a tribe that border on Red river, towards St. Fee. 
Breckenridge estimates their numbers at 200 warriors ; 
700 souls. Pike says they have 600 warriors ; if so, 
2000 souls. 

Ta-wak-enoes, or Three Cones, 

Usually reside on the west side of the braces, 200 
miles west of Nagadoches towards St. Fee. They are 



estimated at 350 men, and 1000 souls. Their language 
is said to be the same as that of the Panis or Pawnee, 
on the Platte of the Missouri. 


Live south of Red river, 800 miles above Natchitoches 
by water, but 340 by land. Their warriors are estimated 
at 400; souls 1300. They speak the last mentioned 


Are a few stragglers and vagabonds that wander over the 
district by this name. Their numbers 40 men ; 160 souls. 


Are also a few wandering wretches, in the district of 
country to which they have given their name. By inter- 
mixture with some Tunicas, they amount to 80 men — 
250 souls. 

The Natchitoches, Kumas, Avogall, and Washas tribes 
are extinct, or nearly so, as such; but many have united 
with other tribes. 

The following 10 tribes are emigrants from the Creeks 
and Chactaws. 


Are emigrants from Pensacola. They came with a 
few French families, and are settled about 40 miles be- 
low Natchitoches. Their numbers are estimated at 25 
men ; 100 souls. 


Are also emigrants from West Florida, and reside on 
Bayon rapid of Red river ; speak Mobilian. Numbers 
15 men ; 50 souls. 


Have emigrated from Florida ; reside partly in Oppe- 
lousas, and some near the Caddoques. Men 70 ; souls 
250; speak Mobilian. 


Are of the same people with the Alibamas, and emi- 
grated only 10 or 12 years since. Numbers — warriors 
200 ; souls 600 ; live on the Sabine. 

the western indians. 27 


Are a small tribe that reside on the Quelqueshoe riv- 
er, which heads S. VV. of Nachitoches. Numbers 30 
men; 100 souls; speak Mobilian, though possessing an 
original language. 


Reside at Avogall ; are from Florida ; speak Mobil- 
ian, though they have a distinct language. Warriors 
25 ; souls 80. 


Live in a small village 60 miles above Natchitoches. 
They are emigrants from the east of the Missisippi. It 
is said, they have a peculiar language, but speak Mobil- 
ian. 25 men ; 100 souls. 


Reside on Bagou Beauf, and were formerly from 
Tensa river, near Mobile bay. Men 25 ; souls 100. 


Live on Bagou Beauf, towards Oppelousas. They 
have 30 men ; 100 souls. They possess an original lan- 
guage, but speak Mobilian. 


Are in little repute, either among white or red people. 
They are scattered almost over every part of Louisiana. 
The disrepute of this clan may easily be accounted for. 
They are composed of the discontented, querelous and 
insolent of the Chactavv nation, east of the Missisippi, 
who have crossed into Louisiana for the purpose of plun- 
der, war, and to escape punishment for crimes committed 
in their own nation ; and some, also, because the means 
of subsistence by hunting were more easily obtained 
there, than in Missisippi Territory. Numbers, 500 war- 
riors ; 2500 souls ; scattered over different parts of lower 

The last ten tribes mentioned as distinct, and many of 
which, Silby observes, have a distinct language, though 


they speak the Mobilian, have all emigrated from Missi- 
sippi territory and Georgia, and are or were parts of the 
Chactaws, or Creek Indians. What Silby observes, there- 
fore, as to their possessing a language distinct from the 
Mobilian, I apprehend is erroneous ; for it is a fact that 
the Chactaws and Chickesaws speak the same language ; 
and Du Pratz observes, that the Chickesaws and Aliba- 
mans speak the same language. But the Alibamans, says 
Dr. Silby, speak the Mobilian ; of course, to those parts 
of the nation that have crossed over the Missisippi, the 
Mobilian is their former tongue, and not a different lan- 
guage, as Silby observes. 

Having found Silby so inaccurate in this plain case, I 
doubt of his correctness in attributing to many tribes, 
which speak the Caddo, a different language, and one 
peculiar to themselves, and which has no affinity to any 
other known. 

Arkensas, or Ozark, 

Reside in three villages on the Arkensas river, not far 
above the post, which is 50 miles from the Missisippi. 
Those of this nation, that 1 have seen, are the most stu- 
pid and filthy of all the Indians with whom I am acquaint- 
ed. The Chactaws are constantly making war upon them, 
and at one time they were nearly extinct. At present 
several of the Indians east of the Missisippi, have settled 
with them, and their numbers may now be estimated at 
200 warriors, and 600 souls. Their language bears a 
near affinity to the Ossage. 


Are a nation residing in New Mexico ; but are erratic, 
and wander near the sources of the Arkensas and Platte. 
They, with the Utahs and Tetaus, or Cumeehes, have a 
common language. Pike estimates their number of war- 
riors at 1000, probably 3500 souls. This nation has 
immense droves of horses, and are continually at war with 
the Tetaus, and sometimes with the Spaniards, Pawnees, 
and Sioux. Pike. 




Wander on the sources of the Rio Del Norte. They 
are rather more civilized than the Kyaways, arising from 
their intercourse with the Spaniards. They, as also the 
nation last mentioned, are armed with bows, arrows, and 
lancets. 'Warriors 2000 ; souls 7000. Pike. 

Tetaus, or Cumeehes, or Padoucas, 

Are an erratic tribe, and wander towards New Mexico, 
or Red river and La Platte. They are treated wilh great 
civility by the Spaniards, since they have found them a 
most dangerous and destructive enemy. Their numbers 
are estimated by Pike at 2700 warriors ; 8000 souls. 
This nation, the Utahs, and Kyaways speak the same 


Are also erratic, and wander to the N. W. of St. Fee. 
They are frequently at war with the Spaniards. This 
nation is supposed to have 2000 warriors, 6500 souls. 
Their language is the same as that of the Appache and Le 
Panis, or Pawnee, and is spoken by those nations west of 
them, to California. Pike. 


Are a nation extending from the black mountains in 
New Mexico, to Coquillee, and keep the frontiers of these 
provinces in constant alarm, and render it necessary for 
the Spanish government to employ 2000 dragoons to pro- 
tect the villages, and escort the caravans. This, nation 
extended formerly from the entrance of the Rio Grande to 
California, and have carried on a continual warfare with 
the Spaniards, ever since they penetrated into the internal 
provinces. Many very heroic feats are related by Pike 
concerning them. Their numbers are not estimated by 
Pike. We cannot, from what is said of them, suppose 
them less than 2500 warriors, and 8500 souls. 

The following table exhibits the different tribes between 
the Arkensaw 7 and Rio Del Norte, which, as far as 1 can 



learn, is sometimes called the Rio Grande. The Cances 
and Kyaways, however, extend somewhat to the south 
and west of the Rio Del Norte. 

Tribes. Warriors. 






































Paean as 










































f Kyaways 



























Total in Lower Louisiana, 

15720 53890 



This nation is divided into several tribes ; the Ken- 
sas, Arkensas, Ottoos, Missouris, Mahas, Poncas, Jo- 
ways, and Winebagoes. I suppose all these different 
tribes, strictly speaking, originally constituted but one 
nation, for their language, manners, and customs, are 

* The number of Chactaws here noted nre scattered in different parts of 
Louisiana, to the north, as well as south of the Arkensaw river. 

t The five last tribes reside chiefly in the Spanish dominions, as now claimed 
by them. Our claim, however, under the title of Louisiana, extends south to 
the Rio De Grande Because I considered them, strictly speaking, in Louis- 
iana, I have noted them in this place. I shall take no particular notice of the 
Indians in New-Spain, because I have no means of information, which can be 
relied on as correct As far as I can learn, the Catholicks have missionaries 
among all the tribes or nations in that country. 


very similar. Which of the languages of these tribes 
may be considered as original, and which dialectical, I 
am not able to determine. My reason for placing the 
Ossage first, and calling theirs original is, that they are 
first in numbers, and in character. 

The Ossage tribe is divided into three clans — The 
Great Ossage, Little Ossage and Big Track; and may, 
perhaps a century hence, should they survive, be con- 
sidered different nations, with as much propriety as ma- 
ny of the tribes enumerated. The Great Ossage vil- 
lage is situated on the river Ossage, 200 miles from its 
confluence with the Missouri. The Little Ossage, which 
separated from the main tribe, about 100 years since, for 
a long time lived on the Missouri ; but not being able to 
withstand their powerful enemies, the Sioux, they were 
compelled to settle in the neighbourhood of the Gieat 
Ossages. Since peace has been established by the Unit- 
ed States between those Indians, many of them have again 
returned to the banks of the Missouri. The Big Track 
is a party which were led off by a French trader about. 20 
years since, and are settled on Verdigrise river, 60 miles 
from its junction with the Arkensas. Great numbers 
join this band annually from the other bodies of the tribe ; 
and ere long, it rs probable, they will all remove to the 
plains of the Arkensas, on account of the superiour ad- 
vantages for hunting and subsistence. The Ossage In- 


dians have ceded to the United States all the lands be- 
tween the Missisippi, Aikensaw and Missouri rivers, 
and a line drawn directly south from Fort Ossage, 36 
miles below the mouth of Kansas river to the Arkensas. 
For this land they received from the United States, in 
1810, the great Ossage, a gratuity of $800, and a per- 
petual annuity of $1000 in cash ; Little Ossage, a gratu- 
ity of $400, and an annuity of $500 perpetual. The 
language spoken by this nation, is considered as original, 
at least it bears no affinity to any of the languages east of 
the Missisippi, except the Winebagoes, which are sup- 
posed to be descended from the same stock. Their num- 
bers according to Pike, are, 


Great Ossage 502 warriors ; 1695 souls. 

Little Ossage 250 824 

Big Track 500 1500 

1252 4019 

According to Breckenridge, Ossages, 1500 warriors, 
7000 souls. 


Reside on the north branch of the Kansas river, 100 
miles from its junction with the Missouri. The language, 
manners, and customs of this people, with the exception 
of a few local peculiarities, are the same as the Ossages. 
A few years since they were the greatest scoundrels on 
the Missouri, robbing traders, and ill treating the whites; 
but within a few years, in consequence of a severe defeat 
by the Pawnees, in which they lost their greatest and best 
warriors, they have been humbled, and are more peaceable. 
They are a stout, hardy, daring race of men, and esteem- 
ed the bravest warriors. Their numbers, according to 
Pike, are, warriors 465 ; souls 1560 — to Breckenridge, 
warriors 300, souls 1300. 


Are supposed to be the descendants of the ancient Mis- 
souris. They speak one language, which is lofty and 
sonorous, and bears a near affinity in the Ossage. They 
reside 45 miles up the Platte from the Missouri. They 
are not numerous, but estimated brave. Warriors 150 ; 
souls 500. 


Are the remnant of one of the most numerous tribes in 
those parts, and have given their name to the river. 
They have been destroyed by war and the small pox. It 
is supposed that none of the nations on the Missouri, or 
in the interior, are one half, and many of them not one 
tenth so numerous, as they were 25 years since. This 
tribe formerly resided at the mouth of the Grande river. 


At present they reside and are incorporated with the Ot- 
toos. Warriors 50 ; souls 300. 


Reside on the Missouri, principally at Mahas Creek, 
240 miles above Platte river. They are very friendly to 
the whites, and have considerable trade. Their manners, 
customs, and language, are similar to the Ossage. They 
have been greatly reduced, as to numbers, within 10 years. 
Their present numbers are 250 warriors ; 800 souls. 

Mr. Breekenridge related to me, that the principal chief, 
or king of this tribe, was a very wicked and cruel man ; 
that he pretended to have familiar intercourse with spirits ; 
and would frequently foretell the death of some of his 
people. The events so regularly happened, according to 
his predictions, that immediately on his telling a person 
that he should die, the man began his death song, and 
died accordingly. It was supposed, that before the king 
made such declarations, he took some means to administer 
to them some subtile poison. This produced great fear 
of him, among the Indians ; and after his death they took 
his body, placed it in a sitting position, on his finest horse, 
and raised a large mound over them, and now worship 
him, as the Indians do the evil spirits, to appease their 
wrath, and avert their anger. Will this circumstance of 
of the mound afford a clue to the probable design of some 
mounds found in the western country ? 

Panis, or Pawnees, 

Are a tribe from New Mexico, and formerly was a part 
of the famous and implacable enemies of the Spaniards, the 
Appeches. There are two other branches of this nation, 
which have been already noticed, the Ta-wak-enoes, and 
Tovveachas on Red river. The Pawnees are divided into 
three clans. The Pawnee proper, Republicans, and Loups. 

The Pawnee proper are said to have made consider- 
able progress in civilization, and generally treat traders 
and whites, who visit them, with respect and hospitality. 
They reside on the south side of the Platte, about 100 
miles from its mouth ; the Republicans, on the Republican 



branch of the Platte ; the Loups, on Wolf river. This 
tribe has no idea of the exclusive right of soil ; they claim 
only what they possess. They hunt on the Platte and 
Kensas. Their language, I shall denominate the Ap- 
pechee, because I consider them sprung from that stock, 
and because there is a near affinity between the two lan- 
guages. Their numbers, according to Pike, are, 

Pawnee proper 1000 warriors ; 3120 souls. 

Republicans and Loups 485 1485 

1485 4605 
According to Breckenridge, 

Pawnee proper 400 warriors ; 1600 souls. 

Republicans 350 1400 

Loups 300 1400 

1050 4400 


Are also a branch of the Appeches, as is evident from 
the affinity of their language, and similarity of their cus- 
toms, to the Pawnee. They must also have emigrated 
from New Mexico. They reside now on the Missouri, 
in two villages, about 1440 miles from the Missisippi. 
This nation is said to be very industrious, and frequently 
to have corn three years old. They are very dissolute in 
their manners, as will appear hereafter. Formerly they 
were very numerous, as is evident from the number of 
deserted villages ; their numbers are estimated at 250 
warriors ; 800 souls. This tribe, like the Pawnee, have 
no idea of exclusive right of soil. 


Formerly were a very numerous tribe ; but at the be- 
ginning of this century were driven from their habitations, 
and nearly extirpated by the Sioux. During their war 
with the Sioux, and until 1811, they led a wandering life. 
They now reside on the Missouri, a few miles below the 
Quiacre river, 1000 miles from the Missisippi. Their 
character is that of thievish, marauding, insolent, and 


vicious. Their language is the same as the Mahas, and 
they are probably descended from the same stock, Ossage. 
50 warriors ; 300 souls. a m ^^^^ * 

Mandaks H696 ? 4 
Reside about 1600 miles up the Missouri, in two villa- 
ges, a few miles below Knife river. Formerly, this tribe 
was numerous, and, according to their traditions, consisted 
of 17 villages; which is rendered probable, from meeting 
in this part of the country, with the ruins of many desert- 
ed villages. This goes to corroborate what has been in 
another place advanced, that many of the tribes on the 
Missouri, have been reduced to half, others to a tenth, of 
their former population. The language of this tribe, is 
not known to have an affinity to any other ; they, however, 
speak the language of the Gross-ventres. 350 warriors ; 
1250 souls. At these villages was erected a fort and 
trading establishment in 1811. 


This is a small tribe, which reside only three miles above 
the Mandan villages, on the Missouri. According to 
their tradition, they originally constituted a part of the 
Crow-Indians, but in consequence of a quarrel of two 
chiefs, over the carcase of a bufFaloe, which both claimed, 
a separation took place. They speak the Crow language ; 
live in one village. 50 men ; 300 souls. 

Minetares, or Gross-ventres, Fall, or Big-bellied, or 
Paunche Indians. These are different names given by 
different persons to the same nation ; as they are divided 
in different bands, and live in different parts of the country. 
Minetares, or Gross-ventres, reside in four villages, on 
both sides of Knife river, near its confluence with the Mis- 
souri, five miles above the Mandan villages. Brecken- 
ridge is of opinion, that these, as well as the Sauliers, for- 
merly constituted a part of the Crow nation ; though they 
have been in their present villages, as far back as their 
traditions extend. They speak the same language as the 
tribe last mentioned. If they speak the Crow language, 
these speak the same. Warriors 600 ; souls 2500. 

86 report concerning 

Fall, or Big-bellied Indians, 

Sometimes called Gross-ventres of the Priarie, reside 
at the confluence of the north and south branches of the 
Saskatshawine river, and extend from thence to the great 
bend in the Missouri, in latitude 47° 30' north. Num- 
bers, according to Breckenridge, 500 warriors, 2000 souls. 
M'Kenzie, 700 men. " Speak the Crow language." 


Paunche, or Al-la-ka-we-ah, 

Live on the Yellow Stone river, and wander in different 
parts, on the heads of the Missouri, near the Rocky Moun- 
tains. This tribe is said to be hospitable and peaceful. 
Numbers, 800 warriors ; 2500 souls. Supposed to speak 
the Crow language. 

Crow-Indians, or Absaroka, 

Are divided into four bands, and wander on the Yellow 
Stone, and Bighome rivers on the heads of the Missouri, 
and Rache-jaune, and even to the west of the Rocky 
Mountains for 200 miles, where a party of them was met 
by Mr. Robert Steaurt of New York, in 1812, on his re- 
turn from the Pacific k ocean. The different bands of this 
nation are very numerous, and estimated at 900 warriors, 
and 3500 souls. Whether the language of this nation 
bears any affinity to any of those west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, I am not able to say, and therefore note it as a lan- 
guage peculiar to themselves ; and consider the Gross- 
ventres, Fall, and Paunche Indians, and Sauliers, as being 
originally of the same nation, and having with them a 
common language. 


This tribe wander on the heads of Chyennes and White 
rivers. Breckenridge observes, that they speak a language 
peculiar to themselves, and are of a remarkably fair com- 
plexion. It is said this is the tribe, that has been sup- 
posed to be Welch Indians, whose progenitors emigrated 
to this country under Madoc ; and to whose work, by 
some, are attributed the Indian mounds in the western 


country. It has been confidently asserted, in proof of the 
existence of a tribe of Welch Indians, that parts of a 
Welch Bible have been found among them, and that a 
Welchman, who visited them, conversed with them in 
their own language. Granting it to be a fact, which we 
very much doubt, that this supposed Welch tribe have 
parts of the Welch Bible among them, we can safely af- 
firm, that it was not received from the adventurers under 
Madoc ; for he left his country some centuries before 
there was an edition of the Welch Bible printed. That a 
Welchman has conversed with a tribe of Indians in the 
Welch language is, to say the least, extremely improba- 
ble ; when we recollect the change which language un- 
dergoes in pronunciation, within half a century, among 
nations which have a written language, how much great- 
er must be the diversity in pronunciation, produced be- 
tween two clans of the same tribe, that have been sepa- 
rated for upwards of six centuries ; and that, too, when 
the separating clan has no written language to guard it 
from changing its original pronunciation ? But, admitting 
that they have retained it, is it probable, that a Welchman 
of the 19th century, could converse intelligibly with one 
of the 12th century, were it possible to produce such an 
one ? It may be shown from history, that Madoc sailed 
with a colony from Wales ; but that he planted them in 
America is an assumption without sufficient proof. It 
can be proved, only from the existence of such a tribe. 
The principal arguments to prove this fact have been 
considered. What weight they ought to have, to sub- 
stantiate this fact, is for the reader to judge. The argu- 
ments drawn from the complexion and beard of the sup- 
posed Welch tribe, cannot weigh much, when it is con- 
sidered that the same appearances are common among 
other tribes. One nation being more cleanly, and living 
in a different latitude, will, at least in part, account for 
fairer complexions ; and the practice of eradicating the 
beard, is by no means universal among the American 
Indians. We hazard nothing in saying, that the exist- 
ence of a tribe of Welch Indians in America, is ideal, 
and nothing but a hoax of some trader or traveller, play- 
ed on the credulous. — To return from this digression. 



The Chyennes, it is said, formerly resided on or near 
Red river of lake Winipie, and were driven from thence 
to where they now live, by the Sioux. Carver mentions 
the Schians as a band of the Sioux. Can this be the 
same tribe as we now call the Chyenne ? This tribe with 
the Stactan, Kata, Nemausin and Dolame, four small 
tribes, which also live on the heads of Chyenne river, are 
estimated at 500 warriors ; 2000 souls. I know not to 
what nation, or nations, the four bands just mentioned be- 
long, nor what language they speak ; the probability is, 
they belong to the Chyenne, and are only different bands 
of the same tribe. 


This tribe reside on the Paducas fork of Platte river, 
but are not stationary. I presume they are a band of the 
Kyaways already mentioned, and with whom frequently 
they reside. If so, they speak the same language as the 
Utahs and Tetaus. 200 warriors ; 900 souls. 


This tribe is erratic, and lives on the heads of the Yel- 
low Stone river. I have not been able to ascertain to what 
tribe they have an affinity. Their numbers are estimated 
at 1500 warriors ; 5000 souls. 

Pastanownas, or Castahanas. 

This people are also erratic, and live between the 
sources of Padoucas fork of Platte and the Yellow Stone 
rivers. 400 warriors ; 1500 souls. 


This nation is divided into three principal tribes, which 
are again subdivided into several bands or clans. They 
are a peaceable and defenceless people, and are frequently 
killed and enslaved by their neighbours. They wander 
from the falls and sources of the Missouri, on the heads 
of the Yellow Stone, Platte, and Arkensaw to Red riv- 
er and New Mexico. They are supposed to be, at least, 
1000 warriors ; 5000 souls. Breckenridge observes, 
they speak a language peculiar to themselves* 




Tribes. Warriors. Souls. 

Awahawas 50 300 

Gross-ventres 600 2500 

Crow 900 3500 

Chyennes 500 2000 

Watepahatoes 200 900 

Kenenavish 1500 5000 

Pastanownas 400 1500 

Snake 1000 5000 




♦Different tribes ") 
from east of > 
Missisippi. ) 































10152 37839 



This tribe reside in two villages, one on the Joway, the 
other on the Des Moyens river. They were originally a 
part of the Missouri tribe, from whom they separated, 
and have since conquered them, and now claim their 
country by right of conquest. They speak the Ossage 
language. They, the Sauks and Reynards, have sold all 
their right to the land east of the Missisippi, between the 
Jafflone and Joway rivers, as far as the Missouri. War- 
riors 300 ; souls 1400. 

Sioux, or Nauduwassies. 

This is a numerous, warlike, and brave people. Their 
language bears no affinity to any of the neighbouring 
nations, and is very guttural. In this, perhaps, it differs 
from the language of most Indians, many of which are 
highly sonorous, sweet, and lofty. Barton thinks this 
nation is a branch of the Wyandot. This is not proba- 
ble. ; for the Wyandot itself is a branch of the Huron, 
which was originally a part of the Iroquois ; as is evident 

* Tbese are composed, of the Shawnoes, Wyandots, Delawares, Cherokees 
and Chickesaws. 


from the similarity between their languages. This na- 
tion is divided into several tribes ; these again subdivided 
into different clans. The subdivisions I shall not particu- 
larly note. The principal tribes are, 1. Minoway-Kan- 
tong, or Gens De Lai. 2. Washpetong, or Gens De 
Fieulles. 3. Saussetons. 4. Yanktons. 5. Titons. 
6. Washpecoate. 7. Assinboin. 


Reside on the Missisippi, from the Prairie De Chiers 
to Prairie De Francois, 35 miles up the St. Peter's. 
They are reported the bravest of all the Sioux tribes ; 
and are the only one that attend to agriculture, and 
that in a very small degree. Their country is well 
timbered and watered. Men 305 ; souls 2105. — Pike. 


Reside on the N. W. side of the St. Peter's, to the 
mouth of Chippeway river. — Breckenridge. At 
Prairie Des Francois, near the Roache Blanche, on the 
St. Peter's. — Pike. Their numbers are estimated, by 
Pike, at 1060. 


Reside on the upper parts of Red river, of lake Win- 
ipie and the St. Peter's, and rove on the Missisippi and 
Corbeau rivers, which is the boundary between them and 
the Chippeways. They usually meet the Titons and 
Yanktons in May, with whom they trade. Men 360; 
souls 2160.— Pike. 


Have a fixed habitation. They are divided into the 
Yanktons of the north and the south. Those of the north 
wander on the heads of St. Peter's and Red river of lake 
Winipie, and trade on the Missisippi at St. Peter's. 
Those of the south are settled from Montague's Priarie to 
the rivers Des Moyen and Missouri, and trade at Jacque 
river. The country over which they w T ander, in parts of 
it is pleasant, well timbered and watered. Warriors 900 ; 
souls 4300.— Pike. 



Reside on both sides of the Missouri. On the west 
side, from near Chjenne river to the Mandan villages, 
and on the N. E. from the Mahas villages to near the 
Gross-ventres, or Knife river. They are not permanent- 
ly fixed ; and like the wandering Arab, their hands are 
against every man. They are the pirates and marauders 
of the Missouri. They, as also the Yanktons, have the 
finest horses, and travel with incredible celerity, being in 
one place to day, and 500 miles distant ten days hence. 
Warriors 2000 ; souls 11600.— Pike. 


Rove on the S. W. of the St. Peter's, from a place call- 
ed Hard Wood to the Yellow Medicine river, and hunt 
on the heads of the Des Moyen. This was formerly a 
part of the Washpotang tribe, and is composed of the out- 
casts of all the other tribes. Men 900 ; souls 4050. — Pike. 

These six tribes of the Sioux claim the lands west of 
the Missisippi, beginning at the Joway river above the 
Prairie Des Chien to the St. Peter's ; thence on both sides 
of the Missisippi to Corbeau, or Crow-wing river, up 
the same, including its waters, to the head of Red river; 
thence westerly, bearing south, so as to intersect the 
Missouri, at or near the Mandan villages. Here their 
line crosses the Missouri, so as to include the lower parts 
of the Chyenne river, the whole of the waters of the 
White and Teton rivers, and the lower parts of the 
Quicure ; from thence easterly, bearing north, to the place 
of beginning. These tribes have waged a war of exter- 
mination with the Chippeways from time immemorial, 
and almost destroyed many of the tribes on the Missouri, 
and east of the Missisippi. They have also waged a long 
war with the Assinboin, one of the tribes that separated 
itself from the nation. The numbers of these bands 
are, according to Pike, 3835 warriors ; 21675 souls. 

to an Officer, 2590 7610 

Breckenridge, 2000 6000 

Probably 2500 warriors, 10000 souls. 



Are a revolted band of the Sioux, with whom they 
have long been at war. Like the parent stock, they are 
divided into different bands, and reside in different parts. 

The Osegah 

Reside about the mouth of little Missouri, and on the 
Assinboin, at the mouth of Lapelle river. Warriors 25 ;* 

SOUls 850. [* Probably 250. Edit.] 

Live on the Saskatshawine, or Mouse river. Warriors 
200 ; souls 750. 

Wander on the Missouri, above White-earth river, 
and on the heads of Mouse, or Assinboin river. War- 
riors 450 ; souls 1600. The whole number of Assinbo- 
ins ; 900 warriors ; 3000 souls. 

Black Feet. 
This nation is erratic, and wander on the heads of the 
Saskatshawine and Missouri rivers, and on the Moria river, 
and along the Rocky ridge, or mountains. They are divid- 
ed into different tribes ; Black feet, Blood-Indians, Pica- 
neaux, or Catanoneaux, &c. all of which, says M'Kenzie, 
are a distinct people, and speak a language of their own, 
and which has no affinity to any language which he has 
heard. This nation is very hostile to the hunters and tra- 
ders that attempt to ascend the Missouri, and pass to the 
Pacifick. Warriors 2500 ; souls 8000. 


This is a very large nation, who consider the country be- 
tween the parallels of latitude 60° and 65° north, and lon- 
gitude 100° and 110° west, as belonging to them. They 
speak a very copious language, which is very difficult to 
acquire, and which is spoken with a slight variation of dia- 
lect by all the tribes living between Hudson's bay and 
Rocky mountains, and north of the Missisippi and the 
ridge which divides the waters running north from those 
which enter lake Winipie ; with the exception of the 


Esquimaux who inhabit the north coast. This fact was 
ascertained by Mr. A. M'Kenzie, in his voyages of 1789 
and 1793, who found that the Rocky Mountain Indians; 
Sarsees, Slave, Beaver, Dog-rib, Hare, Strong-bow, 
Mountain, Quarrellers, and Knife Indians ; in short, all 
those tribes that reside on M'Kenzie's, and Peace rivers, 
and on the adjacent waters, spoke dialects of the Chippe- 
wyan tongue ; and he also found, that the Indians on Co- 
lumbia river, as low down as latitude 52°, 24/ north, and 
from thence to the Pacifick, spoke dialects of the same 
language. What the numbers are of these tribes, east of 
the Rocky mountains, is difficult to determine. When, 
however, we consider the natural situation of the country, 
and its very high latitude, we are ready to draw the con- 
clusion, that the numbers are small. All the Chippe- 
wyans, that visit the different establishments of the N. W. 
company, do not exceed 800 men, nor probably 2500 
souls. The other tribes mentioned, we are led to con- 
clude from M'Kenzie's account, are very small ; proba- 
bly none of them exceed 500 souls ; all of which cannot 
exceed 1200 men, 5000 souls; and I am not certain that 
many of these small tribes are not included in M'Kenzie's 
estimate of the Chippewyans. The whole numbers of 
these tribes east of the Rocky mountains, which speak 
the Chippewyan language, are, 2000 warriors; 7500 


This nation, it would appear, from similarity of lan- 
guage, manners, and customs, was originally from Green- 
land. It is the opinion of the Moravians that visit them, 
that there is no more difference between their language 
and that of Greenland, than between high and low Dutch. 
This people are found, with certainty, from the coast of 
Labrador, west to M'Kenzie's river ; and have been 
found as far north as 72°, by Mr. Hearne, in 1772. Cap- 
tain Cook further reports, that he found the same people 
on the islands and coast, of North America, opposite 
Kamskatka and at Norton's sound, Ooneleshka, at Prince 
William's sound. See Rees' Cyclopedia, Esquimaux. 



M'Kenzie is of opinion, that the people inhabiting 
the coast of the Pacifick differ, both from the Chippe- 
wyans, and Esquimaux. It is not to be supposed, that 
a country, covered with snow for more than half the year, 
and whose summers do not exceed six or eight weeks, 
can be very populous. What the numbers of this nation 
are, cannot be precisely ascertained. They have been esti- 
mated at 1623 souls: the whole number, from Labrador 
to M'Kenzie's river, we should not suppose could ex- 
ceed 5000 souls, 1200 warriors. The Moravians have a 
missionary establishment on the coast of Labrador, at 


This people live on the interior of Labrador, and are 
enemies to the Esquimaux. I know not what language 
they speak, unless it is a dialect of the Algonquine. 
Their numbers are small ; perhaps 300 men, 1500 souls. 



* In the United States and Louisiana. 

Warriors. Souls. Tribes. Warriors. Souls. 





Iroquois > 
Chippeways ) 
of Rainy lake 




300 1000 

500 2000 

250 800 

150 1100 

100 350 

100 300 

Fall Indians 

500 2000 


800 2500 


4100 15900 

i dominions. 


Warriors. Souls. 


1500 5000 


900 3000 


2500 8000 

& tribes of the 


[2000 7500 

same language 

J 1200 5000 


300 1500 


9800 35550 

* I suppose, in this table, the boundary line between the United States and 
the British provinces to run on the ridge, which divides the waters running 
into the Missisippi and Missouri from those that enter lake Winipie and the 
Saskatshawine river. 


1 shall probably hereafter complete something more 
full on the Indian government, character, manners, edu- 
cation, religion, and morals. This 1 had not the leisure 
to do at present, and must therefore defer it for a future 
communication, if it shall be thought desirable by your 
reverend body. I may possible add to this some hints 
concerning a plan for conducting Indian missions. I 
trust that this communication, imperfect as it is, will be 
in some measure useful and satisfactory to your Society. 
With my best wishes for its prosperity and usefulness, re- 
ceive the assurance of the esteem and respect of your 
friend and servant, 

John F. Schermerhorn. 

Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. 
Sec. Soc. Prop. Gospel, &c. 

[Note. In the MS. copy of the preceding Report the same Indian 
names are diversely written, but corrections could not be obtained 
from the author ; a circumstance the more to be regretted, as he had 
not prepared the MS. for publication. Edit.] 


THE origin of this Society may be traced back to the 
year 1762, when a number of gentlemen associated for 
the purpose of establishing a Society for the promotion 
of christian knowledge. In prosecution of this benevo- 
lent and pious design, they collected a considerable fund, 
and obtained from the colonial government an act of incor- 
poration. When this act was sent to England for allow- 
ance, the archbishop of Canterbury obtaining a negative 
from the king, it fell, of course, and nothing more was 
heard concerning it until after the war, which establish- 
ed American independence. In 1787, a number of gen- 
tlemen in Boston and the vicinity received a commission 
from the Society in Scotland for promoting christian 
knowledge, to superintend the funds of the Society, which 
were devoted to the purpose of christianizing the Indians 
of America. The Board of Commissioners, excited by 



the exemplary zeal of their European brethren, revived 
the plan, which had before proved abortive ; and, form- 
ing themselves into a Society similar to that in Scotland, 
were incorporated in November, 1787, by the name of 
" The Society for propagating the Gospel among the 
Indians and others in North America." * 

On the recommendation of the legislature, a brief was 
issued by governour Hancock, in 1788, for a collection 
in all the religious societies of the State. The petition for 
this brief alleges, " that one design of our venerable fa- 
thers, in emigrating to this land, was professedly to extend 
the knowledge of our glorious Redeemer among the sav- 
age natives ; that this design was expressed and enjoined 
under both the charters, granted by the parent state to 
this colony ; and is, in the opinion of the Society, necessa- 
ry and suitable at all times to be pursued by a people 
who profess Christianity." The amount of the collection 
was 1561 dollars; and this original fund was greatly in- 
creased by private subscriptions among the members of 
the Society and other pious and benevolent persons. 
Among the first and most generous contributors were, 
the Hon. John Alford, Esq. James Bowdoin Esq. after- 
ward governour of the commonwealth, Moses Gill, Esq. 
afterward lieutenant governour, William Hyslop, Esq. 
Hon. Samuel Dexter, Esq. Hon. Thomas Russell, Esq. 
Hon. Jonathan Mason, Hon. William Phillips, and Eben- 
ezer Storer, Esq. At later periods, the Rev. Eliakim 
Wyllys and others have made additional donations. The 
Hon. John Alford, Esq. of Charlestown, in his last will, de- 
vised a large sum to be devoted to the purpose of spread- 

* The act of incorporation, after authorizing the Society " to take and re- 
ceive subscriptions of* charitably disposed persons, and any personal estate in 
succession," provides, that " all donations to the Society, either by subscrip- 
tion, legacy, or otherwise, excepting such as may be differently appropriated 
by the donors, shall make a part or be put into the capital stock of the Society, 
which shall be put out on interest, on good security, or otherwise improved 
to the best advantage, and the incomes or profits applied to the purposes of 
propagating the gospel among the said Indians, in such manner as they shall 
judge most conducive to answer the design of their institution, and also among 
other people, who, through poverty or other circumstances, are destitute of the 
means of religious instruction : and the said Society is hereby empowered to 
give such instructions, orders and encouragements to their officers, and those 
they shall employ, as they shall judge necessary ; and the persons employed 
as teachers in any capacity, shall be men of the Protestant religion, of reputed 
piety, loyalty, prudence, knowledge, and literature, and of other christian and 
necessary qualifications, suited to their respective stations. 


ing the knowledge of the gospel among the heathen ; 
and, on the incorporation of this Society, his executor, 
Richard Cary, Esq. transferred to it ten thousand six hun- 
dred and seventy five dollars. The Society, for several 
years, received generous annual grants from the legislature, 
and its funds have been greatly augmented by the frequent 
and liberal donations of its president, the present lieuten- 
ant governour of the commonwealth. 

In the application of the portion of the funds devoted 
to the Indians, the Society have consulted the best inter- 
ests of a people, whose character and habits are extreme- 
ly adverse to moral and religious improvement. They 
assisted in the support of Rev. Mr. Mayhew at Martha's 
Vineyard, of Rev. Mr. Hawley at Marshpee, and of Rev. 
Mr. Sergeant at New Stockbridge ; all of them mission- 
aries to the Indians. The corporation of Harvard Col- 
lege, having funds for Indian purposes, had united with 
the Society in supporting these several missionaries until 
1809, when, by agreement, the entire charge of the 
Marshpee and Vineyard Indians was assumed by the 
corporation ; and the Society engaged to pay the same 
sum, that had usually been paid by the corporation, to- 
wards the support of the permanent missionary at New 
Stockbridge. For some years the Society employed 
a missionary to the relicks of the Narraganset Indians. 
In 1812, a school house was erected for them at 
Charlestown, (R. I.) the place of their residence, 
at the expense of the Society ; and a school master 
has since been employed there with encouraging 
success. The number of scholars has been very varia- 
ble ; the largest number was 31. In 1812, the whole 
number of Indians at Charlestown, considered as of the 
Narraganset nation, was about 140 or 150. On Martha's 
Vineyard the Society have supported a number of small 
schools for Indian children, and have furnished to the 
schools at Marshpee, Oneida, and New Stockbridge, 
books, paper, and other necessaries. They have sup- 
plied the inhabitants of New Stockbridge with many im- 
plements of husbandry, such as ploughs, chains, and 
hoes ; assisted them in building school houses, and a 


house for their minister ; defrayed the expense of print- 
ing the Assembly's Catechism, which had been translated 
into the language of these Indians ; and furnished them 
with a competent supply of practical religious books. 

The attempts of the Society have hitherto been confin- 
ed to those tribes interspersed among the white inhabi- 
tants, or living in their neighbourhood ; but it is their 
wish, as their means and opportunity will admit, gradual- 
ly to disseminate christian knowledge among more dis- 
tant tribes. 

The notices given of those tribes in the preceding Re- 
port will not fail to receive their attention. Their labours 
may now be more intelligently directed, and especially 
should they receive, what the writer of the Report has en- 
couraged them to expect, " a view of the religious notions, 
the state of morals, the peculiar customs and manners, and 
government of the Indians, together with his views of 
the best manner of conducting missions among them." 
A state of peace, however, is essential to the successful 
prosecution of any extensive design for their benefit. 

Beside an attention to the natives, the Society has 
employed missionaries, distributed books, and assisted 
schools, among the white inhabitants in the frontier set- 
tlements, and in other parts of the country, as exigencies 
have required. The district of Maine has been the prin- 
cipal object of these charities ; but they have occasional- 
ly been directed to various destitute regions in New Eng- 
land and parts adjacent. 

Five missionaries are now employed in the district of 
Maine ; and several others receive an allowance, as min- 
isters, or teachers of youth. The missionaries have gene- 
rally been ordained ministers. Upwards of 33000 books 
and tracts have been distributed by the Society. 

Presidents of the Society. 

Hon. Oliver Wendell, from 1787 to 1793. 
Hon. Thomas Russell, from 1793 to 1796. 
His Honour Moses Gill, from 1796 to 1800. 
His Ex. James Sullivan, from 1800 to 1806, 
His Honour William Phillips, since 1806, 



(This Historical Tract has become exceedingly rare. Very few copies 
of it are to be found in our country. From one procured in Eng- 
land, after considerable inquiry, by Rev. T. M. Harris, D. D. the 
publishing committee for this volume are enabled to commence the 
republication. In the very valuable index to the first series of 
these Collections, the learned and accurate complier has styled the 
author " minister of Woburn." In Prince's list of documents, he is 
styled Capt. Johnson." (N. E. Chronol. II. No. 1. Explanat. of 
references.) In the preface to vol. 1. p. 2, he says, " In a history of 
New England, from 1628 to 1651, printed in 4to. London, 1654, I 
found many particulars of the beginning of our several churches, 
towns, and colonies, which appear in no other writer. The running 
title is " Wonder-working Providence," &c. and in the genuine 
title page no author is named. Some of the books were faced with 
a false title page, wherein the work is wrongly assigned to Sir F. 
Georges : but the true author was Mr. * Johnson of Woburn in New 
England, as the late Judge Sewall assured me, as of a thing fami- 
liarly known among the fathers of the Massachusetts colony." The 
late Rev. Dr. John Eliot says, " The book contains much valu- 
able information of the early settlement of Massachusetts, and is 
very particular in narrating the organization of the militia, in 1644." 
See N. E. Biog. p. 217, note. Edit.] 


From the English planting in the Yeere 1628, untill the Yeere 1652. 
Declaring the form of their government, civil, military, and eccles- 
iastique. Their ivars ivith the Indians, their troubles with the Gor- 
tonists, and other Heretiques. Their manner of gathering of 
Churches, the commodities of the Country, and description of the 
principall Towns and Havens, with the great encouragements to 
increase Trade betwixt them and Old England. With the names of 
all their Governours, Magistrates, and eminent Ministers. 

Psalm 107. 24. The righteous shall see it, and rejoice, and all ini- 
quity shall stop her mouth. 

Psal. 111. 2. The works of the Lord are great, and ought to be 

sought out of all that have pleasure in them. 
London, Printed for Nath : Brooke at the Angel in Cornhill. 1654. 


Good Reader, 

AS large Gates to small Edifices, so are long 
Prefaces to little Bookes ; therefore I will briefly in forme 

* Edward. — Allen's Biog. Diet. 


thee that here thou shalt find the time when, the manner 
how, the cause why, and the great successe which it hath 
pleased the Lord to give, to this handful of his praysing 
Saints in N. Engl, and it will be clearly demonstrated, 
if thou compare them, with any other people, who have 
left their Countryes, as the Gothes, Vandals, &c. to pos- 
sesse a fatter, as Italy, or warmer, as Spaine, &c. But 
these forsooke a fruitful Land, stately Buildings, goodly 
Gardens, Orchards, yea, deare Friends, and neere rela- 
tions, to goe to a desart Wildernesse, thousands of leagues 
by Sea, both turbulent and dangerous ; also many have 
travelled to see famous Cities, strong Fortifications, &c. 
or in hope to enjoy a settled habitation, where riches are 
attained with ease. But here the onely encouragements 
were the laborious breaking up of bushy ground, with 
the continued toyl of erecting houses, for themselves and 
cattell, in this howling desart ; all which they underwent 
with much cheerfulnesse, that they might enjoy Christ 
and his Ordinances in their primitive purity. 

And now, you, my honoured Countrey-men, who have 
with indefatigable paines, and expence of a great part of 
your Estates, furthered this blessed work : Behold how 
the Lord of Hosts hath carried it on in despight of all op- 
position from his and their enemies, in planting of his 
Churches in this New World, with the excellent frame 
of their Government, both civil and military, already es- 
tablished ; but why stop I you at the Threshhold : Go 
in, and seriously consider this Wonder-working Provi- 
dence of Sions Saviour. In the perusing of which, if 
thou receivest profit or delight, and God may have glory 
thereby, he hath attained the end that he aimed at, and 
full satisfaction for all his paynes who heartily wishes 
thee all the good both of this life, and a better life, in 
him who is a Christians all in all. 

T. H, 



Being a Relation of the first e planting in Neio England, in the Ycere 


chapter i. — The sad Condition of England, when this People re- 

When England began to decline in Religion, like 
luke-warme Laodicea, and instead of purging out Pope- 
ry, a farther compliance was sought not onely in vaine 
Idolatrous Ceremonies, but also in prophaning the Sab- 
bath, and by Proclamation throughout their Parish 
churches, exasperating lewd and prophane persons to cele- 
brate a Sabbath like the Heathen to Venus, Bacchus and 
Ceres ; in so much that the multitude of irreligious, las- 
civious and popish affected persons spread the whole land 
like Grashoppers, in this very time Christ the glorious 
King of his Churches, raises an Army out of our English 
Nation, for freeing his people from their long servitude 
under usurping Prelacy; and because every corner of 
England was filled with the fury of malignant adversa- 
ries, Christ creates a New England to muster up the first 
of his Forces in ; Whose low condition, little number, 
and remotenesse of place made these adversaries triumph, 
despising this day of small things, but in this hight of 
their pride the Lord Christ brought sudden, and unex- 
pected destruction upon them. Thus have you a touch 
of the time when this worke began. 

Christ Jesus intending to manifest his Kingly Office 
toward his Churches more fully than ever yet the Sons of 
men saw, even to the uniting of Jew and Gentile Church- 
es in one Faith, begins with our English Nation (whose 
former Reformation being vere imperfect) doth now re- 
solve to cast down their false foundation of Prelacy, even 
in the hight of their domineering dignity. And there- 
fore in the yeere 1628, he stirres up his servants as the 
Heralds of a King to make this Proclamation for Volun- 
tiers, as followeth. 

Oh yes ! oh yes ! oh yes ! All you the people of Christ 
that are here Oppressed, Imprisoned and scurrilously de- 
rided, gather yourselves together, your Wives and little 


ones, and answer to your severall Names as you shall be 
shipped for his service in the Westerne World, and more 
especially for planting the united Collonies of New Eng- 
land ; Where you are to attend the service of the King 
of Kings, upon the divulging of this Proclamation by his 
Herralds at Armes. Many (although otherwise willing 
for this service) began to object as followeth : 

Can it possible be the mind of Christ, (who formerly 
inabled so many souldiers of his to keepe their station 
unto the death here) that now so many brave souldiers 
disciplined by Christ himselfe the Captaine of our salva- 
tion, should turne their backs to the disheartening of their 
Fellow Souldiers, and losse of further opportunity in gain- 
ing a greater number of Subjects to Christs kingdome ? 

Notwithstanding this Objection, It was further pro- 
claimed as followeth : What Creature, wilt not know 
that Christ thy King crusheth with a rod of Iron, the 
Pompe and Pride of man, and must he like man cast and 
contrive to take his enemies at advantage ? No, of pur- 
pose hee causeth such instruments to retreat as hee hath 
made strong for himself: that so his adversaries glory- 
ing in the pride of their power, insulting over the little 
remnant remaining, Christ causeth them to be cast downe 
suddenly forever, and wee find in stories reported, Earths 
Princes have passed their Armies at need over Seas and 
deepe Torrents. Could Caesar so suddenly fetch over 
fresh forces from Europe to Asia, Pompy to foyle ? How 
much more shall Christ who createth all power, call over 
this 900 league Ocean at his pleasure, such instruments 
as he thinks meete to make use of in this place, from 
whence you are now to depart, but further that you may 
not delay the Voyage intended, for your full satisfaction, 
know this is the place where the Lord will create a new 
Heaven, and a new Earth in, new Churches, and a new 
Commonwealth together ; Wherefore, 

chap. ii. — The Commission of the People of Christ shipped for New 
England, and first of their gathering into Churches. 

Attend to your Commission all you that are or shall 
hereafter be shipped for this service, yee are with all pos- 


sible speed to imbarque jour selves, and as for all such 
Worthies who are hunted after as David was by Saul and 
his Courtiers, you may change your habit and ship you 
with what secrecy you can, carrying all things most 
needfull for the voyage and service you are to be employ- 
ed in after your landing. But as soone as you shall be 
exposed to danger of tempestuous Seas, you shall forth- 
with shew whose servants you are by calling on the 
name of your God, sometimes by extraordinary seeking 
his pleasing face in times of deepe distresse, and pub- 
lishing your Masters will, and pleasure to all that Voyage 
with you, and that is his minde to have purity in Religion 
preferred above all dignity in the world ; your Christ 
hath commanded the Seas they shall not swallow you, 
nor Pyrates imprison your persons, or possess your goods. 
At your landing see you observe the Rule of his Word, 
for neither larger nor stricter commission can hee give by 
any, and therefore at first filling the Land whither you 
are sent, with diligence, search out the mind of God both 
in planting and continuing Church and civill Govern- 
ment, but be sure they be distinct, yet agreeing and 
helping the one to the other ; Let the matter and forme 
of your Churches be such as were in the Primitive Times 
(before Antichrists Kingdome prevailed) plainly poynted 
out by Christ and his Apostles, in most of their Epistles 
to be neither Nationall nor Provinciall, but gathered to- 
gether in Covenant of such a number as might ordinarily 
meete together in one place, and built of such living 
stones as outwardly appeare Saints by calling. You are 
also to ordaine Elders in every Church, make you use of 
such as Christ hath indued with the best gifts for that 
end, their call to Office shall be mediate from you, but 
their authority and commission shall be immediate from 
Christ revealed in his word ; which, if you shall slight, 
despise or contemne, hee will soone frustrate your call by 
taking the most able among you to honour with an ever- 
lasting Crown ; whom you neglected to honour on Earth 
double as their due, or he will carry them remote from 
you to more infant Churches. You are not to put them 
upon anxious Cares for their daily Bread, for assuredly 
(although it may now seeme strange) you shall be fed in 


this Wildernesse, whither you are to goe, with the flower 
of Wheate and Wine shall be plentifull among you (but 
be sure you abuse it not) these Doctrines delivered from! 
the Wold of God imbrace, and let not Satan delude youu 
by perswading their learned skill is unnecessary, soone 
then will the Word of God be slighted as translated by 
such, and you shall be left wildred with strange revela- 
tions of every phantastick brain ; which to prevent here 
are to be shipped among you many both Godly, Juditious 
and Learned, who 

chap. in. — Of the demeanor of their Church Officers. 

Being called to Office are in all humility to feed the 
flock of Christ, and not for lucre to admit mostly of such 
sheepe, whose faire fleeces allure much : nor yet for fill- 
ing the flocks to crowd in infectious sheepe, or rather 
wolves in sheepes cloathing, assuredly it will prove bit- 
ternesse in the end : neither shall you for feare your al- 
lowance will fall short, hinder the increase of Churches, 
that so your fellow brethren indued with like gifts fall 
short of all ; But above all beware of any love self-con- 
ceited Opinion, stopping your ears from hearing the 
Counsell of an Orthodox Synod, but by daily communi- 
cation one with another impart Christs minde each tooth- 
er, that you may all speake one and the same things ; 
heale not lightly the wounds that Wolves make, lest from 
their festering Teeth a Gangrin grow, and further for 
com pleating the Churches of Christ as well in matters as 
in Doctrine, there are ancient experienced godly Chris- 
tians shipped among you (but be sure you make choice of 
such, for feare they be despised) and let them not be led 
by favour or affection (as naturally men are) to Admin- 
ister in your Office partially, for unworthy the name of a 
Ruling Elder is hee, who loses his Lyon-like courage, 
when the sound and wholesome Doctrines delivered by 
Pastor or Teacher are spoken against by any ; unseemely 
behaviour and sleepy heareing by private exhortation 
prevent, (if possible) lest public example in open profes- 
sors stumble some and hinder the operation of his word, 
especially in the hearts of those who have bin long time 
led away with the inventions of man in the worship of 


God. Be sure you contradict not, but confirme with trie- 
nail love the Doctrines of Christ, delivered by your 
Teaching Elders, which will be a great means to make it 
prevaile, for a three-fold cord is not easily broken, trust 
not to your own gifts for preventing error, but use all 
helpes that Christ may bless his own meanes, cast not 
away as incorrigible such as at first receive not the word 
in all points, but wait with patience if at any time the 
Lord will be pleased to give them a heart to turn unto 
him. Beware of a proud censorious spirit, and should 
Christ be pleased to place in his building more pollished 
stones than thy selfe, make it matter of rejoycing and not 
of envy. And further, because the Preaching of the 
word is to be continued with all diligence, here are like- 
wise imbarked with you faithful servants of Christ to at- 
tend on the Tables of the Churches, plaine-dealing men, 
yea, indued with wisdome from above, by which they 
are inabled to manage and improve the Churches Treasu- 
ry, not greedily given to hoord up for themselves, but by 
their own example leading others to liberality, and hospi- 
tality, having the earth in low esteeme, and Faith in exer- 
cise when Cattell and Corne fayie, not given to magnifie 
their own gifts, but boldly maintayning such sound truths 
as their Teaching Elders have cleared up from the word 
of God. And, 

chap. iv. — How the People in Christs Churches are to behave them- 

Now you his People, who are pickt out by his, provide 
to passe this Westerne Ocean for this honourable service, 
beware you call not weake ones to Office in this honora- 
ble Army, nor Novices, lest they be lifted up with pride. 
You see how full you are furnished for the worke, give 
no eare to any Braggadociaes, who to extoll themselves 
will weaken the hands of those whom Christ hath made 
strong for himselfe. Yea, such will be the phantastical 
madnesse of some (if you take not heed) that silly women, 
laden with diverse lusts, will be had in higher esteeme 
with them, then those honoured of Christ, indued with 
power and authority from him to Preach ; Abuse not the 
free and full liberty Christ hath given you in making 


ehoyce of your own Officers, and consent in admitting 
into his Churches, and casting out such Members as 
walke disorderly ; you are to walke in all humility, lest 
in injoyment of such freedoms as you formerly have not 
exercised, you exceede the bounds of modesty, and in- 
stead of having your moderation knowne to all, your im- 
becility, and selfe-exaltation bee discovered by many, in 
admission of others into Church society. Remember 
your selves were once Aliens from the Covenant of 
Grace, and in Excommunication, consider how your 
selves have been also tempted : in sincerity and single- 
nesse of heart, let your words be few, do nothing be had 
in high esteeme among men ; And think it no imputation 
of a weake discerning to be followers of those are set over 
you in the Lord as they follow Christ ; Let your profes- 
sion outstrip your confession, for seeing you are to be set 
as lights upon a Hill more obvious than the highest moun- 
taine in the World, keepe close to Christ that you may 
shine full of his glory, who imployes you, and grub not 
continually in the Earth, like blind Moles, but by your 
amiable Conversation seeke the winning of many to your 
Masters service. Beware of a proud censorious spirit, 
make it no part of your Christian communication to be 
in continual Discourse of others faults ; Let all things be 
done in love, and looke not for more smoothnesse in 
stones as yet unplaced in Christs building then is in thy 
selfe, who hast been long layd therein : wait with patience 
and cast not off as Reprobates such as cannot presently 
joyne with you in every poynt of Discipline, and yet 
hold fast to sound and wholesome Doctrine, if you will 
be a people to his prayse, who hath called you, seeke the 
turning of many to Righteousnesse, purge out all the 
sowre Leven of unsound Doctrine, for the minde of 
Christ is to build up his Churches, and breake them 
down no more ; And therefore be sure there be none to 
hurt or destroy in all his holy Mountaine, and as he hath 
pressed you for his service, that by passing through the 
Flouds of Persecution you should be set at liberty, and 
have power put into your hands. Then let none wrest it 
from you under pretence of liberty of Conscience, men 
of perverse judgments will draw Disciples after them, 


but let your consciences be pure, and Christs Churches 
free from all Doctrines that deceive. And all you, who 
are or shall be shipped for this worke, thinke it not 
enough that you injoy the truth, but you must hate eve- 
ry false way and know you are called to be faithful Soul- 
diers of Christ, not onely to assist in building up his 
Churches, but also in pulling downe the Kingdome of 
Antichrist, then sure you are not set up for tollerating 
times, nor shall any of you be content with this that you 
are set at liberty, but take up your Armes, and march 
manfully on till all opposers of Christs Kingly power be 
abolished ; and as for you who are called to sound forth 
his silver Trumpets, blow lowd and shrill, to this chiefest 
treble tune : For the Armies of the great Jehovah are at 
hand. See you not his Enemies stretched out on tiptoe, 
proudly daring on their thresholds, a certain signe of 
their sudden overthrow ; be not danted at your small 
number, for every common Souldier in Christs Campe 
shall be as David, who slew the great Goliah, and Lis 
Davids shall be as the Angels of the Lord, who slew 
185000 in the Assyrian Army. 

Finally, all you who are now sent forth by Christ your 
Jehovah to enter upon a Blessed Reformation, if ever you 
will have the honours to be provokers of his ancient Peo- 
ple Israel (who are again suddenly to be honoured by 
him in believing) kindle the fire of jealousy in their brests 
by your Holy, Heavenly and humble walking, have you 
not the most blessedest opportunity put into your hands 
that ever people had ? then 

chap. v. — What Civil] Government the People of Christ ought to 
set up, and submit unto in New England. 

Fayle not in prosecution of the Worke, for your 
Lord Christ hath furnished you with able Pilots, to steere 
the Helme in a godly, peaceable, Civill Government also, 
then see you make choice of such as are sound both in 
Profession and Confession, men fearing God and hating 
bribes; whose Commission is not onely limitted with 
the commands of the second Table, but they are to looke 
to the Rules of the first also, and let them be sure to put 



on Joshuas resolution, and courage, never to make League 
with any of these seven Sectaries. 

First, the Gortonists, who deny the Humanity of 
Christ, and most blaphemously and proudly prol'esse 
themselves to be personally Christ, 

Secondly, the Papist, who with (almost) equal blasphe- 
my and pride prefer their own Merits and Workes of Su- 
pererogation as equal with Christs unvaluable Death, and 

Thirdly, the Familist, who depend upon rare Revela- 
tions, and forsake the sure revealed Word of Christ. 

Fourthly, Seekers, who deny the Churches and Ordi- 
nances of Christ. 

Fifthly, Antinomians, who deny the Morrall Law to 
be the Rule of Christ. 

Sixthly, Anabaptists, who deny Civill Government to 
be proved of Christ. 

Seventhly, The Prelacy, who w 7 ill have their own In- 
junctions submitted unto in the Churches of Christ. 
These and the like your Civil Censors shall reach unto 
that the people of, and under your Government, may live 
a quiet and peaceable life in all godlinesse and honesty, 
and to the end that you may provoke Kings, Princes, and 
all that are in authority to cast downe their Crownes at 
the Feet of Christ, and take them up agaiue at his com- 
mand to serve under his Standard as nursing Fathers, and 
nursing Mothers to the Churches and people of Christ; 
when your feete are once safely set on the shores of 
America, you shall set up and establish civill Govern- 
ment, and pray for the prosperity thereof, as you love the 
peace of his Churches, who hath called you to this ser- 
vice, he hath for that end shipped among you, some 
learned in the Law of God, and practised in rules of good 
reason or common Lawes proper to our English nation. 
Be sure you make chovce of the right, that all people, 
Nations and Languages, who are soonly to submit to 
Christs kingdome, may be? followers of you herein, as 
you follow the Rule of Christ ; your Magistrates shall 
not put open the Gates for all sorts. But know, they are 
Eyes of Restraint set up for Walles and Bulworks, to 
surround the Sion of God ; Oh for Jerusalem her peace, 


see that you mind it altogether, you know right well that 

the churches of Christ have not thrived under 

the tolerating Government of Holland, from The Church of 

whence the Lord hath translated one Church mmi/wa* 

already to the place whither you are now to fo^Kngiand 

£oe : and further it is well known, loose liber- 5 Vearea be- 
1 1 1 K# • 'ii 1 ' ()re a "y ol h- 

ty cannot mdure to looke Majestieall authority ers. 

in the face. And also you shall finde crroni- 
ous persons will contend with authority for upholding 
truth irrationally, denying it any power to condemne de- 
ceivahle Doctrines, and that upon this very ground, be- 
cause Tyranny hath in forced error heretofore ; be not 
borne downe with a multitude, neither let any flatter for 
preferment, which to prevent, honour shall be very charge- 
able among you ; yet let not any deny to beare the 
burden and cumber of governing this people of Christ; 
for assuredly, although their recompense fall short from 
man, it shall not be forgotten with the Lord. Lastly, 

chap. vi. — How the People of Christ ought to behave themselves 
in War-like Discipline. 

You shall with all diligence provide against the Malig- 
nant adversaries of the truth, for assure your selves the 
time is at hand wherein Antichrist will muster up all his 
Forces, and make war with the people of God ; but it 
shall be to his utter overthrow. See then you store your 
selves with all sorts of weapons for war, furbrish up jour 
Swords, Rapiers, and all other piercing weapons. As 
for great Artillery, seeing present meanes falls short, 
waite on the Lord Christ, and hee will stir up friends to 
provide for you : and in the meane time spare 
not to lay out your coyne for Powder, Bui- v*>cvot wii- 

1 l\l . L a c 11 J 11 1 • 1 son gave 1000/. 

lets, Match, Armes of all sorts, and all kinde to New Eng- 
of Instruments for War: and although it may ifhichXy 
now seeme a thins incredible, you shall see storedthem 
in that Wildernesse, whither you are going, Guns. 
Troopes of stout horsemen marshalled, and 
therefore fayle not to ship lusty Mares along With you, 
and see that with all diligence you ineoura^e every Soul- 
dier-like Spirit among you, for the Lord Christ intends 
to atchieve greater matters by this little handfull then the 


World is aware of; wherefore you shall seeke and set up 
men of valour to lead and direct every Souldier among 
you, and with all diligence to instruct them from time to 

Feare not the misse of men to fill your Townes, and 
compleat your companies ; for although at first struglings 
for truths advance there may but a small number appeare 
of sound judgement : yet shall you not prefer any to Of- 
fice, whose zeal is not strong for the truth, for now the 
minde of Christ is to put out the name of Ammaleck from 
under Heaven (I meane such as have persecuted the 
Churches and People of Christ in their low condition) 
and assuredly unsounde Saules will spare such as should 
not be saved from destruction. Then be strong and of a 
good courage (all you that are to fight the Lords Battaile) 
that your Faith faile not at sight of the great Armies of 
Gog and Magog : and as for you, who shall be preferred 
to highest places in his New England Regiments, cause 
your Captaine and other inferior Officers to be diligent in 
their severall places, that you may lende helpe to your 
Countreymen, that ere long be will see a necessity of 
contending for the truth, as well as your selves in choyce 
of Military Officers ; Let faithfulnesse to the cause in 
hand, courage, activity and skill have the prehemency 
of honours ; for although it may seem a meane thinge to 
be a New England Souldier, yet some of you shall have 
the battering and beating down, scaling, winning and 
wasting the over-topping Towers of the Hierarchy ; Lieu- 
tenants, Ensigne and Serjeants, exceed not your places, 
till Experience, Skill and true Valour promote you to 
higher honour, to which you shall be daily aspiring. 
As the worthy incouragement of a Souldiers labour, let 
Military discipline be had in high esteeme among you. 
Gentlemen, Corporalls and Fellow-Souldiers, keepe jour 
weapons in a continuall readinesse, seeing you are called 
to fight the Battails of your Lord Christ ; who must 
raigne till hee hath put all his enemies under his Feet ? 
his glorious Victories over Antichrist are at hand, never 
yet did any Souldier rejoice in dividing the spoyle after 
Victory, as all the Souldiers of Christ shall, to see his 
judgement executed upon the great Whore, and withall 


the Lambs bride prepared for him, who comes Skipping 
over & trampling down the great Monntaines of the 
Earth, whose universal! Government will then appeare 
glorious, when not onely the Assyrian, Babilonian, Per- 
sian, Grecian, and Roman Monarchies shall subject them- 
selves unto him, but also all other new upstart King- 
domes, Dukedomes, or what else can be named, shall fall 
before him ; Not that he shall come personally to Reigne 
upon Earth (as some vainly imagine) but his powerfull 
Presence and Glorious brightnesse of his Gospell both to 
Jew and Gentile, shall not onely spiritually cause the 
Churches of Christ to grow beyond number, but also the 
whole civill Government of people upon Earth shall be- 
come his, so that there shall not be any to move the hand, 
nor *dog his tongue against his chosen, And then shall the 
time be of breaking Speares into Mattocks, and Swords 
into Sithes ; and this to remaine to his last comming, 
which will be personally to overcome the last enemies of 
his Saints, even death, which bee will doe by the word of 
his Mouth, audibly spoken the World throughout. 

Then all you, who are now, or shall hereafter be ship- 
ped for this Voyage, minde the Worke of Christ, and not 
some following raigne, titles of honour, others eying the 
best Grass-platts and best Situation for Farmes and large 
Accommodations, crouding out Gods people from sitting 
down among you. Wherefore above all beware of cov- 
etousnesse : all you that will be admitted into these select 
Bands of Christ Jesus, rememher Achan, whereas Rams 
Homes could overthrow the high and strong walles of 
Jericho, before his theft committed, after it the little num- 
ber of the men of Ai could put the Host of the living 
God to flight, see then you stand upon your watch con- 
tinually in the strength of Christ, for assuredly instead of 
casting downe the enemies of Christ, this sin will cast 
down you utterly, disinable you for striking one stroke 
in the cause of Christ ; and whereas he hath purposely 
pickt out this people for a patteme of purity and sound- 
nesse of Doctrine, as well as discipline, that all such may 
finde a refuge among you, and let not any Merchants, In- 
keepers, Tavemers and men of Trade in hope of gaine, 

* wag? 


fling open the gates so wide, as that by letting in all sorts 
you mar the worke of Christ intended : neither shall such 
labourers as hee hath pickt out to be pyoneers in this 
Campe of his, drink up like Spunges such meanes as hee 
hath sent to maintaine both Officers, and private Souldiers, 
Lastly, let not such as fight, set foote on Land to compose 
Townes for Habitations, take up large accommodations 
for sale, to enrich themselves with others goods, who are 
to follow them, but freely as you have received, so give 
out to others : for so soone as you shall seeke to ingrosse 
the Lords wast into your hands, he will ease you of your 
burden by making stay of any farther resort unto you ? 
and then be sure you shall have wast Land enough. 

To this Commission was added a strong motive to this 
work as followeth : Namely, the great enmity betweene 
that one truth as it is in Jesus, and all other unsound and 
undeceivable Doctrines, together with the persons that 
hold them ; insomuch, that they cannot stand in one 
Common-wealth long together, as sixteene hundred yeares 
experience will testifie, the which Moses layes down as 
one maine reason, why he might not admit of a tolera- 
tion to worship God in Egypt. And therefore all you 
that believe the Scriptures, which so plainly prophecy the 
destruction of Antichrist and all Antichristian Doctrines ; 
Pray, pray, pray, pray continually with that valiant wor- 
thy Joshua that the Sun may stand still in Gibeon, and the 
Moone in the vally of Aijalon, for assuredly although 
some small battailes may be fought against the enemies 
of Christ, yet the great day of their finall overthrow shall 
not come till the bright Sonne of that one cleare truth of 
Christ, stand still in the Gentile Churches, that those who 
fight the Lords Battells may plainly discerne his enemies 
in all places, where they finde them, as also such as will 
continue fighting must have the World kept low in their 
eyes, as the Moon in the valley of Aijalon. 

chap. vii. — Of the goodnesse of God in helping his People to a 
large liberty in Spirituall things, under the hopes of gaine in 
Earthly things. 

This Proclamation being audibly published through 
the He of Great Brittaine by sundry Herraulds, which 


Christ had prepared for that end : the rumour ran through 
Cities, Townes and Villages ; when those that were op- 
posites heard it, some eried one thing, and some another, 
much like the tumult in the Town-hall at Ephesus, some 
said let them goe, others erved, sweare them first, others 
said let no Subsidy men passe, others would have strict 
search made for non-conformants, and that none of the 
late silenced Ministers might passe into the Ships ; 
Amidst this great hurry the sincere servants of Christ 
humbly seeke the Lords assistance in days of Humilia- 
tion, taking up some serious cogitations, how to begin 
this worthy worke, upon which it was thought meete a 
patterne * should be procured, comprised after the manner 
of a Corporation-company or Brotherhood, with as large 
liberty for government of this Association, as could be 
got under the Broad Seale of England, which according- 
ly was done by advise of one Mr. White an honest Coun- 
sellor at Law, as also furthered by the honoured Mr. 
Richard Bilenham,t and under the name of many worthy 
personages, as Governour, Dep. Gov. Assistant and 
Freemen, &,c. Granted, Ingrossed and Sealed as hold- 
ing of the manner of East Greenwich, yeelding by way 
of homage the sixth part of all such Ore of Gold or Sil- 
ver, as might for after time be found within the Limits of 
the said Grant bounded on the North, with the most 
Northerly part of the pleasant River of Merimech, one 
mile beyond, and on the South with the most Southern 
part of that oft frequented River commonly called Charles, 
one mile beyond, with power to rule and govern in all 
those parts both by Sea and Land ; To elect and set up 
all sorts of Officers, as well Superior as Inferior ; to point 
out their power and places, to defend and maintaine the 
said Land, and Inhabitants thereof with all their lawfull 
liberties (against all such as at any time should Invade, 
Molest or Disturbe the same) as well by offensive as de- 
fensive War, as also to constitute and ordaine Lawes, &c. 
Thus these Souldiers of Jesus Christ prepared to advance 
his Kingly Government, much like Samuel, when he went 
to annoynt David, took up another errant, withall that the 
Malignant spirit of Saul might not hinder the worke, so 

• Patent? t Bellingbam. 


those Worthies of Christ joyning themselves with Mer- 
chants and others, who had an eye at a profitable Planta- 
tion, who had not herein been deceived would they have 
stayed their time, but surely such mist not their marke, 
whose ayme was at the durable interest unlesse the fault 
were their owne, neither let any man thinke Christ will 
not recompense those one way or other, who have been 
any way helpfull to his people in this his work ; amongst 
whom the Author will not misse that good Gentleman, 
Matthew Craddock by the way of thankfullnesse to him, 
Mr. Goffand others this Verse is tendred : 

For richest Jems and gainfull things most Merchants wisely venter : 
Deride not then New England men, this Corporation enter ; 

Christ calls for Trade shall never fade, come Craddock factors send: 
Let Mayhew go and other more, spare not thy coyne to spend ; 

Such Trades advance did never chance, in all thy Trading vet: 
Though some deride thy losse, abide, her's * gaine beyond mans wit. 

chap. viii. — Of the wonderful! Preparation the Lord Christ by his 
Providence, wrought for his peoples abode in this Western world. 

Now let all men know the admirable Acts of Christ 
for his Churches, and chosen, are universally over the 
whole Earth at one and the same time, but sorry man 
cannot so discourse of them ; And therefore let us leave 
our English Nation in way of preparation for this Voyage 
intended, and tell of the marvelous doing of Christ pre- 
paring for his peoples arrivall in the Western World, 
whereas the Indians report they beheld to their great 
wonderment that perspicuous bright blazing Comet 
(which was so famously noted in Europe) anon after Sun 
set it appeared as they say in the South west, about three 
houres continuing in their Horizon, for the space of 
thirty sleepes (for so they reckon their dayes) after w r hich 
uncouth sight they expected some strange things to fol- 
low, and the rather, because not long before the whole 
Nation of the Mattachusets were so affrighted with a Ship 
that arrived in their Bay, having never seen any before, 
thus they report some persons among them discerning a 
great thing to move toward them upon the Waters, won- 
dering what Creature it should be, they run with their 

* here's ? 


light cannovves, (which arc a kinde of Boates made of 
Birch Rindes, and sowed together with the rootes of 
white Cedar-Trees) from place to place, stiring up all 
their Coun trey men to come forth, and behold this mon- 
strous thing ; at this sudden news the shores for many 
miles were filled with this naked Nation, gazing at this 
wonder, till some of the stoutest among them manned 
out these Cannowes, being armed with Bow and Ar- 
rowes, they approached within shot of the Ship, being 
becalmed they let fly their long shafts at her, which be- 
ing headed with bone some stuck fast, and others drop- 
ped into the water, they wondering it did not cry, but 
kept quietly on toward them, till all of a sudden the 
Master caused a piece of Ordnance to be fired, which 
stroke such feare into the poore Indians, that they hasted 
to shore, having their wonders exceedingly increased ; 
but being gotten among their great multitude, they wait- 
ed to see the sequell with much amazement, till the 
Seamen filling up their sailes came to an Anchor, man- 
ned out their long bote, and went on shore, at whose ap- 
proach, the Indians fled, although now they saw they 
were men, who made signes to stay their flight, that they 
may have Trade with them, and to that end they brought 
certaine Copper-Kettles ; the Indians by degrees made 
their approach nearer and nearer till they came to them, 
when beholding their Vessells which they had set forth be- 
fore them, the Indians knocking them were much delight- 
ed with the sound, and much more astonished to see they 
would not breake, being so thin, for attaining those Ves- 
sells they brought them much Bever, fraughting them 
richly away according to their desires, this was the first 
working providence of Christ to stir up our English Na- 
tion, to plant these paits in hope of a rich Trade for Be- 
ver-skins, and this made some of our Countreymen make 
their abode in these parts, whom this Army of Christ at 
their comming over found as fit helps to further their de- 
signe in planting the Churches of Christ; Who by a 
more admirable act of his Providence not long after pre- 
pared for his peoples arrivall as followeth. 

The Summer after the blazing Starre (whose motion 
in the Heavens was from East to West, poynting out to 


the sons of men the progresse of the glorious Gospell off 
Christ, the glorious King of his Churches) even about! 
the yeare 1618, a little before the removeall of that Church) 
of Christ from Holland to Plimoth in New England, as 
the ancient Indians report, there befell a great mortality 
among them, the greatest that ever the memory of Father 
to Sonne tooke notice of, chiefly desolating those places, 
where the English afterward planted the Countrey of 
Pockanoky, Agissawamg, it was almost wholly deserted, 
insomuch that the Neighbour Indians did abandon those 
places for feare of death, fleeing more West & by 
South, observing the East and by Northern parts were 
most smitten with this contagion, the Abarginny men 
consisting of Mattachusets, Wippanaps and Tarratines 
were greatly weakened, and more especially the three 
Kin^domes, or Saggamore-ships of the Mattachusets, 
who were before this mortality most populous, having un- 
der them seven Dukedomes or petty Saggamores, and the 
Nianticks and Narrowganssits, who before this came 
were but of little note, yet were they now not much in- 
creased by such as fled thither for feare of death, the 
Pecods (who retained the Name of a war-like people, till 
afterwards conquered by the English) were also smitten 
at this time. Their Disease being a sore Consumption, 
sweeping away whole Families, but chiefly yong Men 
and Children, the very seeds of increase, their Powwowes, 
which are their Doctors, working partly by Charmes, and 
partly by Medicine, were much amazed to see their 
Wigwams lie full of dead Corpes, and that now neither 
Squantam nor Abbamocho could helpe, which are their 
good and bad God, and also their Powwows themselves 
were oft smitten with deaths stroke, howling and much 
lamentation was heard among the living, who being 
possest with great feare, oftimes left their dead un- 
buried, their manner being such, that they remove their 
habitations at death of any, this great mortality being an 
unwonted thing, feare them the more, because naturally 
the Country is very healthy. But by this meanes Christ 
(whose great and glorious workes the Earth throughout 
are altogether for the benefit of his Churches and chosen) 
not onely made roome for his people to plant ; but also 


tamed tho hard and cruell hearts of these barbarous 
Indians, insomuch tliat halfe a hand full of his people laud- 
ing not long alter in Plimoth-Plantation, found little re- 
sistance, of whom the Author purposes not to speake 
particularly, being prevented by the honoured Mr. Wins- 
low, who was an eye-wit nesse of the worke : onely thus 
much by the way, they were sent to keepe possession for 
their Brethren and fellow Souldiers, who arrived eight 
yeares after them, as in processe of this story will God- 
willing appeare : and verily herein they quit themselves 
like men, or rather Christ lor and by them, maintaining 
the place notwithstanding the multitude of difficulties 
they met withall at their first landing, being in doubtfull 
suspense what intertainment these Barbarians would give 
them, having with prayer supplicated the Lord in the 
Name of Christ their King and guide in this their under- 
taking, they manned out a Boate to discover what store 
of the inhabitants were there. Now these men, whose 
courage exceeded the number, being guided by the 
provident hand of the most high, landed in some several! 
places; and by making fires gave signes of their ap- 
proach, now the Indians, whose dwellings are most neer 
the water-side, appeared with their Bowes bent and Ar- 
rowes one the string, Jet fly their long shafts among this 
little company, whom they might soon have inclosed, but 
the Lord otherwise disposed of it, for one Captaine Miles 
Standish having his fowling-peece in a reddinesse, pre- 
sented full at them, his shot being directed by the provi- 
dent Hand of the most high God, strook the stoutest 
Sachem among them one the right arme, it being bent 
over his shoulder to reach an Arrow forth his Quiver, as 
their manner is to draw them forth in fight, at this stroke 
they all fled with great swift nesse through the Woods and 
Thickets, then the English, who more thirsted after their 
conversion than destruction, returned to their Bote with- 
out receiving any damage, and soon after arrived where 
they left their Brethren, to whom they declared the good 
hand of God toward them, with thankfull acknowledge- 
ment of this great worke of his in preserving them ; Yet 
did they all remaiiie full of incumbred thoughts, the 
Indians, of whose multitudes they had now some intelli- 


gence, together with experience of spirits, and also knew 
well without commerce with them they were not like long 
to subsist. 

But hee, whose worke they went about, wrought so 
rare a Providence for them, which cannot but be admired 
of all that heare it. Thus it befell as they were discours- 
ing in the Bote they had built for shelter, all of a sudden, 
an Indian came in among them, at whose speech they 
were all agast, he speaking in the English Language, 
Much welcome Englishmen, their wonder was the great- 
er, because upon those Costes they supposed no English 
had so much as set foote, and verily Christ had prepared 
him on purpose to give his people intertainment, the 
Indian having lived in England two year or thereabout, 
after which he returned home, and at this time had 
wandred into those parts in company of other Indians, all 
this, and the condition of the neere adjoyning Indians, hee 
soon discovered unto them, at which they were trans- 
ported beyond themselves very much, what with joy and 
the mixture of their former feare and affection intervening 
with the other, surprised all their senses of a sudden, that 
long it was ere each party could take its proper place, yea, 
and beyond all this Christ Jesus, by the power of his 
blessed Spirit, did now work upon all their faculties both 
of Soule and Body, the great impression of his present 
Providence might not soon be washed off with the fol- 
lowing incumbred cares of a Desart Wildernesse ; but to 
contract, they made use of the present opportunity, and 
by the instrumentall meanes of this Indian, became ac- 
quainted and reconciled with most of the Neighbouring 
Indians. And afterward planted a Church of Christ 
there, and set up civill Government, calling the Name of 
the place Plimoth ; under this jurisdiction there are ten 
Churches at this very day, this being the first place any 
English resorted unto for the advancement of the Kingly 
Government of Christ in this Westerne World. 

chap. ix. — Of the first preparation of the Marchant Adventurers, in 
the Mattachusets. 

Now it will be time to returne againe to England, to 
speake further of the people that wee left in way of pre- 


paration ; who in the yeare 1628, sent forth some store of 
servants to provide against the wants of a Desart Wilder- 
nesse, amongst whom came over a mixt multitude, inso- 
much that very little appeared of the following worke, 
onely the much honoured Mr. John Indicat,* came over 
with them to governe, a fit instrument to begin this 
Wildernesse-worke, of courage bold undanted, yet soci- 
able, and of a cheerfull spirit, loving and austere, applying 
himselfe to either as occasion served. And now let no 
man be offended at the Authors rude Verse, penned of 
purpose to keepe in memory the Names of such worthies 
as Christ made strong for himselfe, in this unwonted 
worke of his. 

John Endicat * twice Govcrour of the English, inhabiting the Matta- 
ckusets Bay in N. England. 

Strong valiant John wilt thon march on, and take up station first, 

Christ cal'd hath thee, his Souldier be, and faile not of thy trust ; 
Wilderness wants Christs grace supplants, then pi ant his Churches pure, 

With Tongues gifted, and graces led, help thou to his. procure ; 
Undanted thou wilt not allow, Malignant men to wast : (tast. 

Christs Vineyard heere, whose grace should cheer, his well-beloved's 
Then honoured be, thy Christ hath thee their Generall promoted : 

To shew their love, in place above, his people have thee voted. 
Yet must thou fall, to grave with all the Nobles of the Earth, 

Thou rotting worme, to dust must turn, and worse but for new birth. 

The place picked out by this People to settle them- 
selves in, was in the bosome of the out-stretched arme 
of Cape Anne, now called Gloster, but at the place of 
their abode they began to build a Town, which is called 
Salem, after some little space of time having made tryall 
of the Sordid spirits of the Neighbouring Indians, the 
most bold among them began to gather to divers places, 
which they began to take up for their owne, those that 
were sent over servants, having itching desires after 
novelties, found a reddier way to make an end of their 
Masters provision, then they could find meanes to get 
more ; They that came over their own men had but little 
left to feed on, and most began to repent when their 
strong Beere and full cups ran as small as water in a large 
Land, but little Come, and the poore Indian so for from 
relieving them, that they were forced to lengthen out 

* Endicot. 


their owne food with Acorns, and that which added to 
their present distracted thoughts, the Ditch betweene 
England and their now place of abode was so wide, that 
they could not leap over with a lope-staffe, jet some de- 
lighting their Eye with the rarity of things present, and I 
feeding their fancies with new discoveries at the Springs [ 
approach, they made shift to rub out the Winters cold 
by the Fire-side, having fuell enough growing at their 
very doores, turning down many a drop of the Bottell, 
and burning Tobacco with all the ease they could, dis- 
coursing betweene one while and another, of the great 
progresse they would make after the Summers-Sun had 
changed the Earths white furr'd Gowne into a greene 
Mantell. Now the vernall of thirty* nine being come, 
they addrest themselves to coste it as far as they durst 
for feare of losing themselves, or failing into the hands 
of unknown Indians, being kept in awe by a report of a 
cruell people, not far of called the Tarratines. All this 
while little like-lihood there was building the Temple for 
Gods worship, there being only two that began to hew 
stones in the Mountaines, the one named Mr. Bright, 
and the other Mr. Blaxton,f and one of them began to 
build, but when they saw all sorts of stones would not fit 
in the building, as they supposed, the one betooke him 
to the Seas againe, and the other to till the Land, retain- 
ing no simbole of his former profession, but a Canonicall 

chap. x. — Of the first Church of Christ, gathered at Salem in the 
Mattachusets Government. 

This yeare 1629, came over three godly Ministers of 
Christ Jesus, intending to shew his power in his peoples 
lowest condition as his manner is, thereby to strengthen 
their Faith in following difficulties, and now although the 
number of the faithfull people of Christ were but few, yet 
their longing desires to gather into a Church was very 
great ; And therefore addressed themselves to finde out the 
blessed Rules of Christ for preserving herein, who 
through the assistance of his Blessed Spirit, found that 
the Word of God, penned by the Apostles in many 
Epistles, written to particular Churches, consisting of 

* twenty ? t Blackstone. 


such as are beloved Saints, by calling appearing so in the 
judgement of Charity, being tryed by the rule of the 
word, not scandalous in their Lives, for the society of 
such they sought, and in these beginnings found very 
few, seven being the lest number a Church can be gath- 
ered, or conceived by just consequence from the Word 
of God. Having fasted and prayed with humble ac- 
knowledgement of their own unworthinesse to be called 
of Christ to so worthy a worke, they joyned together in a 
holy Covenant with the Lord, and one with another pro- 
mising by the Lords assistance to walke together in Ex- 
horting, Admonishing, and Rebuking one another, and 
to cleave to the Lord with a full purpose of heart, accord- 
ins: to the blessed Rules of his Word made known unto 
them, and further they seeing by light of Scripture the 
Lord Christ ascended up on high to give gifts unto men, 
not onely extraordinary as Apostles, &c. before the Canon 
of the Scripture was perfected, but also ordinary as Pastors 
and Teachers, and that such are to be fitted with gifts 
according, for so mighty a worke as is the Feeding and 
Ruling the Flock of Christ. Wherefore they Elected 
and Ordained one Mr. Higgingson * to be Teacher of this 
first Church of Christ, set up in those parts, a man in- 
dued with grace, apt to teach, and mighty in the Scrip- 
tures, Learned in the Tongues, able to convince gain- 
savers, aptly applying the word to his hearers, who de- 
parted this life not long after, of whom it may be said. 

The Reverend Mr. Higgingson * first Pastor of the Char eh of Christ 
at Salem in New England. 

What Golden craine made Higginson remove, 

From fertill Soyle to W T ildernesse of Rocks ; 
'Tvvas Christs riche Pearle stir'd up thee toile to Jove, 

For him to feed in Wildernesse his flocks. 
First Teacher, he here Sheepe and Lambs together, 

First crownd shall be, hee in the Heavens of all, 
Christs Pastors here, but yet Christ folke had rather, 

Him here retaine, blest he whom Christ hath call'd. 

They also called to the Office of an Exhorting Elder 
Mr. Scelton,f a man of a gratious Speech, full of Faith 
and furnished by the Lord with gifts from above, to be- 

+ Skelton. 


gin this great worke of his, that makes the whole Earth 
to ring againe at this present day. 

The Reverend Mr. Scelton * first Pastor of the Church of Christ, at 
Salem in New England, 1630. 

Scelton * for Christ did leave his Native Soile, 

Christ Grace first wrought for him, or he had never 
A Pastor been in Wildernesse to toile, 

Where Christ his Flock doth into Churches gather ; 
For five years space to end thy war-faire thou, 

Muste meete with wantes, what wants can be to him? . 
Whose Shepheard's Christ, Earths fulnesse hath for you; 

And Heavens rich Crowne for thee, with's conquest win, 

This Church of Christ, being thus begun, the Lord 
with the Water-spouts of his tender Mercy caused to 
increase and fructify. And now let every Eare listen, 
and every heart admire, and inlarge it selfe to the astonish- 
ment of the whole man at this wonderous worke of the 
great Jehovah ; That in thrice seven yeares (after the be- 
ginning of this Worke) wrought such fearfull Desola- 
tions and wonderfull Alterations among our English 
Nation, and also in this dismall Desart, wasting the 
natural! Inhabitant with deaths stroke, and that as is former 
touched, the Mattachusets, who were a populous Nation, 
consisting of 30000 able men, now brought to lesse then 
300, and in their roome and place of abode this poore 
Church of Christ consisting at their beginning, but of 
seven persons, increased to forty three Churches in joynt 
Communion one with the other, professing One God, 
One Christ, and one Gospell, and in those Churches 
about 7750 Soules in one profession of the Rules o( 
Christ, and that which makes the worke more admirable 
in the Eyes of all beholders, mens habitations are cut out 
of the Woods and Bushes, neither can this place be en- 
tered by our English Nation, but by passing through a 
dreadfull and terrible Ocean of nine hundred Leagues in 

chap. xi. — Of the Glorious beginnings of a thorough Reformation in 
the Churches of Christ. 

Further know these are but the beginnings of Christs 
glorious Reformation, and Restauration of his Churches 

* Skelton. 


to a more glorious splendor than ever. Hee hath there- 
fore caused their daze ling brightnesse of his presence to 
be contracted in the burning Glasse of these his peoples 
zeale, from whence it begins to be left * upon many parts 
of the World with such hot reflection of that burning 
light, which hath fired many places already, the which 
shall never be quenched till it hath burnt up Babilon 
Root and Branch, and now let the Reader looke one the 
102 Psalme, the Prophet Isaia 06 Chapter, take this 
sharpe Sword of Christs Word, and all other Scriptures 
of like nature, and follow on yee valiant, of the Lord ; 
And behold the worthies of Christ, as they are boldly 
leading forth his Troops into these Westerne Fields, 
marke them well Man by Man as they march, terrible as 
an Army with Banners, croud in all yee that long to see 
this glorious sight, see ther's their glorious King Christ 
one that white Horse, whose hoofes like flint cast not 
only sparkes, but flames of lire in his pathes. Behold his 
Crown beset with Carbunkles, wherein the names of his 
whole Army are written. Can there be ever night in his 
Presence, whose eyes are ten thousand times higher f than 
the Sun ? Behold his swiftness all you that have said, where 
is the promise of his comming? Listen a while, hear 
what his herauld proclaimes, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, 
both her Doctrine and Lordly rabble of Popes, Cardinals, 
Lordly-Bishops, Friers, Monks, Nuns, Seminary-Priests, 
Jesuits, Ermites, Pilgrims, Deans, Prebends, Arch- 
Deacons, Commissaries, Officialls, Proctors, Somners, 
Singing-men, Choristers, Organist, Bellows-blowers, 
Vergers, Porters, Sextons, Beads-men, and Bel-ringers 
and all others who never had name in the Word of God ; 
together with all her false Doctrines, although they may 
seeme otherwise never so contradictory as Arians, who 
deny the God-head of Christ, and Gortenists, who deny 
the Humanity of Christ : Paptists, who thinke to merit 
Heaven by the Workes of the Law, Antinomians, who 
deny the Law of God altogether as a rule to walke by in 
the obedience of Faith, and deny good works to be the 
Fruit of Faith, Arminians, who attribute Gods Election, 
or Reprobation to the will of Man, and Familists, who 
forsake the revealed Will of God, and make men de- 

* felt ? t brighter ? 



pend upon strong Revelations, for the knowledge of Gods 
Electing Love towards them, Conformitants or Formal- 
ists, who bring in a forme of worship of their owne, and 
jovne it with the worship God hath appointed in his 
Word, Seekers, that deny all manner of worship or Ordi- 
nances of Christ Jesus, affirming them to be quite lost, 
and not to be attained till new Apostles come. 

chap. xii. — Of the voluntary banishment, chosen by this People of 
Christ, and their last farewell taken of their Country and Friends. 

And now behold the severall Regiments of these 
Souldiers of Christ, as they are shipped for his service in 
the Western World, part thereof being come to the 
Towne and Port of Southampton in England, where they 
were to be shipped, that the might prosecute this de- 
signe to the full, one Ship called the Eagle, they wholly 
purchase, and many more they hire, filling them with the 
seede of man and beast to sow this yet untilled Wilder- 
nesse withall, making sale of such Land as they possesse, 
to the great admiration of their Friends and Acquaintance, 
who thus expostulate with them, What, will not the large 
income of your yearly revenue content you, which in all 
reason cannot chuse but be more advantagious both to 
you and yours, then all that Rocky Wildernesse, 
whither you are going, to run the hazard of your life ? 
Have you not here your Tables filled with great variety 
of Foode, your Coffers filled with Coyne, your Houses 
beautifully built and filled with all rich Furniture ? (or 
otherwise) have you not such a gainfull Trade as none 
the like in the Towne where you live ? Are you not in- 
riched daily ? Are not your Children very w 7 ell provided 
for as they come to years ? (nay) may you not here as 
pithily practise the two chieie Duties of a Christian (if 
Christ give strength) namely Mortification and Sanctifi- 
cation as in any place of the World? What helps can 
you have there that you must not carry from hence ? 
With bold resolvednesse these stout Souldiers of Christ 
reply ; as Death, the King of terror with all his dreadful! 
attendance inhumane and barbarous, tortures doubled 
and trebled by all the infernall furies have appeared but 
light and momentary to the Souldiers of Christ Jesus, so 


also the Pleasure, Profits and Honours of this World set 
forth in their most glorious splendor, and magnitude by 
the alluring Lady of Delight, proffering pleasant em- 
braces, cannot intice with her Syren Songs, such Souldiers 
of Christ, whose aymes are elevated by him, many Mil- 
lions above that brave Warrier Ulysses. 

Now seeing all can be said will but barely set forth 
the immoveable Resolutions that Christ continued in 
these men ; Passe on and attend with teares, if thou hast 
any, the following discourse, while these Men, Women 
and Children are taking their last farewell of their Native 
Country, Kindred, Friends and Acquaintance, while the 
Ships attend them ; Many make choise of some solitary 
place to eccho out their bowell-breaking affections in bid- 
ding their Friends farewell, deare friends (sayes one) as 
neare as my owne soule doth thy love lodge in my brest, 
with thought of the heart-burning Ravishments, that thy 
Heavenly speeches have wrought ; my melting soule is 
poured out at present with these words, both of them had 
their farther speach strangled from the depth of their in- 
ward dolor, with breast-breaking sobs, till leaning their 
heads each on others shoulders, they let fall the salt-drop- 
ping dews of vehement affection, striving to exceede one 
another, much like the departure of David and Jonathan : 
having a little eased their hearts with the still streames of 
Teares, they recovered speech againe. Ah ! my much 
honoured friend, hath Christ given thee so great a charge 
as to be Leader of his People into that far remote, and 
vast Wildernesse, I, oh, and alas thou must die there and 
never shall I see thy Face in the flesh againe, wert thou 
called to so great a taske as to passe the pretious Ocean, 
and hazard thy person in Battell against thousands of Ma- 
lignant Enemies there ? there were hopes of thy return 
with triumph, but now after two, three, or foure moneths 
spent with daily expectation of swallowing Waves, and 
cruell Pirates, you are to be Landed among barbarous 
Indians, famous for nothing but cruelty, where you are 
like to spend your days in a famishing condition for a 
long space ; Scarce had he uttered this, but presently 
hee lockes his friend fast in his armes, holding each other 
thus for some space of time, they weepe againe, But as 


Paul to his beloved flock : the other replies what doe you 
weeping and breaking my heart? I am now prest for the 
service of our Lord Christ, to re-build the most glorious 
Edifice of Mount Sion in a Wildernesse, and as John 
Baptist, I must cry prepare yee the way of the Lord, 
make his paths strait, for behold hee is comming againe, 
hee is comming to destroy Antichrist, and give the whore 
double to drinke the very dregs of his wrath. 

Then my deare friend unfold thy hands, for thou and I 
have much worke to doe, I and all Christian Soukliers 
the World throughout, then hand in hand they leade 
each other to the Sandy-banks of the brinish Ocean, 
when clenching their hands fast, they unloose not til in- 
forced to wipe their watery-eyes, whose constant streames 
forced a watery-path upon their Cheeks, which to hide 
from the eyes of others they shun society for a time, but 
being called by occasion, whose bauld back-part none 
can lay hold one ; They thrust in among the throng now 
ready to take Ship, where they beheld the like affections 
with their own among divers Relations, Husbands and 
Wives with mutuall consent are now purposed to part 
for a time 900 Leagues asunder, since some providence 
at present will not suffer them to goe together, they re- 
solve their tender affections shall not hinder this worke 
of Christ, the new Married and betrothed man, exempt 
by the Law of God from war, now will not claime their 
priviledge, but being constrained by the Love of Christ, 
lock up their naturall affections for a time, til! the Lord 
shall be pleased to give them a meeting in this Westerne 
World, sweetly mixing it with spiritual! love, in the 
rneane time many Fathers now take their yong Sam- 
uells, and give them to this service of Christ all their 
Lives. Brethren, Sisters, Unkles, Nephewes, Neeces, to- 
gether with all Kindred of bloud that binds the bowells 
of affection in a true Lovers knot, can now take their last 
farewell, each of other, although naturall affection will still 
claime her right, and manifest her selfe to bee in the body 
by looking out at the Windowes in a mournefull manner 
among this company, thus disposed doth many Reverend 
and godly Pastors of Christ present themselves, some in 
a Seamans Habit, and their scattered sheepe comming as 


a poore Convoy loftily take their leave of them as follow- 
eth, what doleful I dayes are these, when the best choise 
our Orthodox Ministers can make is to take up a perpetual! 
banishment from their native soile, together with their 
Wives and Children, wee their poore sheepe they may 
not feede, but by stoledred should they abide here. Lord 
Christ, here they are at thy command, they go, this is 
the doore thou hast opened upon our earnest request, 
and we hope it shall never be shut : For Englands sake 
they are going from England to pray without eeasing for 
England, O England ! thou shalt finde New England 
prayers prevailing with their God for thee, but now woe 
alas, what great hardship must these our indeared Pastors 
indure for a long season, with tiiese words they lift up 
their voyees and wept, adding many drops of salt liquor 
to the ebbing Ocean ; Then shaking hands they bid 
adue with much eordiall affection to all their Brethren, 
and Sisters in Christ, yet now the Scorne and Derision 
of those times, and for this their great enterprise counted 
as so many craekt-braines, but Christ will make all the 
Earth know the wisdome he hath indued them with, shall 
over-top all the humane policy in the World, as the se- 
quell wee hope will shew ; Thus much shall suffice in 
generall to speak of their peoples farewell they tooke from 
time to time of their Country and Friends. 

chap. xin. — Of the charges expended by this poore People, to injoy 
Christ in his purity of his Ordinances. 

And now they enter the Ships, should they have cast 
up what it would have cost to people New England be- 
fore hand, the most strongest of Faith amon°; them would 
certainly have staggered much, and very hardly have set 
saile. But behold and wonder at the admirable Acts of 
Christ, here it is cast up to thy hand, the passage of the 
persons that peopled New England cost ninety five thou- 
sand pounds, the Swine, Goates, Sheepe, Neate and 
Horse, cost to transport twelve thousand pound, besides 
the price they cost, getting food for all persons for the 
time till thev could bring the Woods to tillage amounted 
unto forty five thousand pounds ; Nayles, Glasse and 
other Iron-worke for their meeting-houses, and other 


dwelling houses before they could raise any meanesin the 
Country to purchase them, Eighteene thousand pounds, 
Amies, Powder, Bullet and Match, together with then- 
great Artillery, twenty two thousand pounds : the whole 
sum amounts unto one hundred ninety two thousand 
pound, beside that which the adventurers laid out in 
England, which was a small pittance compared with this, 
and indeed most of those that cast into this Banke were 
the chiefe Adventurers. Neither let any man thinke 
the sum above expressed did defray the whole charge of 
this Army, which amounts to above as much more, 
onely this sum lies still in banke, and the other they have 
had the income againe ; This therefore is chiefly pre- 
sented to satisfie such as thinke New England men have 
beene bad husbands in managing their Estates, assuredly 
here it lies in banke, put out to the greatest advantage 
that ever any hath beene for many hundred of yeares be- 
fore, and verily although in casting it up some hundreds 
may be miscounted (for the Author would not willingly 
exceede in any respect) but to. be sure Christ stands by 
and beholds every mite that (in the obedience of Faith) 
is cast into this Treasury : but what doe wee answering 
men ? the money is all Christs, and certainly bee will 
take it well that (his,) have so disposed of it to his ad- 
vantage ; by this meanes hee hath had a great income in 
England of late, Prayers, Teares and Praise, and some 
Reformation ; Scotland and Ireland have met with much 
of the profit of this Banke, Virginia, Bermodas and Bar- 
bados have had a taste, and France may suddenly meete 
with the like. Therefore repent you not, you that have 
cast in your Coyne, but tremble all you that with a penu- 
rious hand have not onely cast, in such as are taking out 
to hord it up in your Napkins, remember Ananias and 
Saphirah, how darest thou doe it in these dayes, when 
the Lord hath need of it ? Gentle Reader make use of 
this memorable Providence of Christ for his New Eng- 
land Churches, where had this poore people this great 
sum of money ? the mighty Princes of the Earth never 
opened their Coffers for them, and the generality of these 
men were meane and poore in the things of this life, but 
sure it is the work is done, let God have the glory, who 


hatli now given them food to the full, and some to spare 
for other Churches. 

chap. xiv. — Of the wonderful] preservation of Christ, in cnrryino- 
his People, Men, Women, Children, through the largest Ocean 
in the World. 

And now you have had a short survay of the charges 
}f their New England Vayages, see their progresse being 
safe aboard weighing Anker, and hoysting saile they be- 
:ooke them to the protection of the Lord on the wide 
Ocean, no sooner were they dispersed by reason of the 
tvidenesse of the Sea, but the Arrabella, (for so they called 
:he Eagle, which the company purchased in honour of 
:he Lady Arrabella, Wife to that godly Esquire, Izack 
Fohnson) espied foure Ships, as they supposed, in pursuit 
)f them, their suspition being the more augmented by 
•eason of a report (when they lay in harbor) of foure 
Dunkerk-men of war, who were said to lie waiting for 
:heir comming forth, at this sight they make preparation, 
iccording to their present condition, comforting one 
mother in the sweete mercies of Christ : the weaker sex 
)etooke them to the Ships hold, but the men one Decks 
^vaite in readinesse for the enemies approach. At whose 
jOurage many of the Seamen wonder, not knowing un- 
ler whose command these their passengers were, even 
ie who makes all his Souldiers bold as Lions. Yet was 
le not minded to make triall of his peoples valiantcy in 
ight at this time, for the ships comming up with them 
iroved to be their own Countrymen and friends, at 
vhich they greatly rejoyced, seeing the good hand of their 
jlod was upon them, and are further strengthened* in 
Faith to rely one Christ, for the future time against all 
Leakes, Stormes, Rockes, Sands, and all other wants a 
ong Sea-voyage procures, sustaining them with all meek- 
lesse and patience, yet sensible of the Lords frownes, 
tumbling their soules before him, and also rejoycing, in 
lis deliverances in taking the cup of Salvation, and pay- 
ng the tribute of thankfulnesse to the most hi^h, whose 
provident hand was diversly directed toward them, pur- 
posely to point out the great hardships they must under- 
*oe in this their Christian warfare, and withall to tell 


them, although their difficulties were many and mourn- 
full, jet their victories should be much more glorious 
and joj full, eminently eyed of the whole World, but 
now keeping their course so neere as the winds will suf- 
fer them, the billowes begin to grow lofty and rageing, 
and suddenly bringing them into the vale of death, cover- 
ing them with the formidable flouds, and dashing their 
bodies from side to side, hurling their unfixed goods 
from place to place at these unwonted workes. Many of 
these people amazed flnde such opposition in nature, 
that her principles grow feeble, and cannot digest her 
food, loathing all manner of meat, so that the vitall parts 
are hindered from co-operating with the Soule in spirituall 
duties, insomuch that both Men, Women, and Children 
are in a helplesse condition for present, and now is the 
time if ever of recounting this service they have, and are 
about to undertake for Christ ; but he, who is very sensi- 
ble of his peoples infirmities, rebukes the winds, and 
Seas for their sakes, and then the reverend and godly 
among them begin to exhort them in the name of the 
Lord, and from the Lord, being fitted with such w r ords 
as much incourrages the worke they are going about, 
many of their horses and other Cattell are cast over-board 
by the way, to the great disheartening of some, but Christ 
knew well how far his peoples hearts would be taken off 
the maine worke with these things. And therefore al- 
though he be very tender in providing outward necessa- 
ries for his, yet rather than this great worke (he intends) 
should be hindered, their Tables shall be spred but thinly 
in this wildernesse for a time. After the Lord had ex- 
ercised them thus severall ways, he sent Diseases to visit 
their Ships, that the desart Land they were now drawing 
near unto might not be deserted by them at first en- 
terance, which sure it would have been by many, had not 
the Lord prevented by a troublesom passage : At forty 
dayes end, or thereabout, they cast to sound the Seas 
depth, and find them sixty fadom, by which they deem 
the bankes of New found Land are near, where they be- 
ing provided with Cod-line and Hooke hale up some 
store of fish to their no small refreshing, and within 
some space of time after they approach the Cost of New 


England, where they are againe provided with Mackarell, 
and that which was their greater rejoycing, they discover 
Land, at sight thereof they blessed the Lord. 

But before the Author proceed any further in this Dis- 
course, take here a short survay of all the Voyages by 
Sea, in the transportation of these Armies of the great 
Jehova, for fifteene years space to the year 1643, about 
which time England began to indeavour after Reforma- 
tion, and the Souldiers of Christ were set at liberty to 
bide his battells at home, for whose assistance some of 
the chiefe worthies of Christ returned back : the number 
of Ships that transported passengers in this space of time, 
as is supposed is 298. Men, Women and Children 
passing over this wide Ocean, as near as at present can 
be gathered, is also supposed to be 21200. or thereabout. 

chap. xv. — An Exhortation to all People, Nations and Languages, to 
indeavour the advancing of the Kingdome of Christ in the purity 
of his Ordinances, seeing he hath done, such admirable Acts for 
th^se poore shrubs. 

And now all you whose affections are taken with 
wonderful matters (Attend) and you that thinke Christ 
hath forgotten his poore despised people (Behold) and all 
you that hopefully long for Christs appearing to confound 
Antichrist (Consider) and rejoyce all yee his Churches 
the World throughout, for the Lambe is preparing his 
Bride, and oh ! yee the antient Beloved of Christ, whom 
he of old led by the hand from Egypt to Canaan, through 
that great and terrible Wilderness©, looke here, behold 
him whom you have pierced, preparing to pierce your 
hearts with his Wonder-working Providence, and to 
provoke you by this little handfull of his people to looke 
on him, and mourne. Yet let no man think these few 
weake Wormes would restraine the wonderfull Workes 
of Christ, as onely to themselves, but the quite contrary, 
these but the Porch of his glorious building in hand, and 
if hee have shewed such admirable acts of his providence 
toward these, what will he doe when the whole Nation 
of English shall set upon like Reformation according to 
the direct Rule of his Word ? Assured confidence there 



is also for all Nations, from the undoubted promise of 
Christ himselfe. 

The Winter is past, the Raine is changed and gone, 
come out of the holes of the secret places, feare not be- I 
cause your number is but small, gather into Churches, 
and let Christ be your King, yee Presbytery, Lord it not 
over them or any Churches, but feed every one, that one 
flock over which Christ hath made you overseers, and ! 
yee people of Christ give your Presbytery double honours, 
that they with you may keepe the watch of the Lord over 
his Churches. Ye Dutch come out of your hods-podge, 
the great mingle mangle of Religion among you hath 
caused the Churches of Christ to increase so little with 
you, standing at a stay, like Corne among Weeds, Oh, 
yee French ! feare not the great swarmes of Locusts, nor 
the croking Frogs in your Land, Christ is reaching out 
the hand to you, look what hee hath done for these Eng- 
lish, and sure hee is no Respecter of Persons, &c. yee 
Germanes that have had such a bloudy bickering, Christ 
is now comming to your aide, then cast off your loose, 
and carelesse kinde of Reformation, gather into Churches, 
and keepe them pure, that Christ may delight to dwell 
among you: oh Italy ! the Seat and Center of the Beast, 
Christ will now pick out a People from among you for 
himselfe, see here what wonders hee workes in little time. 
Oh ! yee Spaniards and Portugalls, Christ will shew you 
the abominations of that beastly Whore, who hath made 
your Nations drunke with the Wine of her Fornication, 
dread not that cruell murtherous Inquisition, for Christ 
is now making Inquisition for them, and behold, here 
how hee hath rewarded them, who dealt cruelly with these 
his people. 

Finally, oh all ye nations of the World, behold great 
is the worke the glorious King of Heaven and Earth hath 
in hand ; beware of neglecting the call of Christ : and 
you the Seed of Israel both lesse and more, the ratling of 
your dead bones together is at hand, Sinewes, Flesh and 
Life : at the Word of Christ it comes Counsellors and 
Judges, you shall have as at the beginning to fight for 
you, as Gidion, Bareck, Jeptha, Samson, &c. then sure 
your deliverance shall be sudden and wonderfull, if Christ 


have done such great tilings for these low Shrubs, what 
will his most Admirable, Excellent and wonderfull Worke 
for you be, but as the Resurrection from the dead, when 
all the miraculous acts of his wonderfull power shewed 
upon Pharoah? for jour fore-Fathers deliverance shall 
be swallowed up with those far greater workes that Christ 
shall shew for jour deliverance upon the whole World, 
by Fiers and Bloud destrojing both Pope and Turke, 
when jou shall see great smoake and flames ascending up 
on high, of that great Whore, Revel. 14 & 11. verse, 
and the 17. & 16. verse, and the 18. the 8. and 18. 
vers. Then oh ! jou People of Israel gather togeth- 
er as one Man, and grow together as one Tree. Ezek. 
37. & 23. For Christ the great King of all the Earth 
is now going forth in his great Wrath and terrible 
Indignation to avenge the bloud of his Saints, Ezek. 
38 & 19. vers, and now for the great and bloud j Bat- 
tell of Gog and Magog, Rivers of bloud, and up to 
the Horse-bridles, even the bloud of those have drunke 
bloud so long, oh ! dreadfull daj, when the patience and 
long suffering of Christ, that hath lasted so manj hun- 
dreds of jeares shall end, what wonderous workes are 
now suddenlj to be wrought for the accomplishment of 
these things ! Then judge all jou (whom the Lord Christ 
hath given a discerning spirit) whether these poore New 
England People be not the fore runners of Christs Army, 
and the marvelous providences which jou shall now 
heare, be not the very Finger of God, and whether the 
Lord hath not sent this people to Preach in this Wilder- 
Hesse, and to proclaime to all Nations, the neere approach 
of the most wonderfull workes that ever the Sonnes of 
men saw. Will not jou believe that a Nation can be 
borne in a daj ? here is a worke come very neare it ; but 
if jou will believe jou shall see far greater things than 
these, and that in verj little time, and in the meane time 
looke on the following Discourse. 

chap. xvi. — Of the admirable Acts of Christs Providence, in delivering 
this his people in their Voyages by Sea, from many foule dangers. 

You have heard of about 198* Ships passing the peri- 
lous Ocean, of all which I heare of but one that ever 

* 298? 


miscarried ; jet shall you here see some of the great dan- j 
gers they were in the Ship, this Author came in a foggy i 
morning, anon by breake of day was ready to be steamed * ! 
by a Pirate, but being unready for fight they passed by ; 
others by a fog, have been delivered from farther chase \ 
of them, so that of this great number never did any Pirate 
make one shot at them, according to best intelligence. 
Their deliverance from leakes also hath been no lesse 
wonderfull, some so neare sinking, that the loving affec- 
tion betweene Husband and Wife, hath caused them to 
fould each other in their Armes, with Resolution to die 
together, and make the Sea their Grave, yet not ceasing 
to call on the Lord, their present helpe in time of need, 
who is minded to manifest his great care for this his 
people to all that shall come to hear thereof. And there- 
fore directs to meanes for freeing their ships, being now 
ready to founder in the depthlesse Ocean. And further,, 
as if these deliverances were too little to expresse the 
tender care Christ hath of his, to free them from all dan- 
gers, those that occupy their businesse in the deepe, and 
see the Wonders of God upon the waters, are taken with 
great astonishment to behold the extraordinary hand of 
the most High, in transportation of this people, in that 
their Ships all of a sudden are brought so neer the grounds 
and yet strike not their Pilots, missing ofttimes of their 
skill on those unwandered Coasts, but their Jehovah hee 
misses not to be an exact Pilot in the most thickest foggs 
and darkest nights, for thus it befell. 

The night newly breaking off her darknesse, and the 
day-light being clouded with a grosse vapor, as if nights 
Curtaines remained halfe shut, the Sea-men and Passen- 
gers standing on the Decks, suddenly fixed their eyes 
one a great Boat (as they deemed) and anon after they 
spied another, and after that another; but musing on the 
matter, they perceived themselves to be in great danger 
of many great Rocks, with much terror and affrightment ? 
they turned the Ship about, expecting every moment 
to be dasht in pieces against the Rocks. But he whose 
providence brought them in, Piloted them out againe ? 
without any danger, to their great Rejoycing. And as- 
suredly (so extraordinarily eminent and admirable to the 

* stormed ? 


eyes of many beholders, was the wonderful] work< - in 

magnifying the Rich grace towards this his people in pil- 
fering them) that many Masters of Ships left their Sea- 
im ploy men t for a time, and chose rather to Buffer the 
wants of a Wildernesse with the people of God, than to 
increase their Estates in a full-fed Land, and verily so ta- 
ken they were, that they fell down at Christs Feet, and 
w r ere placed by him as living stones, Elect and Pretious 
in his Churches ; also many other Seamen were brought 
to seeke after Christ in his Ordinances, by which it ap- 
peares some great worke, by some far surpassing all this, 
hath Christ ere long to doe, that hee thus fitteth Instru- 
ments. Then all you that occupy shipping prepare for 
his service, who will assuredly prove the best owner that 
ever you went to Sea for. 

Furthermore, the condition of those persons passed 
the Seas, in this long and restlesse Voyage (if rightly con- 
sidered) will more magnify the grace of Christ in this 
great Worke. First, such were many of them that never 
before had made any path through the Waters, no not 
by boat, neither so much as scene a Ship, others so 
tenderly brought up that they had little hope of their 
Lives continuance under such hardships, as so long a 
Voyage must needs inforce them to indure, others there 
were, whose Age did rather call for a quiet Couch to rest 
them on, than a pinching Cabbin in a Reeling Ship, 
others whose weake natures were so borne downe with 
Disease, that they could hardly craule up the Ships-side 
yet ventured their weake Vessells to this Westurne World. 
Here also might you see weakly Women, whose hearts 
have trembled to set foote in Boate, but now imboldened 
to venter through these tempestuous Seas with their 
yong Babes, whom they nurture up with their Breasts, 
while their bodies are tossed on the tumbling Waves : 
also others whose Wombes could not containe their fruit, 
being ready for the Worlds-light, travailed and brought 
forth upon this deptlesse Ocean in this long Voyage, 
lively and strong Children yet living, and like to prove 
succeeding Instruments in the Hands of Christ, lor fur- 
thering this worke ; among other Sea-borne Cotton, now 
a young student in a Colledge in Cambridge, being Son 


to that Famous and Renowned Teacher of Christ, M. 
John Cotton ; by all this and much more that might be 
said, for allmost every one jou discourse withall will 
tell you of some Remarkable Providence of God shewed 
toward them in this their Voyage, by which you may see 
the Worke of Christ is not to bee laid aside because of 

chap. xvii. — Of the first leading of these People of Christ, when the 
Civill Government was Established. 

But to goe on with the Story, the 12 of July * or 
thereabout 1630, these Souldiers of Christ first set foote 
one this Westerne end of the World ; where arriveing in 
safety, both Men, Women and Children. On the North 
side of Charles River, they landed neare a small Island, 
called Noddells Island, where one Mr. Samuel Mavereckf 
then living, a man of a very loving and curteous be- 
haviour, very ready to entertaine strangers, yet an enemy 
to the Reformation in hand, being strong for the Lordly 
Prelaticall power, one this Island, he had built a small 
Fort with the helpe of one Mr. David Tompson, J placing 
therein foure Murtherers to protect him from the Indians. 
About one mile distant upon the River ran a small creeke, 
taking its Name from Major Gen. Edward Gibbons, who 
dwelt there for some yeares after. One the South-side of 
the River one a point of Land called Blaxtons § point, 
planted Mr. William Blaxton,§ of whom we have formerly 
spoken. To the South-East of him, neare an Island called 
Tompsons Island lived some few Planters more. These 
persons were the first Planters of those parts, having some 
small Trading with the Indians for Beaver-Skins, which 
moved them to make their aboade in those parts, whom 
these first Troopes of Christs Army, found as fit helpes 
to further their worke. At their arrivall those small 
number of Christians gathered at Salem, greatly rejoycing 
and the more, because they saw so many that came chiefly 
for promoting the great Work of Christ in hand. The 
Lady Arrabella and some other godly Women aboad at 
Salem, but their Husbands continued at Charles Town, 
both for the settling the civill Government, and gathering 

* June — says Prince — and that J. mistakes. See N. E. Chronology, I. 
p. 208. Ed. 

f Maverick ? % Thomson ? § Blackstone ? 


another Church of Christ. The first Court was holden 
ahoard the Arrabella the 23 of August. When the 
much honoured John Wintrope* Esq. was chosen Gover- 
nour for the remainder of that yeare, 1630. Also the 
worthy Thomas Dudlyf Esq. was chosen Deputy Gover- 
nour, and Mr. Simon BrodestreetJ Secretary, the people 
after their long Voyage were many of them troubled 
with the Scurvy, and some of them died : the first 
station they tooke up was at Charles Towne, where they 
pitched some Tents of Cloath, other built them small 
Huts, in which they lodged their Wi<es and Children. 
The first beginning of this worke seemed very dolorous ; 
First for the death of that worthy personage Izaac John- 
son Esq. whom the Lord had indued with many pretious 
gifts, insomuch that he was had in high esteeme among 
all the people of God, and as a chiefe Pillar to support 
this new erected building. He very much rejoyced at 
his death, that the Lord had been pleased to keepe his 
eyes open so long, as to see one Church of Christ gath- 
ered before his death, at whose departure there was not 
onely many weeping eyes, but some fainting hearts, fear- 
ing the fall of the present worke. For future Remem- 
brance of him mind this Meeter. 

Izaac Johnson Esquire beloved of Christ and his people, and one oj 
the Magistrates of New England. 

What mov'd thee on the Seas upon such toyle with Lady-taking; 

Christs drawing love all strength's above, when way for his hee's 
Christ will have thee example be, honoured with's graces, yeilding 

His Churches aid, foundation laid, now new one Christ a building 
Thy Faith, Hope, Love, Joy, Meeknesse prove improved for thy Lord, 

As he to thee, to people be, in Government accord. 
Oh ! people why, doth Christ deny this worthies life to lengthen ? 

Christ onely trust, Johnsons turnd dust, and yet hee's crownd and 

The griefe of this people was further increased by the 
sore sicknesse which befell among them, so that almost 
in every Family Lamentation, Mourning, and woe was 
heard, and no fresh food to be had to cherish them, it 
would assuredly have moved the most lockt up affections 
to Teares no doubt, had they past from one Hut to anoth- 

* Winthrop ? t Dudley ? t BracUtreet } 


er, and beheld the piteous case these people were in, and 
that which added to their present distresse was the want 
of fresh water, for although the place did afford plenty, 
jet for present they could fmde but one Spring, and that 
not to be come at, but when the tide was downe, which 
caused many to passe over to the South-side of the River, 
where they afterward erected some other Townes, yet 
most admirable it was to see with what Christian courage 
many of these Souldiers of Christ carried it amidst all 
these calamities, and in October, the Governour Deputy 
and Assistants, held their second Court on the South-side 
of the River ; Where they then began to build, holding 
correspondency with Charles Towne, as one and the 

At this Court many of the first Planters came, and 
were made free, yet afterward none were admitted to this 
fellowship, or freedome, but such as were first joyned in 
fellowship with some of the Churches of Christ, their 
chiefest aime being bent to promote his worke altogether. 
The number of freemen this yeare was 110 or thereabout. 

chap. xvni. — Of the second Church of Christ, gathered at Charles 
Towne in the Mattachusets Bay, 1631.* 

And now the new-come Souldiers of Christ strengthen 
themselves in him, and gather a Church at Charles 
Towne, whose extent at present did reach to both sides 
of the River, and in very little time after was divided into 
two Churches, the Reverend and judicious Mr. John 
Wilson was called to be Pastor thereof, a Man full of 
Faith, Courage and Zeale, for the truth of Christ perse- 
cuted, and hunted after by the usurping Prelates (and 
forced for present to part from his indeared Wife) yet 
honoured by Christ, and made a powerfull instrument in 
his hands for the cutting downe of Error, and Schisme, 
as in the sequell of this History will appeare, in whose 
weaknesse Christs power hath appeared. 

* 1630? 


The Grave and Reverend Mr. John Wilson, now Potior of the Church 
of Christ at Soston * in New England. 

John Wilson will to Christs will submit, 

In Wildernesse, where thou hast Trialls found, 
Christ in new making did compose thee fit, 

And made thy Love zeale, for his truth abound. 
Then it's not Wilson, but Christ by him hath, 

Error cut down when it o'retopping stood, 
Thou then 'Gainst it didst shew an holy wrath ; 

Saving mens soules from this o're-flowing floud. 
They thee deprave, thy Ministrey dispise, 

By thy thick utterance seeke to call Men back, 
From hearing thee, but Christ for thee did rise. 

And turned the wheel-right over them to crack. 
Yea, caused thee with length of dayes to stand, 

Steadfast in's house in old Age fruit to bring, 
I and thy seed raise up by his command ; 

His Flock to feed, rejoyce my Muse and sing. 
That Christ doth dust regard so plentiously, 

Rich gifts to give, and heart to give him his, 
Estate and person thou spends liberally; 

Christ thee, and thine will crown with lasting Blisse. 

This, as the other Churches of Christ, began with a 
small number in a desolate and barren Wildernesse, 
which the Lord in his wonderfull mercy hath turned to 
fruitfull Fields. Wherefore behold the present condition 
of these Churches compared with their beginnings ; as 
they sowed in teares, so also have they Reaped in joy, 
and shall still so go on if plenty and liberty marre not 
their prosperity. This Towne of Charles is situated one 
the North-side of Charles River, from whence it tooke its 
Name, the River being about five or six fathom deepe ; 
Over against the Town many small Islands lieing to the 
Seaward of it, and Hills one either side. By which 
meanes it proves a very good harbor for Ships, which 
hath caused many Sea-men and Merchants to sit downe 
there, the forme of this Towne in the frontice piece 
thereof, is like the Head, Neck and Shoulders of a Man, 
onely the pleasant, and Navigable River of Mistick runs 
through the right shoulder thereof, and by its neare ap- 
proach to Charles River in one place makes a very nar- 
row neck, by which meanes the chiefe part of the Towne, 
whereon the most building stands, becomes a Peninsula : 

* Boston. 


it hath a large market-place neer the water side built 
round with Houses, comly and faire, forth of which there 
issues two streetes orderly built with some very faire 
Houses, beautified with pleasant Gardens and Orchards, 
the whole Towne consists in its extent of about 150 
dwelling Houses. Their meeting house for Sabbath 
assembly stands in the Market-place, very comly built 
and large, the Officers of this Church are at this day one 
Pastor, and one Teacher, one Ruling Elder, and three 
Deacons, the number of Soules are about 160, wonder- 
full it is to see that in so short a time such great altera- 
tions Christ should worke for these poore people of his : 
their Corne Land in Tillage in this Towne is about 1200 
Acres, their great Cattell are about 400 head, Sheepe 
neare upon 400, as for their horse you shall hear of 
them, Godwilling, when we come to speak of their 
Military Discipline. 

chap, xix.— Of the Third Church of Christ, gathered at Dorchester, 


The third Church of Christ gathered under this 
Government was at Dorchester, a frontire Town scitua- 
ted very pleasantly both for facing the Sea, and also its 
large extent into the main Land, well watered with two 
small Rivers ; neere about this Town inhabited some 
few ancient Traders, who were not of this select band, 
but came for other ends, as Morton of Merry-mount, 
who would faine have resisted this worke, but the provi- 
dent hand of Christ prevented. The forme of this Towne 
is almost like a Serpent turning her head to the North- 
ward ; over against Tompsons* Island, and the Castle, 
her body and wings being chiefly built on, are filled some- 
what thick of Houses, onely that one of her Wings is 
dipt, her Tayle being of such a large extent that shee can 
hardly draw it after her ; Her Houses for dwelling are 
about one hundred and forty, Orchards and Gardens full 
of Fruit-trees, plenty of Corne-Land, although much of 
it hath been long in tillage, yet hath it ordinarily good 
crops, the number of Trees are neare upon 1500. 
Cowes, and other Cattell of that kinde about 450. Thus 
hath the Lord been pleased to increase his poore dis- 

* Thomson's. 


persed people, whose number in this Flock are m an 
about 150, their first Pastor called to feede them was the 

Reverend, and godly Mr. Maveruck.* 

Maveruck* thou must put period to thy dayes, Mr. Wareham 

In Wildernesse thy Kindred thee provoke their°TeadL* 

To come, but Clirist doth thee for high ends Raise; Elders, you' 

Amongst his worthies to strike many a stroke. N, '. :i11 n a,i " "' 

mi 11 T T I T» l ,i i ,i when the < " ; 1 1 1 

1 hy godly Lite, and Doctrine speake, though thou ecktocot is 

In dust art laid, yet Christ by thee did feede planted. 

His scattered Lambes, they gathered are by you ; 
Christ calls thee home, but flock he leaves to feede. 

chap. xx. — Of the Fourth Church of Christ, gathered at Boston, 1631 

After some little space of time the Church of Christ 
at Charles Town, having their Sabbath assemblies often- 
est on the South side of the River, agreed to leave the 
people on that side to themselves, and to provide another 
Pastor for Charles Towne, which accordingly they did. 
So that the fourth Church of Christ issued out of Charles 
Towne, and was seated at Boston, being the Center 
Towne and Metropolis of this Wildernesse worke (but 
you must not imagine it to be a Metropolitan Church) 
invironed it is with the Brinish flouds, saving one small 
Istmos, which gives free accesse to the Neighbour 
Townes ; by Land on the South side, on the North-west, 
and North East, two constant Fairest are kept for daily 
traffique thereunto, the forme of this Towne is like a 
heart, naturally scituated for Fortifications, having two 
Hills on the frontiee part, thereof next the Sea, the one 
well fortified on the superfices thereof, with store of great 
Artillery well mounted, the other hath a very strong but- 
tery built of whole Timber, and filled with Earth, at the 
descent of the Hill in the extreme poynt thereof betwixt 
these two strong armes lies a large Cove or Bay, on 
which the chiefest part of this Town is built, over-topped 
with a third Hill, all three like over-topping Towers keepe 
a constant watch to fore-see the approach of forrein 
dangers, being furnished with a Beacon and lowd tab- 
ling Guns, to give notice by their redoubled eccho to all 
their Sister-townes, the chiefe Edifice of this City-like 
Towne is crowded on the Sea-bankes, and wharfed out 

* Maverick. t Connecticut. * Ferries ? 


with great industry and cost, the buildings beautifull and 
large, some fairely set forth with Brick, Tile, Stone and 
Slate, and orderly placed with comly streets, whose con- 
tinuall inlargement presages some sumptuous City. The 
wonder of this moderne Age, that a few yeares should 
bring forth such great matters by so meane a handfull, 
and they so far from being inriched by the spoiles of 
other Nations, that the states of many of them have beene 
spoiled by the Lordly Prelacy, whose Lands must as- 
suredly make Restitutions. But now behold the ad- 
mirable Acts of Christ, at this his peoples landing, the 
hideous Thickets in this place were such, that Wolves 
and Beares nurst up their young from the eyes of all be- 
holders, in those very places where the streets are full of 
Girles and Boys sporting up and downe, with a continued 
concourse of people. Good store of Shipping is here 
yearly built, and some very faire ones : both Tar and 
Mastes the Countrey affords from its own soile ; also 
store of Victuall both for their owne and Forreiners- 
ships, who resort hither for that end: this Town is the 
very Mart of the Land, French, Portugalls and Dutch, 
come hither for Traffique. 

chap. xxi. — Of the Fift Church of Christ gathered at Roxbury, 1631. 

The lift Church of Christ was gathered at Roxbury, 
scituated between Boston and Dorchester, being well 
watered with coole and pleasant Springs issuing forth the 
Rocky-hills, and with small Freshets, watering the Vallies 
of this fertill Towne, whose forme is somewhat like a 
wedge double pointed, entring betweene the two foure- 
named Townes, filled with a very laborious people, 
whose labours the Lord hath so blest, that in the roome 
of dismall Swampes and tearing Bushes, they have very 
goodly Fruit-trees, fruitfull Fields and Gardens, their 
Heard of Cowes, Oxen and other young Cattell of that 
kind about 350, and dwelling-houses neere upon 120. 
Their streetes are large, and some fay re Houses, yet have 
they built their House for Church-assembly, destitute 
and unbeautified with other buildings. The Church of 
Christ here is increased to about 120 persons, their first 
Teaching Elder called to Office is Mr. Eliot a yong 


man at his comming thither of a cheerful spirit, walking 
unblameable, of a godly conversation, apt to leach, as by 
his indefatigable paines both with his own Hock, and the 
poore Indians doth appeare, whose Language he learned 
purposely to helpe them to the knowledge of God in 
Christ, frequently Preaching in their Wigwams, and 
Catechizing their Children. 

Mr. Eliot Pastor of the Church of Christ at Roxbury, in New Eng- 
land, much honoured for his labours in the Lord. 

Great is lliy worke in Wilderness^, Oh man, 

Young Eliot necre twenty yeares thou hast, 
Tn westerne world with miccle toile thy span 

Spent well-neere out, and now thy gray hayrs gracest,* 
Are by thy Laud-Lord Christ, who makes use of thee 

To feede his flock, and heathen people teach 
In their own Language, God and Christ to see ; 

A Saviour their blind hearts could not reach, 
Poore naked Children come to learne Gods Mind 

Before thy face with reverend regard ; 
Blesse God for thee may these poore heathen blind, 

That from thy mouth Christs Gospell sweete have heard, 
Eliot thy Name is, through the wild woods spread, 

In Indians mouths frequent' s thy fame, for why? 
In sundry shapes the Devills made them dread ; 

And now the Lord makes them their Wigwams fly, 
Rejoyce in this, nay rather joy that thou, 

Amongst Christs Souldiers hast thy name sure set, 
Although small gaine on Earth accrew to you, 

Yet Christ to Crowne will thee to Heaven soone fet. 

chap. xxn. — Of the Sixth Church of Christ, gathered at Linn, 


The Sixth Church of Christ was gathered at Linn, 
betweene Salem and Charles Towne, her scituation is 
neere to a River, whose strong freshet at breaking up of 
Winter filleth all her Bankes, and with a furious Torrent 
ventes it selle into the Sea ; This Towne is furnished 
with mineralls of divers kinds, especially Iron and Lead, 
the forme of it is almost square, onely it takes two large a 
run into the Land-ward (as most Townes do) it is filled 
with about one hundred Houses for dwelling; Here is 
also an Iron Mill in constant use, but as for Lead they 
have tried but little yet. Their meeting-house being on 

* graced ? 


a level! Land undefended from the cold North west-wind ; 
And therefore inade with steps descending into the Earth, 
their streetes are straite and comly, yet but thin of Houses, 
the people mostly inclining to Husbandry, have built 
many Farmes Remote there, Cat tell exceedingly multi- 
plied, Goates which were in great esteeme at their first 
comming, are now almost quite banished, and now 
Horse, Kine and Sheep are most in request with them, 
the first feeder of this flock of Christ was Mr. Stephen 
Batchelor,* gray and aged, of whom as followeth : 

Through Ocean large Christ brought thee for to feede, 

His wandering flock vvith's word thou hast oft taught, 
Then teach thy selfe with others thou hast need ; 

Thy flowing fame unto low ehbe is brought. 
Faith and Obedience Christ full neare hath joyn'd, 

Then trust on Christ, and thou againe rnayst be 
Brought on thy race though now far cast behinde, 

Run to the end, and crowned thou shalt be. 

*chap. xxxm. — Of the seventh Church of Christ gathered at 
Water-To wne, 1631. 

The Seaventh Church of Christ, gathered out of this 
wandering Race of Jacobites was at Water-Towne, 
scituate upon one of the Branches of Charles River, a 
fruitful! plat, and of large extent, watered with many 
pleasant Springs, and small Rivulets, running like veines 
throughout her Body, which hath caused her inhabitants 
to scatter in such manner, that their Sabbath-Assemblies 
prove very thin, if the season favour not, and hath made 
this great (Towne consisting of 160 Families) to shew 
nothing delightfull to the eye in any place ; this Towne 
began by occasion of Sir Richard Saltingstall,f who at his 
arrival!, having some store of Cattell and servants, they 
wintered in those parts: this Town aboundes in several! 
sorts of Fish at their seasons, Basse, Shad, Alewifes, 
Frost fish, and Smelts ; their herd of Kine, and Cattell 
of that kinde are about 450, with some store of Sheepe 
and Goates, their Land in tillage is neere upon 1800 
Acres, this Church is increased to neer about 250 soules 
in Church-fellowship, their first Pastor was Mr. Phillips, 
*a man mighty in the Scriptures, and very dilligent to 

* Bachelor. t Saltonstall. 



search out the minde of Christ therein contained, of 

whom as followeth : 

The penury of Wildernesae shall not 

Daunt Phillips, and diswade Im undertaking 

Thia Voyage long: for Christ hath made him In 
With zeal Tor's truth, thy native soile (break* 
To follow Christ his bantusht flock to U>vi\c, 

With restless* tofle thus honour'd Christ hath thee, 
Then it maintaine though thou thy people neede ; 

Christ would thou shouldst of them aye honoured he. 
Till death thou hast been souldier in this War, 

Darke types the shaddows of good things now come, 
By thee have been unfoulded very far ; 

Cleer'd baptimes light from error broeh'd by sonic 
As by thy worke in Print appeares this day, 

Though thou thy days hast ended on this Earth, 
Yet still thou lives! in Name and Fame alway ; 

Christ thee poore dust doth crowne with lasting Mirth. 

[To be continued.] 


From a Discourse delivered to the Congregational Society in Wohurn, 

June 28, 1809, at the Dedication of their Meeting-house. "By Joseph 
Chickening, A. M. Minister of said Society. $vo. pp. 28. 

The early records of the town are remarkably full and 
correct, having been kept for about thirty years, by 
Capt. Edward Johnson, author of the " Wonder-work- 
ing Providence of Zion's Saviour, in New England.' 1 
Capt. Johnson has also, in his history, given a particular 
account of the earlv transactions of this church, to which 
himself belonged, using them as an example to show the 
general manner of proceeding in the other New England 
churches, p. 13 — 14. 

He emigrated from the county of Kent, in England, 
and was among the very early settlers in this country. 
He was one of the committee chosen by Charlestown 
church to erect a new church and town, now called 
Wohurn, drew a plan of the town, was chosen recorder, 
and continued to keep the records until within a little 
more than a year of his death. Capt. Johnson was also 


the first deputy from Woburn to the general court, and 
continued to represent the town, with little interruption, 
while he lived. He was appointed by the general court 
clerk of the writs at Woburn ; also one of a committee 
" to consider some orders, and to put the country in a 
posture of war; w also, about the time of the restoration 
of Charles If. one of the committee of twelve, " to con- 
sider, and debate such matter or thing of public concern- 
ment, touching our patent laws, privileges, and duty to 
his majesty, as they in their wisdom shall judge most 
expedient," &c. When a lieutenant, he was sent with 
captain Cook to Providence, to apprehend Gorton and 
his rebel band. 

As the evidence of captain Johnson's being author of 
the Wonder-working Providence has been considerd as 
resting on a tradition mentioned by Judge Sewall to 
Prince, and recorded by him in the introduction to his 
chronology, I mention the following circumstances to 
corroborate it. 1. The very particular account given of 
Woburn, proves the author to have been particularly in- 
terested, and probably an inhabitant of the town. 2. In 
the 190th page of the history, when enumerating the 
militia officers in the commonwealth, and eulogizing 
many of them, the author modestly omits his own name, 
saying, " the band of Woburn led by another Kentish 
captain." 3. There is such a similarity of sentiment 
and expression in some parts of this history concerning 
Woburn, and in the town records, as affords a presump- 
tion, that they were both written by the same hand. 

It appears that captain Johnson was not rich, as in a 
town tax, made just before his death, his part was less 
than the average part of all the inhabitants. He died 
April 23, 1672. Many of his descendants now live in. 
Woburn and Burlington, p. 24—5. 

m mass. 1 686. { M 


London : Printed for S. MalthllS, 1705. I2m0. [>[> xviii 251 . 

[MR. DUNTON was born at Graff ham, in Hunting 
doxishire, England, 14 May, 1659. He was .1 son of 
Rev. John D. rector of (i. and was a bookseller of 
some distinction. In 1685, his affairs requiring him 
to visit New England, he came to this country, where 
he spent about eight months. The following extracts 
are taken from that part of his " Life," which relates 
to America. u After failing in the business of hook- 
selling, he commenced author. After publishing " The 
Post-Angel Paper," he began t; The Athenian Mer- 
cury," which was a plan to answer questions, monthly, 
proposed by unknown persons ; and which was repub- 
lished by Bell, under the name of "The Athenian 
Oracle," 4 volumes, 8vo. In 1710, he published his 
Athenian ism, containing 600 treatises, in prose and 
verse, on all subjects. Though prolix, and sometimes 
obscure, as a writer, he yet possesses merit as a satirist, 
and some of this pieces will be read with pleasure. He 
died about 1725."] 

[P. 101, A. D. 1685.] THUS seated to the best advan- 
tage, at the Black Raven in Princes-Street, and as happy 
in my marriage as I could wish, there came an universal 
:lamp upon trade, occasioned by the defeat of Monmouth 
in the west ; and, at this time, having 5001. owing me in 
New England, 1 began to think it worth my while to make 
a voyage of it thither. I had no more; than just an oppor- 
tunity to hint the matter to my honoured father-in-law, 
Dr. Annesly, who was then going for Tun bridge ; but 
immediately after I writ him the following letter : 

London, Aug. 7, 1685. 

Much honoured sir, 
THIS comes to desire your free thoughts of my voyarro to New 
England. 1 have consulted several friends upon it, who think it the 
best method I can take. I have a great number of hooks that lie 
upon my hands, as the ''Continuation of the Morning Exercises, 1 
and others, very proper for that place; besides the 5001. which 

98 JOHN dunton's journal 

have there in debts ; however, I won't move without your advice and 
consent. My dear wife sends her duty t'ye, and we hope the waters 
agree well with you. 

I am your most affectionate 

and dutiful Son, J. D. 

To this letter I had the following answer : 

Dear Son, 

I received yours, but cannot give so particular and direct an an- 
swer as you may expect. You know I came hither presently after 
you mentioned this voyage, neither had t an opportunity to consider 
all the circumstances of it : I perceive those you have consulted, are 
for it; and they are better able to foresee what may probably be the 
issue of such an undertaking, than 1 amor can be. The infinitely 
wise God direct you, and give wisdom to those that advise you. I 
do as heartily desire your universal welfare, as any friend you have 
in the world, and therefore dare not say a word against it. My pre- 
sent opinion is, that you don't (if you resolve upon the voyage) carry 
loo great a cargo ; for I think 'twill be the less trouble t'ye to wish 
there, that you had brought more, than to fret at the want of a mar- 
ket, for too many. If you observe the course of the world, the most 
of all wordly trouble is through frustration of our expectation ; where 
we look not for much, we easily bear a disappointment. Moderation 
in all things, but in love to God and serious godliness, is highly 
commendable; covet earnestly the best gifts, and the best graces r 
and the best enjoyments, for which you shall never (while I live) 
want the earnest prayers of 

Your most affectionate father, 

S. A, 

Tunbridge, Aug. 10, 1685. 


I was very glad of any excuse, that would make my 
friends more indulgent to my rambling humour : but to 
make short of it, I got ready for my voyage with all pos- 
sible expedition, sent a great number of books down the 
river to Graves-End, and followed them soon after, having 
bid a very sorrowful farewell to dear Iris, and my other 

At Graves-End, I found the fleet riding that were bound 
for New England, and procured stowage for my venture 
in two ships, that Neptune might have two throws at me y 
to make my ruin compleat. While we staid at Graves- 
End, I met with my old neighbour, Mr. Thomas Mal- 
thus, who attended me to the ship, called the Susannah 


and Thomas, hound to Boston in New England, burthen 
150 tons, the master's name Thomas Jenner ; we had 
sixteen sailors and thirty passengers that weir flying for 
safety upon the rout at Sedge more. The wind proved 

contrary, and forced ns to lie a considerable time in the 
Downs. Novemher the second, we weighed out of tin 
Downs, and made the best of our way for the Beachy. 

And now, reader, 1 am just entering upon the Atlantick 
Ocean, which is large and wid(\ and which kept America 
concealed some thousand years from tin 1 rest of the 
known world. Our captain, Tho. Jenner, was a rough, 
covetous tarpaulin ; but he understood his business well 
enough, and had some smatterings of divinity in his 
head. He went to prayers very constantly, and took 
upon him to expound the Scriptures, which gave offence 
to several of the passengers. Tin; mat.; and the boat- 
swain were good sailors, and made it their only study to 
dispute with tempests. 

We had a long debate one day, in the captain's cabin, 
about a flame which fixed upon our main-mast, near the 
bigness of a candle, and the seamen called St. Hellin's 
fire ; one of them, they told me, is looked upon as an ill 
omen, but if two appear, they betoken safety and lair 
winds. These arc usually known by the names of Castor 
and Pollux ; among tin; Italians, by St. Nicholas and St. 
Hermes, and the Spaniards call 'em Corpus Santo's. 

We were above four months at sea, and at last reduced 
to that extremity that each of us had no more than the 
allowance of one bottle of water for four days. When 
we came within ken of Boston, we were all overjoyed, 
being just upon the point of starving; we put off to land 
in the long boat, and came ashoar near the Castle, which 
stands about a mile from Boston. The country appeared 
at first like a barren waste, but we found human it \ 
enough when we came amongst the inhabitants. We 
lodged the first ni^ht at the Castle, and next morning we 
found the way to Boston lay over the ice, which was hut 
cold comfort, after we had been stowed up so many 
months in a cabin. The air of New England was sharp- 
er than at London, which, with the temptation ol lush 
provisions, made me eat like a second Mariot of Gray?* 

100 JOHN dunton's journal 

Inn. The first person that welcomed me to Boston was 
Mr. Burroughs, formerly a hearer of my reverend father- 
in-law, Dr. Annesly. He heaped more civilities upon 
me than I can reckon up, offered to lend me monies, and 
made me his bedfellow, till I had provided lodgings. 

As I was rambling through Boston, I met both with 
lodgings, and a warehouse at Mr. Wilkin's, whose family 
deserves as well of me, as any in New England. Being 
thus fixed, I delivered the letters of recommendation I 
had brought with me from England. I had one from 
the Reverend Mr. Richard Stretton, to Mr. Staughton, 
the deputy governour : and Mr. Morton of Newington- 
Green, sent another to major Dudley, afterwards presi- 
dent, which, with other letters to the magistrates, had the 
good effect that 1 was made freeman of Boston, though 
very much obliged for it to the friendship of Mr. Bur- 
roughs. Immediately upon this captain Hutchinson 
gave, me an invitation to dine with the governour and the 
magistrates in the town hall. The entertainment was 
very rich and noble, and the governour, deputy-govern- 
our, major Dudley, and the other magistrates gave me a 
very friendly welcome to Boston, and kindly wished me 
success in my undertaking. 

A particular account of the government in .New Eng- 
land would be foreign to my Life and Err our s ; let it be 
enough to say, the laws in force here, against immorality 
and profaneness, are very severe. Witchcraft is punish- 
ed with death, as 'tis well known ; and theft with re- 
storing fourfold, if the criminal be sufficient. An En- 
glish woman, admitting some unlawful freedoms from 
an Indian, was forced twelve months to wear upon her 
right arm an Indian, cut in red cloath. 

He that trades with the inhabitants of Boston, should 
be well furnished with a Grecian faith ; he may get 
promises enough, but their payments come late. How- 
ever, under all the disadvantages of that kind, I was 
now resolved to run the risk of it, and in order to pro- 
mote the sale, I made a visit to the Reverend Mr. In- 
crease Mather, the metropolitan clergyman of that coun- 
try, and rector of Harvard College. He is master of a 
great stock of learning, and a very eminent divine. His 

in massacih ibi rs, 1686. 101 

son, the Reverend Mr. Cotton Mather, was then upon 
finishing his Magnalia Christi Americana, which baa 
lately been pubHshed here in England. There is 
abundance of freedom and familiarity, in the humour of 
this gentleman; his conversation and his writings arc 
living evidences that he has read much, but there ore 
many that won't allow him the prudence to make a Bea- 
sonahlc use of it. His library is very large and nume- 
rous, but had his books been fewer when he writ his 
history, 'twould have pleased us better. 

I was next to wait upon the Reverend Mr. Willard, 
minister of the South-Meeting in Boston ; he is well 
furnished with learning and solid notion, has a natural 
fluency of speech, and can say what ho pleases. After- 
wards I went to visit the, Reverend Mr. Allen, he is 
very humble and very rich, and can be generous enough, 
when the humour is upon him. His son was an emi- 
nent minister here in England, and deceased at North- 
ampton. Mr. [Joshua] Moody was assistant to Mr. 
Allen, and well known by his practical writings. Leav- 
ing Mr. Allen's house, I went next to visit Mr. John and 
Mr. Thomas Baily. These two are popular preachers, 
and very generous to strangers ; 1 heard Mr. John 
upon these words, — Looking unto Jems, and I thought 
he spake like an angel. 'They express a more than ordi- 
nary kindness to Mr. Wilkins, my landlord, and (being 
persecuted in Limerick for their nonconformity) came 
over with him from Ireland. Reader, I might he huge 
in their character ; but when I tell you they are true pic- 
tures of Dr. Annesly (whom they count a second St. 
Paul) 'tis as high as I need go. 

The sun being now gone to bed (for though I was up 
before him, he got to his lodging first) I hid good night 
to these two brothers, who gave me a hearty welcome to 
Boston, and assured me of all the service that lay in their 

Having first paid my visits to the clergy of Boston, 
and given a character of them, pray give me leave to ask 
my brethren the booksellers how they do, and that shall 
be all. For though I know they love to be reapected 
yet at the same time I am satisfied, that I \n as weh om^ 

102 john dunton's journal 

to them as sour ale in summer, for they look upon my 
gain to be their loss, and do make good the truth of that 
old proverb, that interest will not lie ; but I must begin 
my addresses to them. 

Mr. [John] Usher, jour humble servant. This tra- 
der makes the best figure in Boston ; he is very rich, 
adventures much to sea; but has got his estate by book- 
selling; he proposed to me the buying my whole ven- 
ture, but would not agree to my terms, and so we parted 
with a great deal of seeming respect. 

Mr. Philips, my old correspondent ! — 'Tis reason 1 
should make you the next visit. He treated me with a 
noble dinner, and (if I may trust my eyes) is blest with 
a pretty obliging wife ; I'll say that for Sam (after 
dealing with him for some hundred pounds) he is very 
just, and (as an -effect of that) very thriving. I shall add 
to his character, that he is young and witty, and the most 
beautiful man in the town of Boston. 

But leaving Philips, I rambled next to visit Minheer 
Brunning, he is a Dutch bookseller from Holland, scru- 
pulously just, plain in his clothes, and if we will believe 
the printers in Boston (who are notable criticks in such 
cases) a most, excellent paymaster. Brunning is versed 
in the knowledge of all sorts of books, and may well be 
styled a complete bookseller. He never decries a book, 
because 'tis not of his own printing; there are some men 
that will run down the most elaborate pieces, only because 
they had none of their midwifery to bring them into publick 
view, and yet shall give the greatest encomium to the most 
nauseous trash, when they had the hap to be concerned in 
it. But Brunning was none of these ; for he would pro- 
mote a good book whoever printed it ; and I found him a 
man of that great interest, that I made him my partner in 
printing Mr. Mather's sermon, preached at the execution 
of Morgan, who was the only person executed in that 
country for near seven years. From the Dutch, 1 went 
to the Scotch bookseller, one Duncan Cambel, he is very 
industrious, dresses all-a-mode, and I am told, a young 
lady of a great fortune is fallen in love with him. 

Having visited all the booksellers, I will next give an 
account of what acquaintance I had in Boston. I shall 


begin with Mr. Willy, who fled thither on the account of 
conscience, and (is brother-in-law to the Reverend Mr. 
Baily) he is a man of a large heart, one who, in relieving 

others' wants, considers not so much his own ability, as 
their necessity : this Monmouth's forlorn fugitives ex- 
perienced often, to whom he was the common refuge. 
The next I shall mention is Mr. White, a merchant, who 
by trading has clasped islands to the continent, and tacked 
oik? country to another; his knowledge, both of men 

and things, is universal. Tin? next was Mr. Green, a 

printer; I contracted a great friendship with this man ; 
to name his trade, will convince the world he was a man 
of good sense and understanding; he was so facetious 
and obliging in his conversation, that I took a great de- 
light in his company, and made use of his house to while 
away my melancholy hours. Another of my acquaint* 
ance was Captain Gery, a man as eminent for his love to 
his country, as Junius Brutus and the famous Scacvola 

among the Romans. Another of 'em was George 

Monk, a person so remarkable, that had I not been ac- 
quainted with him, it would be a ban] matter to make 
any New England man believe that I had been in Boston ; 
there was no house in Boston more noted than George 
Monk's, or where a man might meet with better enter- 
tainment ; he was so much the life and spirit of the 
guests that came to his house 1 , that it was almost impos- 
sible not to be cheerful in his company. Another was 
captain Townsend, a gentleman very courteous and 
affable in his conversation. 

I might here ramble to Mr. Jollyff, justice Lines. 
Macarty, and some others ; but least 1 tire von quite, I 
will next come to a distinct head, which shall be those 
of mv countrymen that have rambled into this country 
as well as myself, such of them, I mean, as I came ac- 
quainted with in the course of my business: And these 
were, first, Mr. Mortimer, who came from Ireland; he 
was an accomplished merchant, a person oi great mod- 
esty, and could answer the most abstruse? points in alge- 
bra, navigation, dialling, &c. 

The next to these was Mr. King: love was the cause 
of this gentleman's long ramble hither; sure his mistress 

104 JOHN dunton's journal 

was made of stone, for King had a voice would have 
charmed the spheres, he sang, All Hail to the Myrtle 
Shades, with a matchless grace, and might he called an 
accomplished person. 

Another acquaintance was Mr. York, he had his soft 
minutes as well as other men, and when he unbent the 
bow, for he was very industrious, he treated the fair sex 
with so much courtship and address, as if loveing had 
been all his trade. 

The next I mention shall be Andrew Thorncomb, 
bookseller from London, his company was coveted by 
the best gentlemen in Boston, nor is he less acceptable 
to the fair sex; for he has something in him so extreme- 
ly charming, as makes them very fond of his company. 
However, he is a vertuous person, and deserves all the 
respect they shewed him. He visited me often in Bos- 
ton, and I here declare I've a particular kindness for 

Another acquaintance was Mr. Heath ; were I to write 
the character of a pious merchant, I would as soon take 
Heath for the exemplar, as any man I know. There 
are two things remarkable in him, one is, that he never 
warrants any ware for good, but what is so indeed ; and the 
other, that he makes no advantage of his chapman's igno- 
rance, where the conscience of the seller is all the skill of 
the buyer ; he doth not then so much ask as order what 
he must pay ; and in such cases he ought to be very 
scrupulous. Bishop Latimer being told he was cozened 
in buying a knife, No, replied Latimer, he cozened not 
me, but his own conscience. This person was my daily 
visiter, and brought me acquainted with one Gore, of 
New York, with whom I traded considerably. 

Mr. Watson shall be the next ; formerly a merchant in 
London, but not thriving there, he left the exchange for 
Westminster Hall, and in Boston has become as dexter- 
ous at splitting of causes, as if he had been bred to it. 
He is full of fancy and knows the quirks of the law ; but 
to do him justice, he proves as honest as the best lawyer 
of 'em all. 

Another acquaintance is Mr. Mason. He was a blunt, 
honest Christian ; he will speak his mind, take it how 
you please. 


The next I'll mention shall be Mr. Malinson, he is a 

stiff Independent, (which is rare in a fencer,) and so great 
a eritiek, that he would even find a knot in a bullrush. 
Malinson was one of those unfortunate gentlemen thai 
engaged with Monmouth, and I'm told this day, at the 
Royal Exchange, he now teaches young gentlemen to 
fence in Boston. 

1 was so happy as to find particular friends in Boston, 
whose characters I shall next give you, and I'll begin 
with Dr. Oakes. — He is an eminent physitian, and a reli- 
gious man ; at his first coming to a patient he perswades 
him to put his trust in God, the fountain of health ; the 
want of this hath caused the bad success of most physi- 
tian s, for they that won't acknowledge God in all their 
applications, God won't acknowledge them in that success 
which they might otherwise expect. He was a great dis- 
senter whilst he lived in London, and even in New England 
retains the piety of the first planters ; I was recommend- 
ed to him by Mr. Gilson, as also by a relation of his in 
RatclifT, and I must own, the doctor gave me a generous 
welcome to Boston. — From Dr. Oakes I pass to my 
good friend Dr. Bullivant, formerly my fellow citizen in 
London ; I must consider him both as a gentleman and a 
physitian. As a gentleman, he came of a noble family, 
but his good qualities exceeded his birth ; he is a great 
master of the English tongue, and the Northampton peo- 
ple find him a universal scholar ; his knowledge of the 
laws fitted him for the office of attorney general, which 
was conferred upon him on the revolution in Boston ; it 
is true he sought it not, but New England knew his 
worth, and even forced him to accept of it. 

While he held this place of attorney general, he was so 
far from pushing things to that extremity as some hot 
spirits would have had him, that he was for accommodat- 
ing things, and making peace. His eloquence is admira- 
ble, he never speaks but 'tis a sentence, and no man 
ever clothed his thoughts in better words. 

I shall next consider him as a physitian, his skill in 
pharmacy was such as had no equal in Boston, nor per- 
haps Northampton, he is as intimate with Galen and Hip- 
pocrates, at least with their works, as ever I was with 


106 john dunton's journal 

Iris. He is so conversant with the great variety of nature, 
that not a drug or simple escapes his knowledge, so that 
he never practises new experiments upon his patients, 
except it be in desperate cases, where death must be ex- 
pelled by death. This also is praiseworthy in him, that 
to the poor, he always prescribes cheap, but wholesome 
medicines, not curing them of a consumption in their 
bodies, and sending it into their purses, nor yet directing 
them to the East Indies to look for drugs, when they 
may have far better out of their gardens. 

1 proceed in the next place to Mr. Gouge, a 
linen draper from London, son to the charitable 
divine of that name. He is owner of a deal of 
wit, his brain is a quiver of smart jests. He pre- 
tends to live a batchellor, but is no enemy to a pretty 
woman. He's high church, yet so great a lover of his 
father's christian directions, that he bought two hundred 
of me to give away, that so he might, as he used to say, 
make the Bostonians godly. And this was a noted qual- 
ity in him, that he would always tell the truth ; which is 
a practice so uncommon in New England, that I could 
not but value his friendship. 

But 1 must not forget Mr. Tryon. Mr. Tryon is a 
man of a sweet temper, an excellent husband, and very 
sincere in his dealings. — The next I shall mention is 
Mr. Barnes, he was a clerk to the government, a match- 
less accomptant, a great musitian, bookish to a proverb, 
very generous to strangers, and at our first interview, 
declared a particular friendship to me. 

About this time arrived the Rose frigot from England, 
with a new charter, procured by one Randal, which gave 
major Dudley the title of president, and the magistrates 
were now changed into counsellors. Parson Ratcliffe 
came over with the charter, and on Lord's days read the 
Common Prayer in his surplice, and preached in the 
Town House. 

Mr. Ratcliffe was an eminent preacher, and his sermons 
were useful and well dressed ; I was once or twice to 
hear him, and it was noised about that Dr. Annesly's 
son-in-law was turned apostate. But I could easily for- 
give 'em, in regard the common prayer and the surplice 
were religious novelties in New England, 

1686. 107 

To return to my own affairs, the booksellers in Boston 
perceived I was very diligent to bring custom to my 

warehouse, and thereupon began to make terms with me 
for my whole venture, but that would not do lor me, he- 
cause there's the loss of thirty per cent, in the return of 
their money. The books I had with me were most of 'cm 
practical, and well suited to the genius of New England, 
so that, my warehouse being opened, they began to move 
apace. Palmer, my apprentice, was very honest and 
diligent, took the whole charge of my business off mv 
hands, and left me to ramble and divert myself as m\ 
fancy would suggest. 

But I must make a transition to arms. It is their cus- 
tom here for all that can bear arms, to go out on a training 
day ; but I thought a pike was best for a young soldier, 
and so I carried a pike. And between you and I, reader, 
there was another reason for it too, and that was, I knew 
not how to shoot off a musquet, but 'twas the first time 
I ever was in arms. Being come into the field, the cap- 
tain called us all into our close order, in order to go to 
prayer, and then prayed himself. And when our exercise 
was done, the captain likewise concluded with prayer. 
I have read that Gustavus Adolphus, the warlike king 
of Sweden, would before the beginning of a battle kneel 
down devoutly, at the head of his army, and pray to God, 
the giver of victory, to give them success against their 
enemies, which commonly was the event ; and that he 
was as careful also to return thanks to God for the vic- 
tory. But solemn prayer in the field upon a day of train- 
ing, I never knew but in New England, where it seems 
it is a common custom. About three of the clock, 
both our exercise and prayers being over, we had a verj 
noble dinner, to which all the clergy were invited. 

Some time after 1 took a trip to Newtown, called Cam- 
bridge, in regard, it is the seat of Harvard College. This 
university took its rise from very small beginnings. 
There were four hundred pounds raised for that purpose. 
in a court held at Boston, Sept. 8, 1636. But that which 
put new life into this design about eight years alter. 
was the gift of seven hundred seventy-nine pounds, sev- 
enteen shillings, and two pence, in the last will ot the 

108 JOHN dunton's journal 

Rev. Mr. John Harvard, after whom it has the name of 
Harvard College. 

The library of this College is very considerable, being 
well furnished both with books, and mathematical instru- 
ments. Sir Kenelm Digby, Sir John Maynard, Ml 
Baxter, and Mr. Joseph Hill, were benefactors to it ; and 
the Rev. Mr. Theophilus Gale, left his whole library for 
that use. 

Mr. Cotton, one of the fellows of the College, gave me 
the invitation to Cambridge, by whose means I sold sev- 
eral books to the students there. 

My next ramble was to Roxbury, in order to visit the 
Rev. Mr. Eliot, the great apostle of the Indians. He 
was pleased to receive me with abundance of respect,, 
and inquired very kindly after Dr. Annesly, my father- 
in-law, and then broke out with a world of seeming satis- 
faction ; Is my brother Annesly yet alive ? Is he yet con- 
verting souls to God ? Blessed be God for this informa- 
tion before I die. He presented me with twelve Indian 
Bibles, and desired me to bring one of them over to Dr. 
Annesly, as also with twelve speeches of converted In- 
dians which himself had published. 

Summer was now well advanced, however my time 
did not lie much upon my hands, for upon my return 
from Roxbury, I found several of my friends making 
ready for a journey to Natick. Every summer there's 
an Indian Lecture preached there, which has been kept 
on foot ever since the Rev. Mr. Elliot gathered a church 
there of the converted natives. 

I was glad of the opportunity to acquaint myself with 
the manners, religion, and government of the Indians. 
When we were setting forward, I was forced, out of 
civility and gratitude, to take madam Brick behind me 
on horseback ; it is true, she was the flower of Boston, 
but in this case proved no more than a beautiful sort of 
luggage to me. 

We had about twenty miles to Natick, where the best 
accommodations we could meet with, were very coarse. 
We ty'd up our horses in two old barns, that were almost 
laid in ruines, however we cou'd discern where they had 
stood formerly. But there was no place where w r e cou'd 


bestow ourselves, unless, upon the greenswerd, till the 
lecture began. The wigwams, or Indian houses, arc no 
more than so many tents, and their way of building 'em 
is this ; they first take long poles, and make 'em fast in 
the ground, and then cover them with mats on the nut- 
side, which they tye to the poles. Their fire-place is 
made in the middle, and they leave a little hole 4 upon 
the top uncovered with the mats, which serves for a 
chimney. Their doors are usually two, and made 
opposite to each other, which they open or shut accord- 
ing as the wind sits, and these are either made of mats, 
or of the barks of trees. While we were making such 
discoveries as these, we were informed that the sachim, 
or the Indian king, and his queen, were there. The 
place, 'tis true, did not look like the royal residence, how- 
ever we cou'd easily believe the report, and went imme- 
diately to visit their king and queen ; and here my 
courage did not fail, for I stept up and kiss'd the Indian 
queen ; making her two very low bows, which she re- 
turn'd very civilly. The sachim was very tall and well 
limb'd, but had no beard, and a sort of a horse face. The 
queen was well shap'd, and her features might pass pretty 
well, she had eyes as black as jet, and teeth as white as 
ivory ; her hair was very black and long, and she was 
considerably up in years ; her dress peculiar, she had 
sleeves of moose-skin, very finely dress'd, and drawn 
with lines of various colors, in asiatick work, and her 
buskins were of the same sort ; her mantle was of fine 
blew cloath, but very short, and ty'd about her shoul- 
ders, and at the middle with a zone, curiously wrought 
with white and blew beads into pretty figures ; her brace- 
lets and her necklace were of the same sort of beads, and 
she had a little tablet upon her breast, very finely deck'd 
with jewels and precious stones; her hair was comb'd 
back and ty'd up with a border which was neatly work'd 
both with gold and silver. 

The Indian government is monarchical, but when the 
dominions stretch farther than the royal sceptre can well 
reach, they're govern'd by a viceroy, who is almost as ab- 
solute as the prince himself. In matters of difficulty the 
sachim sits in counsel with his nobles, where their atlairs 

110 john dunton's journal 

are sedately weighed, and the prince has a negative voice. 
Their crown descends always upon the eldest son, and 
the females don't govern, unless the male line be extinct. 
The sachim has under him some subordinate governours, 
or protectors, which supply the places of magistrates and 
judges ; and the common subjects fly to these, when 
there's any injustice done 'em. 

Their nobles are such as are descended from the 
blood royal ; or those to whom the sachim has given 
titles, with some part of his own dominions ; otherwise 
they are such as have been esteemed so, down a long 
tract of time. 

Their yeomen are those that han't the least signature 
of nobility upon 'em, and yet are esteemed to have a nat- 
ural right to protection, so long as they keep 'emselves 
loyal to their prince, and live within his dominions ; 
they're distinguished by two names, one signifies sub- 
jection, and the other a tiller of the land. 

They've another class of subjects, which are reckoned 
something inferiour to the yeomen, and they're either 
strangers, or the sons of foreigners, whose progenitors 
came among 'em some time ago ; for though they keep 
no records, yet the tradition that goes current among 'em, 
is esteemed to be authentick enough. These foreigners 
are abridg'd of some rights and privileges that belong to 
common subjects, and are not suffered so much as to at- 
tend the prince in hunting, &,c. unless they're invited. 

The Indian sachims have no other revenue, than pres- 
ents, which are orTer'd at the pleasure of the subject, and 
these presents are not looked upon as a matter of mere 
kindness, but as they proceed from a principle of loyalty, 
and obligation, upon the account of protection, &x. 

Sea wrecks, and the skins of all beasts that, are slain in 
water, are royalties that belong to the crown. And the 
sachim has no necessity for more ; in regard, if he makes 
war, both his subjects and their estates lye entirely at his 
own disposal ; however, this piece of tyranny is carried on 
by consent, for the sachim don't engage himself in war 
without the consent of his subjects ; and they are usually 
much averse to it, unless it be upon the last extremity. 

1686. HI 

There's a sort of grandure, though it don't swell to ex- 
cess in all the Indian courts. The royal families and 
their attendants, are well clothed with the skins of moos, 
deer, beaver, bear, &c. and their tables are richl) fur- 
nished with flesh, fish, roots, fruits, brans, and berries, 
which their subjects almost load 'em with, according as 
they come in season. 

'Tis usual in their punishments, for the sachim to whip 
or put to death with his own hand, unless a mutiny be 
suspected, and then the sachim sends one of his chiefest 
warriors, as a private executioner to do the business in 
secret ; but the subjects are wonderfully resign'd to the 
pleasure of their prince in such cases. 

But to return to the thread of history : When we had 
made our visit to the Indian king and queen, we went to 
the meeting place where the lecture was preached by 
Mr. Gookins, upon that subject, " It is appointed unto 
men once to die ; and after that, the judgment." — The 
doctrine, I remember, was this, that death is the unavoid- 
able lot of all men. Under this proposition he show'd 
'em the necessity of dying, and the vast consequences 
that must folknv upon it. The application was full of 
perswasions to 'em to make a speedy preparation for death, 
which was supported with the very different motives of 
happiness or misery in the life to come. The poor In- 
dians were very much affected, and seem'd to hang upon 
his lips. 

The reader may expect I should here give him some 
account of the religion of the unconverted Indians ; and 
I shall make it as short as I can. The native Indians 
that are not yet made proselites to the christian faith, are 
possessed with very odd notions about the Gods, for thej 
believe a plurality of 'em, that made the world, and 
maintain their propriety over the several nations of it to 
this day. But among the rest of the Gods, there's one, 
they say, towards the southwest regions of the heavens, 
that, makes the most considerable figure, and commands 
in chief. The devil appeared frequently to "em, at their 
seasons of worship, and gave them advice about their 
circumstances and affairs. When they meet with any 
considerable success, either in hunting or fishing, the; 

112 JOHN dunton's journal 

acknowledge God to be the author of it. Upon any dis- 
aster, they immediately cry out, God was angry and did 
it. They make the southwest God to be the great arbiter 
of souls, from whom they say, their corn and their beans 
come. They have also, their eastern, western, and their 
southern Gods, to whom they pay homage and religious 
worship. And besides these, they have Gods both for 
their women and their children. I was once with an In- 
dian youth that lay a dying, and he called with abundance 
of affection and concern upon Muckquachuckquard ; 
and those about him suppos'd this God had appear'd to 
him, and promis'd him assistance. 

They pay divine homage also to several of the creatures, 
in which they believe some deity to be lodg'd. 

When they meet with any excellency in men or wo- 
men, or any bruit beasts, they immediately cry, Manitoo, 
it is a God ! And when they talk familiarly among them- 
selves, concerning the English buildings, ships, &c. they 
commonly conclude with Manitoowock, they are Gods. 

I was once with an English minister who understood 
their language, and there were a great number of natives 
gathered to hear him. The minister put this question to 
'em, Who made the world ? To this some of them re- 
ply'd, Tatta, 1 can't tell ; others said, Manitoowock, the 
Gods. This gave him occasion to argue with them about 
the existence of one GOD, and afterwards he ran over the 
history of creation, and the six days work, and gave them 
the same account of it which Moses had done. They ap- 
peared well satisfied with the gentleman's discourse, and 
when he had finished, there was an Indian that addressed 
himself to the sachim who was present, and told him that 
souls went up to heaven or down to hell, tho' our 
fathers have inform'd us that they go to the south-west. 
The sachim ask'd him, whether he had seen some souls 
go either to heaven or hell ? The Indian answer'd, The 
minister han't seen 'em, and yet he affirms it. Perhaps 
so, reply'd the sachim, but he has books and writings, 
and one which God himself made, which treats concern- 
ing man's souls ; and we have none, you know, but must 
take all upon trust. We left 'em discoursing matters 
over thus among themselves. 

IN MA9SACH1 -II i 9, 1686. I |3 

These Indians have certain priests among them vvhoin 
they call Taupowauog, and these make speeches to 'em, 
concerning religion, and peace, and war, and indeed con- 
cerning all the occurrences of common life. The Balary 

of their priests depends upon feasts and dances which 
are very frequent, and upon every such occasion you 
mav see forty, fifty, and sometimes an hundred of their 
Taupowauogs met together in expectation of gifts; and 
as they receive 'em. they go forth, and hollow thrice, for 
the health and prosperity of the benefactor. 

These priests live very peacefully, and don't approve 
of persecution for the cause of religion, which has made 
very much for the settlement and the happiness both of 
English and Dutch. Their notions about future happiness 
are very gross; and their heaven is much of the same 
nature with that which Mahomet has fancy'd for his fol- 
lowers. They believe and teach the immortality of the 
soul, and say that upon the death of a good man, his 
mind goes to the house of Kautantow it, where the whole 
collection of holy souls shall revel out an eternity in the 
pleasures of sense; but on the contrary, the minds of 
had men shall wander for ever, in a restless condition. 

As to the creation of mankind, they hold that kautan- 
towit first shap'd a man and a woman out of a stone, hut 
his performance did not please him, and thereupon he 
dash'd 'em to pieces. But making a second experi- 
ment upon a tree, he succeeded so well, in forming his 
new couple, that he let 'em alone, and they became the 
fountains of mankind. But how life was procur'd for 
'em, and how the metamorphosis was performed, they 
have nothing to say. When these priests make a visit to 
a sick person, they threaten and conjure out the sickness, 
for they conceive there arc many little deities in the body 
of a man, as in his heart, his lungs, and his pulse : and 
when any of these divine energies does but please to 
rouse itself, it can easily expel the distemper from the 
part oyer which it presides. But when tin; part affected 
is so much out of order and indispos'd, that, it becomes 
unfit for the habitation of the Deity, 'tis thereupon for- 

114 JOHN dunton's journal 

saken, the distemper prevails, and death follows of nece 

The religion of these unconverted Indians is scarce 
more heathenish than their way of living. The mer 
make the poor squaws, their wives, do all the drudgerj 
for 'em ; as labour in the field, plant, dress corn, and) 
build up their wigwams, whilst they live at ease them 
selves, and undertake no business, unless it be that oi 
hunting, and they go forth in great numbers, and drive! 
all before 'em. They usually stay upon one place till 
they've destroy 'd all the wood that's near 'em and then 
they remove their wigwams. They reckon fuel to be 
one considerable part of their subsistance, and think thai- 
other nations are in the same condition with 'emselves i 
for they say the English came over to 'em because thev 
wanted fuel. Their division of time is by sleeps, moons, 
and winters ; and by lying abroad in the open air, they've 
made some observations upon the motions of the stars 

These native Indians were lying in this condition when 
the Rev. Mr. Eliot began to endeavour their conversion, 
and in a little time after he had learn'd their language, 
and translated the Bible into their tongue, there were 
great numbers of 'em, especially about Natick, that were 
distinguish'd by the name of praying Indians ; and I 
have been an eye-witness of the wonderful success which 
the gospel of peace has amongst 'em. Their manners 
became less barbarous, they formed 'emselves into more 
regular societies, and began to live after the English 

Mr. Eliot redue'd 'em to the Jewish plan of govern- 
ment, and for that purpose expounded to 'em Exod. 18. 
And thereupon the converted natives entered into the 
following covenant : 

" We are the sons of Adam, we and our forefathers 
have a long time been lost in our sins ; but now the 
mercy of the Lord beginneth to find us out again, there- 
fore, the grace of Christ helping us, we do give ourselves, 
and our children unto God, to be his people. He shall 
rule us in all our affairs. The Lord is our Judge ; the 
Lord is our Lawgiver ; the Lord is our King ; he will 


save us; and the wisdom which God lias taught us in 
his book, shall guide us. O Jehovah ! teach us wisdom, 
send thy spirit into our hearts, take us to be thy people, 
and let us take thee to be our God." 

They made severe laws against all prophaneness and 
immorality, and took great care to abandon poligamy, 
with which they were formerly overrun. 

And now that I have given the most impartial account 
of the native Indians, I cannot but own their conversion 
to be one of the greatest wonders of free grace, and one 
of the greatest conquests of the everlasting gospel. 
What more agreeable sight, than one who was born a 
pagan, upon his knees, and there sending up his prayers 
with abundance of devotion, in the name of the holy Je- 
sus, to the living God ? In New England there are six 
form'd churches of Indians, that are baptized, and 
eighteen essemblies of catechumens that profess the 
name of the blessed Jesus. 

To return. The Natick lecture was done about four 
in the afternoon, and we had twenty miles to Boston, so 
that we were oblig'd to mount immediately, and make 
the best of our way. 

Upon my coming to Boston, I heard that the Rev. Mr. 
Morton, so much celebrated in England for his piety and 
learning, was just arriv'd from England, and with him, 
his kinsman, Dr. Morton, the physitian. Mr. Morton 
did me the honour to declare he was very glad to see me ; 
and I am sure 1 was glad to see him ; not onlv as he 
brought me letters from Iris, but for his own personal 

The news of Mr. Morton's arrival was received here 
with extraordinary joy by the people in general, and they 
had reason for it, for besides his being a useful man, in 
fitting young men for the ministry, he always gave a 
mighty character of New England, which occasion'd 
many to fly to it from the persecution which was then 
raojn£ in London. 

I know it would be presumption in me, to draw Mr. 
Morton's character, yet (being personally acquainted w ii!i 
him) I cannot but attempt something like it. His con- 

116 JOHN dunton's journal 

versation shew'd him a gentleman — he was the very son! 
of philosophy ; the several manuscripts he writ for the 
use of his private academy, sufficiently shew'd this — he 
was the repository of all arts and sciences, and of the 
graces too ; — his discourses were not stale, or studied, 
but always new and occasional, for whatever subject was 
at any time started, he had still some pleasant and pat 
story for it ; his sermons were high, but not soaring ; 
practical, but not low — his memory was as vast as his 
knowledge, yet (so great was his humility) he knew it 
the least of any man — he was as far from pride as ignor- 
ance, and if we may judge of a man's religion by his 
charity, (and can we go by a surer rule ?) he was a sin- 
cere christian. In a word, Mr. Charles Morton (late of 
Newington Green) was that pious and learned man, by 
whose instructions my reverend and worthy uncle, Mr. 
Obadiah Marriat, was so well qualified for the work of 
the ministry ; to this instance 1 might add, that Mr. John 
Shower, and other eminent preachers, owe that fame 
they have in the world, to his great skill in their educa- 
tion. Mr. Morton having serv'd his generation, accord- 
ing to the will of God, is fallen asleep in New T -England, 
and is there buried by the side of his vertuous wife. 

In the same ship with Mr. Morton, came over one 
Mrs. Hicks, with the valuable venture of her beautiful 
person, which went off at an extraordinary rate ; she mar- 
rying a merchant in Salem worth thirty thousand pound. 

By this time there were about two thirds of my ven- 
ture of books gone off, and I was fearful to sell any more 
at Boston, till the old scores were discharged ; for besides 
all the money I had taken, there was about four hundred 
pound owing me in Boston, and the towns adjacent, at 
my return from Natick. It began to run in my head, 
that Mr. Sewel, one of the magistrates in Salem, had in- 
vited me thither, and told me, if I sent part of my ven- I 
ture there, he'd do me all the service that w T as possible, 
in the sale of 'em ; upon these thoughts, I made a journey 
to Salem. 

About two of the clock I reached Captain Marshal's 
house (which is half way between Boston and Salem) | 
here I staid to refresh nature with a pint of sack and a j 
good fowl. 

1686. 117 

Captain Marshal is a hearty old gentleman, formerly 
one of Oliver's soldiers, upon whieh he very much val- 
ues himself; he had all the history of the civil wars at 
his fingers ends, and if we may believe him, Oliver did 
hardly any thing that was considerable without his assist- 
ance ; and if I'd have staid as long as he'd have talk'd, 
he'd have spoil'd my ramble to Salem. 

About six of the clock in the afternoon I came to 
Salem, and found the town about a mile long, with many 
fine houses in it, and is reported the next town to Boston 
for trade. 

The first person I went to visit in Salem was Mr. 
Bewick ; how kindly he received a poor traveller, whose 
life he had sav'd at sea, you may easier guess, than I 

He went with me to take a ware-house, which I 
thought stood very conveniently. Having settled that 
affair, Mr. Herrick gave me a fish-dinner, and fain would 
have had me lodg'd with him, which I should have ac- 
cepted, but that Mr. Sewel, the magistrate of Salem, sent 
me word he should take it. unkindly, if I did not make 
his house my quarters ; whereupon I desired Mr. Her- 
rick's excuse, and lay at Mr. Sewel's that night ; his en- 
tertainment was kind and generous, and had I staid a 
month there, 1 had bin welcome gratis. 

Reader, to give you Mr. Sewel's character in brief, he 
is the chief magistrate in Salem, his care is to live so as 
to be an example to the people ; he is the mirror of hos- 
pitality, and neither Abraham nor Lot, were ever more 
kind to strangers. 

Having slept well in my new quarters, the next day I 
went to pay a visit to the ministers of Salem (for you 
know, reader, they are the greatest benefactors to book- 
sellers) so that my paying them a visit, was but, in other 
words, to go among my customers. The first 1 visited 

Mr. Higgins,* an antient minister ; he resembles my 
reverend father-in-law, both in his person, and zeal for 
religion ; all men look on him as a common father, and 
on old age, for his sake, as a reverend thing. 

* John Higginson. Ed. 

118 john dunton's journal 

He is eminent for learning, humility, charity, and all 
those shining graces that adorn a minister. His very 
presence and face puts vice out of countenance; he is 
now in his eightieth year, (yet preaches every Sunday) 
and his conversation is a glimps of Heaven. I din'd 
twice at his house, where he promised me great assist- 
ance in my business, and spake of my reverend father-in- 
law with much respect. 

From Mr. Higgins's I went to visit Mr. Noyse, (his 
assistant) ; I spent several agreeable hours in this gentle- 
man's company, which 1 thought no ordinary blessing, 
for he is all that is delightful in conversation, so easy com- 
pany, and so far from all constraint, that 'tis a real pleasure 
to talk with him. He gave me a generous welcome to 
Salem ; and 'tis no lessening to his brother Higgins, to 
say he is no ways inferior to him for good preaching, or 
primitive living. 

I must also remember the great civilities I met at Salem 
from Mr. Epes (the most eminent schoolmaster in New- 
England.) He hath sent many scholars to the university in 
New-England. He is much of a gentleman, yet has not 
humbled his meditations to the industry of complements, 
nor afflicted his brain in an elaborate leg, (he cannot kiss 
his hand and cry, madam, your humble servant, not talk 
idle enough to bear her company) but tho' a school, and 
the hermitage of his study, has made him uncourtly, yet, 
(which is a finer accomplishment) he's a person of solid 
learning, and does not, like some authors, lose his time 
by being busie about nothing, nor make so poor a use 
of the world, as to hug and im brace it. 

But to return to the thread of my history : having dis- 
posed of my venture at Salem, parted with Palmer, and 
committed my Boston affairs to my kind landlord (Mr. 
Richard Wilkins) I hop'd now in a few days, to take my 
leave of this New World, and to embark for England ; 
but I see now, when a man is born under a rambling 
planet, all that he does to fix him at home, does but hasten 
his travels abroad, for tho' I was now weary of New- 
England (for 'twas not home, nor was Iris there) yet I 
had a mind to view a few more of the towns, before I 
left it. 


1 was blest with the company of Mrs. Comfort, (my 
landlord's daughter) in this new adventure. 

All things being ready for this Indian ramble, I took 
my fair one up behind me, and rid to the river that parts 
Boston from Ipswich, which tho' it be often and usually 
cross'd in a canoo, yet I rather chose to eross it in a 
ferry, having my horse with me. 

Having cross'd the river, we mounted again, and rid 
on our way, meeting, as we rambled along with two or 
three Indians, who courteously saluted us, with What 
chear Netop? Netop in the Indian language, signifies 
friend. I returned their salutation and passed on, not 
without observing that there is a vein of civility and cour- 
tesy runs in the blood of these wild Indians, both among 
themselves, and towards strangers. 

The first town we came to was Marvail, which con- 
sists only of a few scattered houses, orchards, and gar- 
dens ; with good pastures and arable land ; we here staid 
for refreshment, and had the luck to see an Indian woman 
walking by the door, with a child at her back, whom our 
landlord told us, had not been deliver'd above two days, 
so that the curse laid upon women of bringeth forth chil- 
dren in sorrow, is mightily moderated to the Indian wo- 
men, for they have a far more moderate labour, and a 
more speedy and easy delivery, than most of our Euro- 
pean women ; which I believe in a great measure is oc- 
casion'd by the hardness of their constitution, and by their 
extraordinary labour in the field, as carrying of mighty 
burdens, and beating their corn in a mortar, he. I was 
hugely amazed at this account of the Indian women ; but 
our landlord stopp'd our wondering, by further telling us 
that most of the Indian women count it a shame for a 
woman to complain when she is in labour, and many of 
them are scarcely heard to groan. It seems 'tis a com- 
mon thing among them to have a woman merry in the 
house, and in half an hour's time delivered, and merry 
again, and within two days abroad (as we saw verified in 
this Indian woman) and after four or five days at work. 
Having left Marvail behind us, we rambled on to- 
wards Wenham. When we came to Wenham (which 
is an inland town, well stor'd with men and cattle) we 

120 john dunton's journal 

paid a visit to Mr. Geery, the present minister of that 

Wenham is a delicious paradice, it abounds with all 
rural pleasures, and I wou'd chuse it above all other 
towns in America to dwell in ; the lofty trees on each 
side of it are a sufficient shelter from the winds ; and the 
warm sun so kindly ripens both the fruits and flowers, as 
if the spring, the summer, and the autumn had agreed to- 
gether, to thrust winter out of doors. 

'Twere endless to enter on a detail of each faculty of 
learning Mr. Geery is master of, and therefore take his 
character in short hand. — The philosopher is acute, inge- 
nious and subtle. The divine curious, orthodox, and 
profound. The man of a majestic air, without austerity, 
or sourness ; his aspect is masterly and great, yet not 
imperious or haughty. The christian is devout, without 
moroseness or starts of holy frenzy and enthusiasm. The 
preacher is primitive, without the accessional colours of 
whining or cant ; and methodical, without intricacy or 
affectation, and which crowns his character, he is a man 
of a publick spirit, zealous for the conversion of the Indians, 
and of great hospitality to strangers. He gave us a noble 
dinner, and entertain'd us with such pleasant fruits as I 
must own Old England is a stranger to. 

Taking leave of this generous Levite, we now thought 
it high time to prosecute our design'd ramble to Ipswich.* 
But our conversation was interrupted by a friend Indian's 
overtaking us, who was a going to Ipswich as well as we ; 
and the evening being advanced we were glad of his 

When we came to Ipswich, I would have treated our 
Indian with a bottle of wine, but he very thankfully re- 
fus'd it, and so we parted. 

We took up our quarters at Mr. Steward's house (un- 
cle to Mrs. Comfort.) His joy to see his niece at Ipswich 
was sufficiently express'd by the kind welcome we met 
with ; our supper was a fat-pig, and a bowl of punch ? 
yet I had so great a desire to go to bed, as made it to me 
a troublesome piece of kindness. 

• Which has its name from a town in England. 


I rose early the next morning, and having taken a view 
of Ipswich, I found it a good haven-town ; their meeting- 
bouse (or church) is built very beautifully, there is store 
of gardens about it, and good land for tillage. 

Mrs. Steward is of a middle size, her face round and 
pretty, her speeeh and behaviour gentle and courteous. 

She's all obedience ; the hyacinth follows not the sun 
more willingly than she her husband's pleasure ; her 
household is her charge, her only pride is to be neat and 
cleanly, she is both wise and religious; and in a word, 
whatsoever men may talk of magick, there's none charms 
like her. — This is the true picture of Mrs. Steward, and 
if I'd attempt her husband's character, the least I can say 
of him is, he is so kind a husband, he is worthy of the 
wife he enjoys, and would even make a bad wife good by 
his example. 

Ipswich is a country town not very large, and when a 
stranger arrives there, 'tis quickly known to every one ; 
it is no wonder then, that the next day after our arrival, 
the news of it was carried to Mr. Hubbald,* the minister of 
the town, who, hearing I had brought to Boston a great 
venture of learning, did me the honour to make me a visit, 
and afterwards kindly invited me (and my fellow-traveller) 
to his own house, where he was pleased to give us a 
very handsome entertainment. 'Tis no easy matter to 
give a true character of Mr. Hubbald. The benefit of 
nature, and the fatigue of study, have equally contributed 
to his eminence, neither are we less oblig'd to both than 
himself, for he freely communicates of his learning to all 
who have the happiness to share in his converse. In a 
word, he's learned without ostentation and vanity, and 
gives all his productions such a delicate turn and grace 
(as is seen in his printed sermons and History of the In- 
dian Wars) that the features and lineaments of the child, 
make a clear discovery and distinction of the father ; yet 
is he a man of singular modesty, of strict morals, and has 
done as much for the conversion of the Indians, as most 
men in New-England. 

Having answer'd Mr. Hubbald some questions about 
the books I had brought over, and shewn him a catalogue 

* William Hubbard. Ed. 

122 JOHN DUNTOn's journal 

of them, I took my leave, and returned back with Mrs, 
Comfort to her uncle Steward's, with whom she staid till 
I returned from Wonasquam, an Indian town, where I 
went next. 

On the road to Wonasquam, I met an Indian woman, 
w T ith her face all over blacked with soot, having a very 
sorrowful look, and quickly after two or three Indian men, 
in the same black and mournful condition, that had I been 
alone, it would have frighted me, but having a guide with 
me, I was well enough : Indeed they all passed by us 
very civilly, saying only Ascowequassumummis, w r hich is 
in English, Good morrow to you. My guide ask'd me if 
1 had ever seen any of those black fae'd Indians before ? 
I told him no, and ask'd him what the meaning of it was ? 
He told me they had some relation lately dead, and that 
the blacking of their faces was equivalent to the English- 
men's going into mourning for their dead relations. Where 
there is any Indian dead (continued my guide) they ex- 
press it by saying he is in black (that is, he hath some 
dead in his house) and some lay on the soot so very thick, 
that they clot it with their tears, and this blacking and 
lamenting they observe divers months, if the person dy- 
ing be great and publick. 

After a long and difficult ramble, we came at last to the 
Indian town call'd Wonasquam. It is a very sorry sort of 
a town, but better to come at by land than by water, for 'tis 
a dangerous place to sail by, especially in stormy weather. 

We saw several other mourning Indians in this town ; 
and upon inquiry we found that one of the chief Indians in 
the town was lately dead, and was to be bury'd that night. 

Having never seen an Indian burial, I staid till the so- 
lemnity was over, which was thus perform 'd. 

First the gravest among them wound up, and prepar'd 
the dead body for the coffin ; when the mourners came 
to the grave, they laid the body by the grave's mouth, 
and then all the Indians sat down and lamented, and I 
observ'd tears to run down the cheeks of the oldest 
amongst them, as well as from little children. 

After the dead body was laid in the grave (and in some 
parts, some of their goods are cast in with them) they 
then made a second great lamentation : upon the grave 
they spread the matt that the deceas'd died on, the dish 


he eat in, and two of the Indians hung a fair coat of skin 
upon the next tree to the grave, which (as my guide in- 
form'd me) none will touch, but suffer it there to rot witli 
the dead. 

There was nothing else remarkable to be seen in the 
town, and therefore, as soon as the Indian was bury'd, I 
return'd back with mj guide to Ipswich, and having staid 
some little time, with my worthy friend Mr. Steward, my- 
self and Mrs. Comfort took our leaves, and made the best 
of our way for Boston ; where we arriv'd to the great 
satisfaction of my good landlord and his wife. 

I had now no more business in New-England, butjust 
to pay a farewell to Mr. Burroughs, (that was so kind to 
me at my first landing) and so shake hands with Mr. Wil- 
kins (my landlord) his wife, and daughter. 

And here 1 shall first take my leave of Mr. Francis 
Burroughs, for I wanted till now, an opportunity to thank 
him for the many civilities he heap'd upon me in Boston ; 
for he not only lent me money (the true touch-stone of 
friendship) but made me his bed-fellow, got me the free- 
dom of Boston, and was the chief person I advis'd with 
under any difficulty. 

' His person is handsome (I don't know whether he 
' knows it or no) and his mind has as many charms ; he's 
1 a man of remarkable chastity, of a great deal of wit, and 
k his repartees are so quaint, apposite and genteel, 'tis a 
4 pleasure to observe how handsomely he acquits himself, 
* in the mean time he's neither scurrilous nor prophane, 
1 but a scrupulous, honest, conscientious man, so that he's 
' what we may call a religious-merchant, and (I was going 
' to say) he hates vice almost as much by nature as grace.' 
And this I think is his true character ; but I must re- 
member Captain Leg is ready to sail, and I have other 
farewells to make, and so worthy friend adieu. 

I come next to honest Wilkins, my landlord, for I 
shou'd think myself very unkind, shou'd I leave Boston, 
without shaking hands with a person I liv'd with near 
eight months. His person is tall, his aspect sweet and 
smiling, and (tho' but fifty years old) his hair as white as 
snow. He was formerly a bookseller in Limerick, and 
fled hither on the account of conscience. He is a person of 
good sense, keeps up the practice of religion in his family, 

124 JOHN dunton's journal. 

and (upon a nice search into all his affairs) I found it had 
a general influence on all the actions of his life : he was 
deservedly chosen a member of Mr. Willard's church, 
and I do think he's a pious man, if there's such a thing 
in Boston. But dear sir, adieu, for the wind is fair, and 
I must be gone ; but I leave your company with as much 
regret as ever I did any earthly blessing. 

My next farewell shall be to Mrs. Wilkins my oblig- 
ing landlady. 

' She's a tender wife, a kind mother, and is a woman 
' well pois'd in all humours ; or, in other words, Mrs. 
' Wilkins is a person of an even temper, which render'd 
i her conversation more agreeable than those that laugh 
< more, but smile less : some there are, who spend more 
1 spirits, in straining, for an hour's mirth, than they can 
4 recover in a month, which renders 'em so unequal com- 
* pany ; whilst she is always equal, and the same. 'T 
6 vertue to know her, wisdom to converse with her, and 
'joy to behold her; or (to do her justice in fewer 
' words) she is the counterpart of her pious husband, 
' who without her, is but half himself.' I might inlarge, 
but I fear if I write on, I shall lose my passage, and so 
(kind landlady) adieu. 

Having taken leave of the father and mother, my last 
visit must be to the daughter, and sheer gratitude obliges 
to this farewell ; for you Mrs. Comfort may well take it 
amiss, if I shou'd forget your favours to me in your fa- 
ther's house, your pleasant company to Ipswich, your 
assistance when I was ill, and the noble looking-glass you 
sent my dear, and all this with a world of innocence. 

When the ship was ready to sail, I was attended on 
board by Dr. Bullevant, Mr. Wilkins, Mr. York, Mr. 
Gouge, Mr. Heath, Mr. Tryon, Mr. Green, and some 
other of my Boston friends. The captain entertain'd 'em 
with wine, beer, cyder, and Neats' tongues. 

So soon as ever my friends were gone off to shore, our 
captain order'd all his guns to fire, which were accompa- 
nied with huzzas and shouts, and shaking of hats, till we 
had lost all sight of our friends. 

Kind Boston adieu, part we must, tho' 'tis pity; 
But I'm made for mankind, and all the world is my city. 
Look how on the shore, they hoop and they hollow, 
Not for joy I am gone, but for grief they can't follow. 



To His Excellency Earl Caledon, Governour and Commander in 

Chief of the Cape of Good Hope, fyc. fyc. ($'c. 

Cape Town, Cape of Good Hope, March 1st, 1811. 

My Lord, 

IN compliance with your lordship's request, I take 
the liberty of describing the situation and extent of the 
islands of Tristan d' Acunha, as well as what may be 
done towards the effectual settlement of the large island. 

In December last, when on the coast of Brazil, having 
fallen in with an American ship, 1 understood that there 
was a man on board by the name of Jonathan Lambert, a 
native of America, who had resolved to establish himself 
on the large island of Tristan d' Acunha for the purpose 
of cultivating the soil, and breeding poultry, with other 
stock, expecting it would be an inducement for vessels 
passing in that track to touch for refreshments, when- 
ever it might be known. On the 28th January, ultimo, 
when bound for this place, being in sight of the islands, 
and a short distance from the north side of the principal 
one, I determined on despatching the Charles' boat with 
an officer and crew for the purpose of taking some fresh 
water: when Mr. Lambert with two other men were found, 
and reported that they had been landed twenty days. 
Having been before apprized of Mr. Lambert's resolution 
of settling himself on this island, I was desirous of ren- 
dering him every assistance my capacity would allow. 
Accordingly, after the necessary water for the Charles 
was procured, I landed in a deep cove on the north side. 
At a distance of about one quarter of a mile to the west- 
ward of the inlet there was a spot of ground Lambert had 
cleared for a garden : full two acres were laid out in neat 
beds, with radish and cabbage plants growing in great 
luxuriance, and more than one inch above the surface. 
Indian corn, potatoes, and the pumpkin vine, with the 
water and musk-melon were also above the ground. In 


turning up the ground with a spade, a stratum of black 
mould appeared, full two feet deep, over a layer of rich 
reddish clay. 

Not six yards from Lambert's cultivated spot, there is 
a large run of water, which has its source in the mount, 
meandering towards the sea, then falling abruptly about 
50 feet on a shingly beach, and presenting a most beauti- 
ful cascade ; where it would be practicable, with the as- 
sistance of long hose, to lead the water to a boat or launch, 
in five fathoms depth. Any vessel might be watered (the 
weather being any ways moderate) in twelve hours, pro- 
curing at the same time sufficient quantity of fire wood. 

The anchoring ground off the north side of the large 
island is situated by my observation in latitude 37° T 
south, and long. 1 1° 43' w r est of Greenwich: the best 
depth for anchoring without the kelp is about twenty 
fathoms, black, sandy, oozy bottom, the cascade bearing 
by compass S. \ East § mile. 

This anchoring ground is in all respects far preferable 
to the road of Funchal in the island of Madeira, from the 
circumstance of its being a strait shore ; whenever 
it might blow on the coast so as to cause a sea, it would 
be practicable for any vessel to fetch clear of the land. 
The cove within the kelp is eligible for 30 sail of vessels to 
moor in, open to four points of the compass from N. N. E. 
to N. N. W. but no sea would ever make in this cove, as 
almost an entire chain of kelp must prevent the water 
breaking in with violence. The depth of water is from 
10 to 12 fathoms, sand and oozy. The circuit of the large 
island may be from 15 to 18 miles, rising in an immense 
cone, equal to the Peak of Teneriffe, and might be seen 
in clear weather full 30 leagues. 

The land fit to be cultivated, from a rough computation, 
may not be less than from three to four thousand acres, 
and capable of producing corn, vegetable matter of every 
description, cotton, hemp, tobacco, the grape vine, with 
fruit of every kind the climate may be congenial to. 
The spontaneous grass, herbage and shrubs of the island, 
without doubt would be good grazing and browsing for 
black cattle, goats and sheep. 


Great quantities of fish are about the islands, of the 
roek cod, bass, and mackerel kind, with many era) fish. 
Quantities of kelp, or gigantic fucus, as termed by the 
naturalist, after going through a certain process might be 
made into barilla, which would answer all the purposes, 
with the elephant oil, to manufacture into soap. Hitherto 
the islands have been visited by vessels that were in search 
of seal skins and oil, and have succeeded in procuring 
great quantities ; there are yet many seals, and sea ele- 
phants that come ashore in the months of June, July and 
August, from which last animal oil is extracted. Pro- 
curing seal skins and oil, w T ould be an employment at the 
season, when it would not answer to plant and sow, and 
would be considerable articles of commerce. As a sub- 
stitute for empty casks to hold the oil as it might be pro- 
cured, large tanks could be made at a trifling expense, to 
hold from 5,000 to 10,000 gallons each, there being 
enough stone, and in all probability limestone would be 
discovered ; which are the principal materials requisite 
for making the tanks. 

Mr. Lambert expressed to me his desire that I would 
communicate to your Lordship, that he set out with views 
which he trusted would be considered by the British 
Government and the honourable East India Company 
laudable, and deserving their protection and assistance, in 
a way that would promote his undertaking, and endea- 
vours to refresh what vessels might be passing in that 
track of sea. And whenever the sanction of the British 
Government should be know 7 n, they giving him the ne- 
cessary assistance, he then would most solemnly declare 
himself allied to that government ; and, by permission, 
display the British flag on the island, reserving to himself 
always the governourship, provided an equivalent could 
not be agreed upon. 

Permit me to borrow on your lordship's patience, by 
detaining you a little longer ; and soliciting as an agent 
for Mr. Lambert in this enterprize, (so far as may be 
compatible with reason, and as your Lordship may con- 
ceive the undertaking to merit) a small assistance to return 
to the island, as my private means will not be sufficient. 


A small vessel from 50 to 100 tons to carry from this 
colony such young, industrious families as may be willing 
to embark, and any other persons that would be useful 
in tilling the ground, with a few black cattle, goats and 
sheep, and such other small necessaries as would conduce 
to the growth and productions of the island. 

Submitting this note to your Lordship's consideration, 
I have the honour of being with the highest deference, 
My Lord, 

Your Lordship's most obedient 

and most devoted humble servant, 

Agent for the proprietors of the 
islands of Tristan a" Acunha. 


[From the very choice and valuable Collection of the late Rev. John 
Eliot, D. D] 

To the Rev. Mr. Andrew and Mr. Woodbridge and others, our 
reverend Fathers and Brethren, present in the Library of Yale 
College, this 13th of Sept. 1722. 

Reverend Gentlemen, 

HAVING represented to you the difficulties which we 
labour under, in relation to our continuance out of the 
visible communion of an Episcopal church, and a state of 
seeming opposition thereto, either as private christians, or 
as officers, and so being insisted on by some of you (after 
our repeated declinings of it) that we should sum up 
our case in writing ; we do (though with great reluctance 
fearing the consequences of it) submit to and comply with 
it : And signify to you that some of us doubt of the va- 
lidity, and the rest are more fully persuaded of the inva- 
lidity of the Presbyterian ordination, in opposition to Epis- 

* See Chandler's life of Dr. S. Johnson, p, 27 — 40, for many interesting parti- 
culars concerning this occurrence. Ed. 


copal : and should be heartily thankful to God and man, 
if we may receive from them satisfaction herein, and shall 
be willing to embrace your good counsels and instruc- 
tions in relation to this important affair, as far as God 

shall direct and dispose us to it. 

Timothy Ci tlbr, 

A true copy of the original. \ John Hart, 

Testify, ;> Sami el Wittelbey 

DANIEL BROWN. ) .1 ired Eliot, 

James Wetmore, 

Samuel Johnson, 
Daniel Iiuou V 


Derby, October 2d, 1722. 
Reverend Sir, 

I PRESUME, though unacquainted, to humbly ask 
your advice and help in a matter of great weight and mo- 
ment, at which we are all amazed and filled with dark- 
ness, in our parts of the country; viz. no less than five 
ordained ministers (all but one of our association of New- 
Haven) have declared before the trustees of the college, in 
the library, when many others also were present, that they 
were fully persuaded that only an Episcopal ordination 
was valid, and according to divine institution, and there- 
fore in as much as their own ordination was by presby- 
ters only, they esteemed it invalid : three of them said that 
notwithstanding, they should go on to administer sacra- 
ments, &c. as before, for a while waiting for further light ; 
but if they could get no better light than now they had, 
thought that in time it would come to that pass with them 
that they should proceed no further to minister at the altar 
without a reordination by a bishop : two of them pretend- 
ed to be conscience bound at present to cease all sacred 
administrations until they had further light, or an Episco- 
pal ordination : the aforementioned three are Mr. John 
Hart, Mr. Samuel Whittelsey, Mr. James Wetmore. The 
two abovesaid are Mr. Jared Eliot, Mr. Samuel Johnson. 
And after these, both the rector and tutor of our college 
declared themselves for Episcopacy; and that they scru- 
pled communion in sacred things with any other hut tin; 



church of England ; because of the invalidity of a Pres- 
byterian ordination. I cannot pretend to have set down 
the very words in which these gentlemen declared them- 
selves : but to this purpose, (though in many more 
words) they did declare themselves, in the audience of a 
large assembly of ministers and scholars. Now, reverend 
and learned sir, two things I crave your advice and help 
in : 1st, your advice, in what we shall say to the people 
over whom these gentlemen were ordained pastors ;) the 
people are uneasy and come to us neighbouring ministers 
for advice, they would choose to have their ministers 
rather desist their ministry, and have their pulpits free for 
others that may be obtained, but the ministers, I perceive, 
are willing to hold their posts still,) what, advice shall we 
give these poor people in their darkness and distress ? 
2d, I having not read much upon this controversy, should 
be very glad to have some books that do nervously handle 
this point, concerning ordination by presbyters ; whether 
good or not? I have according to my mean ability, stu- 
died the scriptures upon this point many years past, and 
have been and now am, most fully satisfied in my own 
mind, that the truth is on our side, and that there is no 
difference between a bishop and a presbyter, jure divino, 
and that there is no such superiour order of church officers 
as the diocesan bishops are, by divine institution. But 
it is now a time with us, that we must put on our armour 
and fight, or else let the good old cause, for which our 
fathers came into this land, sink and be deserted. 1 pray, 
sir, that you would furnish me with some such books, as 
with most strength of reason and argument, plead our 
cause ; especially in this point, of the validity of Presby- 
terian ordination, and I shall be very much obliged ; and 
if the books that may be sent come as lent, 1 will safely and 
seasonably return them ; but if they come as sold (which 
I rather choose) I will quickly send the money for them. 
There is at Boston, I suppose, Mr. Jeremiah Atwaters of 
New-Haven, who is my brother-in-law, and by whom 
there may be a conveniency of sending to me, or by any 
of our coasting vessels that come to any of the towns 
neighbouring to New-Haven. I humbly ask your pardon, 
sir, that I have been so prolix in my writing, and for my 


presumption in requesting such favours from you as a hove 
desired, which I dare not have done, to so great a supe- 
riour, if it had [not] a reference to the advancement of the 
kingdom of our great Redeemer for which I know you 
are evermore greatly concerned, and are always read) to 
spend and he spent, and in endeavours for its growth and 
flourishing estate, you have been in labours more abun- 
dant than any of us. I subscribe, sir, your very humble 
servant, and unworthy fellow-labourer in the gospel, 

Joseph Moss. 


Fairfield, Oct. 2, 17^2. 
Reverend and honoured Sir, 
THE occasion of my now giving you the trouble of 
these few lines is to me, and 1 presume to many others, 
melancholy enough. You have perhaps heard before now, 
or will hear, before these come to hand, (I suppose) of the 
revolt of several persons of figure among us unto the 
church of England. There's the Rev. Mr. Cutler, rec- 
tor of our college, and Mr. Daniel Brown, the tutor there- 
of. There are also of ordained ministers, pastors of sev- 
eral churches among us, the Rev. Messieurs following, 
viz. John Hart of East Guilford, Samuel Whittlesey of 
Wallingford, Jared Eliot of Kennelworth, [Killingworth] 
Samuel Johnson of West-Haven, and James Wetmore of 
North-Haven. They are the most of them reputed men 
of considerable learning, and all of them of a virtuous and 
blameless conversation. I apprehend the axe is herebj 
laid to the root of our civil and sacred enjoyments; and 
a doleful gap opened for trouble and confusion in our 
churches. The churchmen among us are wonderfully 
encouraged and lifted up by the appearance of these gen- 
tlemen on their side. And how many more will, hv their 
example, be encouraged to go off from us to them, God 
only knows. It is a very dark day with us ; and we need 
pity, prayers and counsel. And I am humbly of opinion 
that the churches and pastors in your colony are concern- 
ed, (though something more remotely) as well as we, in 
the present threatenings of Divine Providence : and I 
cannot but hope some measures will be concerted bj 


yourselves in this juncture for the preservation of the 
good old cause, so signally owned by God, and witnessed 
unto by the practice and sufferings of so many eminent 
ministers and christians. There is with you the advan- 
tage of age, learning, experience, books, &c. and there- 
fore we cannot but earnestly desire your assistance in all 
that is proper on the sorrowful occasion. As for the gen- 
tlemen who have declared themselves in favour of the 
church, some of them declared themselves much in doubt 
about the validity of Presbyterian ordination ; others of 
them have (if I remember right) declared their satisfaction 
as to the invalidity thereof. As to this we value them not 
so much, as long as Acts xx. 17 — 28 ; Phil. i. 1 ; 1 Pet. 
v. 1, 2, 3, and other texts are a part of holy scripture; 
though I should be glad of the help of some good argu- 
ments used by those who are skilled in the controversy, 
and have acted well therein. But if our antagonists 
should not be able to answer what may be alleged from 
scripture, &c. concerning the power of presbyters to or- 
dain, they will, I conclude, allege that the ordinations 
among us were not Presbyterian, because several pas- 
tors in our colony in the more ancient days of it were 
ordained by laymen, and those pastors so ordained have 
acted in the later ordinations among us. This the church- 
men among us improve, and fling every now and then 
about the leather mitten that was laid on the head of the 
Rev. Mr. Israel Chauncy of Stratford, many years since 
deceased, by one of the brethren acting in his ordination. 
It is also suggested, that the Rev. Mr. Andrew of Milford 
was ordained by laymen, in a part at least. What there is 
of truth in it I cannot tell. I heard nothing of this latter 
instance till within about the compass of a week ago. And 
as to what is alleged relating to the Rev. Mr. Chauncy 
of Stratford, deceased, I heard nothing thereof (that I re- 
member) till many years after my ordination. I know 
the Rev. Messieurs Chauncy and Andrew abovesaid 
were actors in my ordination, together with the Rev. Mr. 
Walker of Woodbury, deceased. What led those emi- 
nent men, who first settled the country, to allow laymen 
to act in such an affair, is not for me to say. But what 
I would in this case is, how we shall be able to justify 


ourselves if this article be insisted on hv our antago- 
nists. The notion of these ordinations hv laymen will, 
I fear, do us more damage than all the arguments that can 
be brought for the necessity of Episcopal ordination. 
Our condition I look upon, as very deplorable and sad. 
Please to communicate the contents of my letter to your 
venerable and honoured father, and to as many of the 
ministers of Boston, Sic. as you judge meet. And let 
me (though unworthy) have, as soon as may be, what 
comfort, light and strength is needful in our sad circum- 
stances, from as many of you as will please to engage in 
the cause. Thus desiring an interest in your prayers for 
us, 1 subscribe, 

Reverend and honoured sir, 
your humble servant, 



THE sentiments of several ministers in Boston, concern- 
ing the duty of the distressed churches, with relation to 
their pastors, who, in an instrument under their hands, 
have publickly declared, that they,, some of them, doubt 
the validity, others of them are fully persuaded of the 
invalidity of the presbyterian ordination. 

It plainly appears, 

I. These new Episcopalians have declared their desire 
to introduce an usurpation and a superstition into the 
church of God, clearly condemned in the sacred scrip- 
tures, which our loyalty and chastity to our Saviour, 
obliges us to keep close unto ; and a tyranny, from which 
the whole church, which desires to be reformed, has groan- 
ed that it may be delivered. 

II. They have had the temerity and presumption to 
deny the ministry and renounce the communion of all 
the Protestant churches in the whole world, except that 
little party that submits to the English episcopacy. Such 
a schism do they run into. 

* Another valuable letter on this subject is mislaid, which the present com- 
mittee greatly regret. If found, it shall be inserted in an after part of the 
volume. Ed. 



III. The scandalous conjunction of these unhappy men 
with the papists is, perhaps, more than what they have 
themselves duly considered. For, first, the great and 
almost the last clamour with which the papists try to 
perplex and weaken the reformed churches, is, that their 
ministry is invalid for want of Episcopal ordination . These 
men strengthen the common enemy in the boundless mis- 
chief attempted by this foolish cavil. Secondly, even 
those defectively and imperfectly reformed churches in 
England and Ireland found it necessary to decry the ne- 
cessity of Episcopal ordination, at their first coming out of 
Babylon. They did it generally, notoriously, authenti- 
cally, or they could not have shaken off the mother of 
harlots. God forbid, that we should be such grievous 
revolters, as to go back from what the very dawn of the 
reformation arrived unto ! Thirdly, to maintain their 
episcopal ordination they set up that vile, senseless, 
wretched whimsey of an uninterrupted succession, which 
our glorious Lord has confuted with such matters of fact, 
that it is amazing the builders of Babel are not ashamed of 
it; and they will have none owned for ministers of Christ 
in the world, but such as antichrist has ordained for 
him ; such as the paw of the beast hath been laid 
upon, them that they pretend a succession from. Do 
not those men worship the beast, who allow no worship 
in the church but by them who have their consecration le- 
gitimated by a derivation through the hands of the beast 
unto them ? Finally ; it is well known that at this day, 
the men who are well-willers to the claims of a popish 
pretender, are the main assertors of the Episcopal ordina- 
tion being essential to their christian priesthood : and 
the most violent and signalized assertors of this para- 
dox are such as decry the happy revolution, which every 
sincere Protestant, and honest and sober Englishman must 
be a friend unto. Will these men unite with such ad- 
versaries ! To their assembly, O my soul, be not thou 
united ! 

IV. They have cast a vile indignity upon those burning 
and shining lights, the excellent servants of God, who 
were the leaders of the flocks that followed our Lord 
Jesus into this wilderness, and upon the ministry of 


them and their successors, in which there has been Been 
the power and blessing of God for the salvation of 
many thousands in the successive generations, vvith a 
success beyond what any of them, who set such an high 
value upon their Episcopal, ordination, could ever hoist 
of. A degenerate offspring have declared these men 
of God, than whom the world lias rarely been illuminated 
with brighter stars, to be no true ministers of Christ, but 
usurpers of the ministry and invaders of a sacred office, 
robbers that have not entered in by the door. They have 
also treated with the utmost contempt the glorious cause; 
and work of God, by which the churches of the Lord in 
this country have been so remarkably distinguished, and 
encouraged the posterity of our faithful predecessors to 
shake off the faith and order of the gospel, which was the 
main end that the country was planted for. 

V. They have done what is likely to throw the churches 
of the country into disturbance and confusion, beyond 
any thing they have ever yet met withal, and animate an 
ungodly generation to set up a lifeless religion and an ir- 
religious life, in the room of that which has hitherto been 
our glory. 

VI. They have rashly done all this, before they have 
used the most proper means to obtain the light which they 
pretend they are looking for. They have not read many 
of the most enlightening treatises and they have not once 
addressed, so much as by writing to them, those persons, 
for their satisfaction, who are, of all, the most capable ol 
enlightening them. 

VII. It may be some of the churches are not satisfied, 
what these gentlemen intend by waiting for further light. 

VIII. In the mean time it is to be doubted, how they 
can lawfully and honestly goon with their pastoral admin- 
istrations, and keep on good terms with the last words 
in the fourteenth chapter to the Romans : inasmuch as it 
is affirmed, that those of them whose doubts had made 
the least impression on them, yet professed, that il tin: 
doubts which they now have should continue unremoved, 
they could not go on with the exercise of their ministry. 

IX. The offence which these backsliders have given to 
all the churches has been such, that the particular churches 


to which thej belong may, and should make them sensi- 
ble, that they are greatly offended at them : and we see 
not why the flocks may not as much decline the owning of 
them for their ministers, as they themselves question the 
validity of their ministry. The churches, by continuing 
to acknowledge the pastoral relation and oversight of these 
men, may give them greater opportunities to produce and 
increase [insidious] parties among them, than they may 
be at first well aware of. 

X. Nevertheless, and after all, we have not heard all 
that these gentlemen have to say for themselves. And 
we ought to do nothing rashly : the peace of God, also, in 
the utmost expressions of reasonable charity should rule on 
such occasions; and we cannot watch too much against 
the wrath of man, insinuating on such occasions, which 
will not work the righteousness of God. It is likewise 
to be remembered, that none of these men were ordained 
without a council of churches, to countenance their intro- 
duction into the ministry. It seems therefore necessary, 
that the churches which withdraw from the ministry of the 
men, that have so disappointed them, and disobliged them, 
should have some countenance and assistance and instruc- 
tion from a council of churches for what they have to do 
in this lamentable affair. But the councils ought to be 
so chosen, that the churches may reasonably expect im- 
partial proceedings in them : and therefore the choice had 
not best be limited by such prudential rules of vicinity, 
as might be agreed when there were no such extraordi- 
nary occasions to be imagined. Perhaps the General 
Court may see cause, upon these awful and grievous and 
threatening occurrences, to nominate a very large council 
of churches, to consider what may be the duty of the day, 
especially for those churches that are more immediately 
now encumbered. 

May the glorious Head of the church, whose name is 
the Counsellor, graciously grant his counsel to his people, 
that they may let no men take away their crown ; but may 
faithfully preserve his institutions. 



[Not very candid or temperate, if faithful. Ed.] 

NEW-ENGLAND has lately had in it an occurrence, 
that has been a matter of some surprise, and much dis- 
course unto the country. 

The colony of Connectieut being willing to have their 
churches well supplied, from an education in the princi- 
ples which moved their predecessors to settle in those 
parts of the world, erected not long ago a college atNew- 
Haven. This little college or collegiate school, which 
wears the name of Yale College, was lately so unhappy 
as to borrow a pastor of a church at Stratford, whose name 
is Mr. Timothy Cutler, for a rector. This man was a 
secret Episcopalian, of such high flights that he looks upon 
his Presbyterian ordination as a nullity ; and the acts of 
his ministry as invalid; and his invitation to the rectorate 
of that collegiate school, was the more agreeable to him 
for its delivering him from a ministry which he took to be a 
cheat : it also gave him an opportunity privately to de- 
stroy the principal intention of the academy, and blow up 
the churches which he appeared a friend unto. He pri- 
vately for some time carried on a conversation with sev- 
eral young ministers of the neighbouring churches, whose 
frequent meetings at his house were what the people 
knew not what interpretation to put upon. At last, by a 
strange coincidence of several circumstances, the plot 
broke out sooner, than it is thought they would have had 
it; for on September 13th, the day after their commence- 
ment, these men appeared in the publick library before the 
trustees of the college, and many other ministers; and 
there exhibited a short instrument wherein they declared, 
that some of them doubted the validity, and others of them 
were fully persuaded of the invalidity of their Presbyte- 
rian ordination : signed by Cutler the rector, and Brown 
a tutor of the school ; and five more that were young or- 
dained pastors of churches in the neighbourhood. 1 he 
trustees were very much distressed on an occasion so un- 


expected, and so likely to be attended with a train of 
unhapppy consequences : but they treated the men with 
all the charity, and lenity, and forbearance that the case 
would possibly admit of. Nevertheless, the action and 
apostasy of these men has caused a considerable commo- 
tion in the minds of the people, not only in the churches 
more immediately betrayed, but also through all the 

It has appeared marvellous unto them, that a little knot 
of young men that had read very little of the controversy, 
but only a few Episcopalian things which their library at 
New-Haven had been unhappily stocked withal, with little 
or nothing of the antidote, (and indeed the most that the 
poor children have to subsist upon is the pretended epistles 
of Ignatius, which yet, if they were not impostures, would 
be of no service to them !) that these young men should 
have the temerity and presumption to declare for an usur- 
pation in the church of God, so clearly condemned in the 
holy scriptures ; which it is the profession and endeavour 
of those churches to keep close unto; yea, and thereupon 
to deny the ministry and renounce the communion of all 
the protestant churches in the world, except that little 
party that submits to the English Episcopacy ! It has 
amazed them to see the sons of New-England strengthen 
and assist the common enemy, by coming into the great, 
and almost the last clamour with which the papists are 
trying to weaken and perplex the reformed churches, and 
that when it is notorious, that the whole body of our first 
reformers at their coming out of Babylon, decried the 
necessity of an Episcopal ordination, and found that they 
could not shake off the mother of harlots, without their 
doing so : they should in such a country go back from 
what the very dawn of the reformation arrived unto ! 

It has caused some indignation in them, to see the vile 
indignity cast by these cudweeds upon those excellent 
servants of God, who were the leaders of the flock that 
followed our Saviour into this wilderness ; and upon the 
ministry of them, and their successours, in which there 
has been seen for more than fourscore years together, the 
power and blessing of God for the salvation of many thou- 
sands in the successive generations ; with a success be- 


yond what any of them which set such an high value on the 
Episcopal ordination could ever boast of! To vilifi this 

as an invalid ministry; lor a degenerate offspring to de- 
clare those men of God, and those burning and shining 
lights, to be no true ministers of Christ; but invaders 
and intruders upon a sacred office ; and robbers that have 
not entered in by the door; they cry out upon it, Good 
God, unto what times hast thou reserved us! 

That which very much adds to the concern on the 
minds of the good people, is, that such high Byersas these, 
who derive their ordination from Rome, do generally dis- 
cover themselves too well affected unto a popish pretender, 
and enemies to the happy revolution : and though of late 
several conversions to high church have been made; among 
their children, wherein to their honour, the great con- 
verter has been a foolish and sorry toy-man, who is a pro- 
fessed Jacobite, and printed a pamphlet to maintain that 
the God whom king William and the churches there 
prayed unto, is the devil ! — (horresco referens !) yet they 
commonly lament it, that the church rarely gains a prose- 
lyte, but king George loses a subject. 

It is a sensible addition, unto their horrour, to see the 
horrid character of more than one or two, who have not 
themselves qualified with Episcopal ordination, to fortify 
little and wretched parties, in disturbing the churches ol 
New-England, and come over as missionaries, perhaps to 
serve scarce twenty families of such people, in a town ol 
several hundred families of christians, better instructed 
than the very missionaries : to think, that they must have no 
other ministers, but such as are ordained, and ordered by 
them, who have sent over such tippling sots unto them : 
instead of those pious and painful and faithful instructers 
which they are now blessed withal! The churches treat 
these new invalids with much civility, and such as can go 
on in their ministry they allow to do so. But the spirit ol 
the country, and their zeal for the pure and undeiiled reli- 
gion and profession of their fathers, has been so conspic- 
uous on this occasion; and the folly of the deserters his 
been so manifest unto all men (and unto some of them- 
selves) that they will proceed no further. The apostasj 


will stop here ; and what has happened, will strongly serve 
to the establishment of the churches, and the abettors of 
these disorders may spare any further pains for the fur- 
nishing of the country with such missionaries. Nor will 
they be received there by any but a few people of such a 
character as will be no great honour either to Christianity, 
or to the church of England. 

Since the writing of this faithful relation, a letter from 
a very eminent person in the government of Connecticut, 
dated Nov. 9, 1722, has these passages: 

c The endeavours of the trustees of the college have 
4 been so far succeeded, as to remove the scruples of those 
' ministers, who had entertained some about their ordina- 
' tions ; so that we have a prospect of peace in the churches 
< they were set over, and that they may go on in the work 
' of the ministry with hope of success. We are not with- 
4 out hopes, that what had so fearful a tendency to the pre- 
judice of that gospel-order, which the churches here 
4 have from the beginning observed, may rather tend to 
' their confirmation therein.' 


Extracted from a discourse, delivered there, 24th November, 1805, the 
day, which completed a century from the incorporation of the town, 
with alterations and additions .'* By John Pierce, A.M. S.H.S. 
The fifth minister of Brookline. 

BROOKLINE lies westerly from Boston, about four 
miles in a straight line from the old state-house. 

It is bounded on the north by Brighton ; on the west 
by Newton ; on the south by Roxbury ; on the east by 
Roxbury and by Charles-river bay, which separates it from 

It belonged to Suffolk county, till the year 1793, when, 
on the division of this county, it became a part of Nor- 

* The text was from Exodus xii. 14, c< This day shall be unto you for a me- 


The name,* originally given hv our ancestors to this 
town, was Muddy-river.} It was thus denominated From 
the stream which is one of its eastern boundaries. 

This town appears to have formed a part of Boston 
from its first settlement. For so early, as 1633, the fol- 
lowing account is given of it in a book, entitled New Eng- 
land's Prospect. J "The inhabitants of Boston, for their 
"enlargement, have taken to themselves farm houses in 
" a place called Muddy-river, two miles from their tow u.^ 
"where is good ground, large timber, and store of marsh 
"land and meadow. In this place they keep their swine 
I and other cattle in the summer, whilst the corn is on the 
"ground at Boston ; and bring them to town in the win- 

By the records of Boston it appears, that special privi- 
leges were early granted in this place to the poor. For 
the first mention, they make of it, is in a vote,|| taken in 
the year 1635, by which it is ordered, "that the poorer 
" sort of inhabitants, such as are members, or likely so to 
" be, and have no cattle, have their proportion of allot- 
" ments for planting ground, laid out at Muddy-river by 
"the aforenamed five persons; those, that fall between 
" the foot of the hill and the water, to have four acres upon 
"a head, and those farther off to have five." This privi- 
lege was to continue three years. 

Agreeably to this resolve, there are recorded the namesll 
of one hundred and two persons, who received their por- 
tion of acres according to the numbers, of which their 
families respectively consisted, and according to the part 
of the town, they occupied. That a large proportion of 
these emigrated hence, it is probable from this considera- 

* By what name it was formerly known to the Indians, whether it were :i part. 
of Nonantum, now Newton, or of Shawmut, now Boston, whether it wen 
nectedby them with any neighbouring town, or had a distinct nnme, the author, 
after the most industrious researches, has been unable to ascertain. 

t The first historical notice, 1 find of it, is in Gov. Winthrop's Journal, an I r 
the date of the 30th of August, 1G32, where lie speaks often Sagamores and many 
Indians, assembled at Muddy-river. The governour sent an officer with twenty 
musketeers to discover their object ; but they were dispersed, before bis arrival. 

I Page 44. 

§ Meaning in a direct line across the water, over which they generally used 
to pass in boats, when they came to their farms in this place. 

|| See Boston records, Vol. I. p. 4, 5. 

IT For these consult the index to Vol. I. of the Boston records. 



tion, that but ten, who bear these names, are now living 
in the town, and that four of these are not natives of the 

In the year 1639, " it was agreed" by the government 
of this commonwealth, " that five hundred acres be laid 
" out at Muddy-river for perpetual commonage to the 
" inhabitants there and the town of Boston, before any 
" other allotments are made."f This was all however 
gradually alienated by subsequent grants. J 

The latter part of this year, the boundary line between 
Boston and Roxbury, at Muddy-river, was amicably 
adjusted by a committee from each town ; and the next 
year, 1640, by the same process, the limits between this 
place and Cambridge, which then comprehended Cam- 
bridge, Brighton, and Newton, were settled in the same 
harmonious manner.^ 

At peace with their neighbours, the inhabitants of this 
place remained in quiet connexion with their parent town, 
till the year 1686. By reason of the inconvenience of at- 
tending business within the peninsula, they then petition- 
ed the general court, and obtained leave, to manage their 
own affairs by men, chosen from among themselves, and 
to be exempt from rates to the town of Boston. The 
conditions were, that they should support their own ex- 
penses ; and " within one year erect a school, and provide 
-" an able reading and writing master."|| 

At their next meeting, the inhabitants of Muddy-river 
voted their acceptance of this grant and compliance with 
its conditions.! At the same time they made provision 
for the maintenance of a schoolmaster. It is therefore 
probable, that, in the true spirit of our New England an- 
cestors, they thus early attended to the instruction of youth, 
though, at this period, there is an interruption in our 
records for a series of years. 

* The present natives of the town, who bear the names of the first settlers, are 
Davis, Griggs, Harris, Jackson, Winchester, and White. 

t See records in the secretary's office. 

X See Boston records, Vol. I. passim. 

§ See records in the secretary's office. 

|| For this and all other information relating to the incorporation of Brookline, 
see a bundle of documents, on file in the secretary's office of this commonwealth, 
under the date of 1705. 

fl See Brookline records, Vol. I. p. 3. 

OF BROOKLINE. ] | . | 

While providing for their comfortable subsistence and 
for the education of their children, we are not to suppose. 
that they were inattentive to religious institutions. The) 
subjected themselves to great inconveniences, before 
they could erect a house of worship, in uniting with a 
neighbouring society. Tradition informs us, that they 
regularly assembled with the first church in Roxbury; 
and by the records of that church it appears, that they 
were admitted, on equal terms with its own members, to 
partake the benefit of gospel ordinances and institutions. 

In the year 1698, when the committee, chosen by the 
town of Roxbury to seat the people in the meeting house. 
were about to meet, they requested a committee from the 
inhabitants of Muddy-river to sit and act with them.* 
At this meeting, it was unanimously agreed, that the in- 
habitants of Muddy-river should enjoy a right to the fifth 
part of the said meeting house, they paying- a fifth part of 
all the past and present charges, which did arise from re- 
pairing the same. To this condition they readily assented ; 
and they continued ever after peaceably to unite in the pub- 
lick worship of God, till a house was erected in this place. 

Unconnected in a great degree with Boston, separated 
from it by water and an intervening town, and not meet- 
ing with it for municipal or religious purposes, the inhab- 
itants of this village came at length to feel no bond of 
union with their parent town. Besides these circumstances, 
the increase of their numbers and wealth imboldened 
them to seek a complete separation. t 

Accordingly in March, 1701, they requested the con- 
sent of Boston for reasons, which they specify, " to be a 
" district or hamlet separate from the town."t 

Instead of granting their request, the inhabitants of 
Boston rigorously exercised over them all the authority. 
they possessed. f 

Finding their application to Boston ineffectual, they re- 
solved to apply to still higher powers. They therefore, 
in June 1704, petitioned the governour, council, and as- 
sembly, "that they might be allowed to be a separate 
village, "f 

On this, the inhabitants of Boston had several meetings, 
warmly remonstrated against the petition, and represented 

* See Brookline records. 

t See aforementioned documents in the secretary's office. 


the request, as highly ingrateful in this people, after having 
experienced so many favours.* Their petition was at 
this time rejected. 

They however persisted in their request ; and, in the 
summer of 1705, presented a petition t to be incorporated, 
signed by thirty two freeholders. 

" TO his Excellency theGovernour, Council, and Assembly in General 
Court convened, The humble petition of the inhabitants of Muddy- 
river showeth, 

" That at a session of this honourable court held at Bos- 
ton, on the 13th day of August, 1704, the said inhabi- 
tants exhibited their humble petition, praying that the said 
Muddy-river might be allowed a separate village or pecu- 
liar, and be invested with such powers and rights, as they 
may be enabled by themselves to manage the general af- 
fairs of the said place. Which petition has been trans- 
mitted to the selectmen of the town of Boston, that they 
may consider the same ; since which your humble peti- 
tioners not having been informed of any objection made by 
the town of Boston aforesaid, we presume, that there is no 
obstruction to our humble request made in our petition. 

" Wherefore we humbly beseech your excellency, that 
this honourable court will be pleased to proceed to pass 
an act for the establishing of the said place a separate vil- 
lage or peculiar with such powers as aforesaid, and your 
petitioners shall ever pray, 

Samuel Sewall, jun. Josiah Winchester 

Thomas Gardner John Devotion 

Benjamin White Joseph Gardner 

Thomas Stedman Thomas Stedman, jun. 

John Winchester John Ackers 

Samuel Aspinwall Joshua Stedman 

Eleazer Aspinwall Thomas Gardner, jun. 

William Sharp Ralph Shepard 

Edward Devotion Abraham Chamberlain 

Josiah Winchester, jun. Peter Boylston 

John Ellis John Ackers, jun. 

John Winchester, jun. William Ackers 

Thomas Woodward Benjamin White, jun. 

I Holland Caleb Gardner 

| Gardner, jun. John Seaver 

Joseph White Henry Winchester." 

* See aforementioned documents in the secretary's office, 
f There is no date to the petition. 

t These christian names, being at the bottom, were worn off. See documents 
in the secretary's office. 


This petition, having passed through the various read- 
ings both in the assembly and in the council, was finally 
granted ; and the signature of the governour incorporat- 
ing it, as a distinct town, by the name of Brook link, was 
obtained, on the thirteenth of November, O. S. 17o:>. 
They were "enjoined" by the act "to build a meeting 
" house, and to obtain an able, orthodox minister, accord- 
" ing to the direction of the law, to be settled among them 
"within the space of three years."* But so small were 
their numbers, and so moderate their circumstances, that 
they were not able to comply with this injunction. 

It is supposed, that the town was called Brookline, not 
from Brooklyn in England ; but from the circumstance, 
that Smeltbrook, which runs by SewalPs farm, so called, 
is a boundary line between this town and Cambridge ; and 
that another brook, which falls into Muddy-river, is a 
boundary between this town and Roxbury. 

Judge Sewall, in his manuscript journal, speaks of this 
place by the name of Brooklin long before its incorpora- 
tion. He calls it so as early, as 1687, and often uses it in 
other parts of his journal, before 1705. 

It was not customary, when this town was incorporated, 
to engross acts of incorporation on parchment. Of course, 
no such record of this town is to be found in the secre- 
tary's office of this commomvealth. 

But by an endorsement on the petition there lodged, it 
is expressly stated, that it was incorporated by the name 
of Brookline. 

In the copy of the act, which the secretary was direct- 
ed to send to Brookline, in the records of this town, it is 
spelt in the same manner. 

These facts are sufficient forever to settle the long con- 
tested and variously decided question respecting its or- 

It is a common tradition, that, previously to the incor- 
poration of Brookline, the eastern boundary of this place 
was Muddy-river to its source ; and that, when this town 
was incorporated, through the influence of Gov. Dudley 

* See "a copy of Brookline's grant," which was sent to this town by the 
secretary of the commonwealth, and which may be found in Brookline records. 
Vol. I. p. 13. 



in favour of Roxbury, where he lived, the boundary was 
moved back from Muddy-river, where it ought to be, to 
the brook, which now forms it. 

But, when a man is unpopular, nothing is more com- 
mon, than to allege against him charges, which cannot be 

By old deeds in possession of those, who now live be- 
tween Muddy-river and Brookline, it appears, that the 
territory between these two places was known by the 
name of Roxbury precinct, long before the incorporation 
of Brookline. This precinct is in repeated instances said 
to be bounded on the east by Muddy-river. 

In an old deed of eighteen acres, given in 1675, twenty 
seven years before Gov. Dudley came to the chair, this 
land is said to be in Roxbury, and to be bounded on the 
northwest by the dividing line, which separates Roxbury 
from Boston. From the land described, this line is known 
to run up the lane, which passes by the engine house, in 
a southwesterly direction, and which is now the boundary 
between Roxbury and Brookline. * 

In May, 1780, the town of Brookline was surveyed, 
and found to contain 4416 acres. f 

In the year 1709, they sent their first representative! 
to the general court. 

It was not till the tenth of November,0. S. 1714,^ nine 
years after the incorporation of the town, that their first 
meeting house || was raised. 

In the February previous to this, a committee of the 
general court, in consequence of a petition from this town, 
having viewed the several places, proposed by the inhab- 
itants, unanimously approved of the spot for erecting a 
house of worship. S 

The covenant was read in publick, and this church 
was gathered, 26 October, 1717, by the Rev. Mr. 
Thayer of the second church in Roxbury. At that time, 

* See old deeds in the hands of Capt. Wyman and others in that vicinity. 

t See Town records. t John Winchester. 

§ Samuel Sewall junior's manuscript journal. 

|| The vote to build it passed, 2 December, 1713. Town records. 

IT See records in the secretary's office. It appears, there was some division 
of opinion among the inhabitants respecting the most convenient place. But 
we hear of no dissatisfaction, after the report of the court's committee- 


seventeen males and twenty two females were united in 
church fellowship.* 

On the twenty first of* November, in the same year, the 
burial ground was located.! 

A fasti was observed, on the twenty third of July, 
1718, to seek divine direction in the ordination of a min- 

On the fifth of November, in the same year, the rever- 
end James Allen,^ a native of Roxbury, was ordained the 
first minister of this church and people. || 

The character of Mr. Allen, as given by his contempo- 
raries, It and by persons of this society, who yet remem- 
ber him, is that of a pious and judicious divine. The 
seven miscellaneous sermons now extant, which were 
published during his life, do equal honour to his head and 
his heart.** 

* Brookline church records. t Town records. 

t The Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather and the Rev. Dr. Cohnan of Boston officiated 
on the occasion. Judge Sewall's manuscript journal. 

§ He was graduated at Harvard University, 1710. 

|| The Rev. Mess'rs. Wadsworth and Colman of Boston prnyed. Dr. Cotton 
Mather of Boston gave the charge. The Rev. Mr. Shepard of Lynn, whose 
daughter Mr. Allen afterwards married, gave the right hand of fellowship. It 
is probable, Mr. Allen himself preached the sermon, as was the custom of 
those times. Church records. 

IT The only survivor, who joined the church in Mr. Allen's day, is Mi. 
Elhanan Winchester, now living in Newton, aged abour 86 years. He became 
a member, 11 December, 1737. He is the father of the late Elhanan Winches- 
ter, who was born in Brookline, 1751, and who, without an academical educa- 
tion, commenced a baptist preacher, and gathered the church of this denomi- 
nation in Newton. Afterwards he became an itinerant preacher of the doctrine 
of restoration in various parts both of England and America. He published 
several volumes on this subject; and died at Hartford, in Connecticut, 17. '7. 
His system is a close imitation of the late Dr. Chauncy's and others. [His 
father became in fine a shaker, and died at Harvard, in September, l v 
91. So that he was first a congregationalist, then a new-light, then a baptist, 
then a universalist, and at last a shaker. It is said, that he declared on his 
death-bed, " In every other denomination I have had my doubts ; but now I 
am sure, that I am right.''] 

** Mr. Allen's printed discourses are, 

I. A Thanksgiving sermon, "What shall I render," from Psalm cxvi. 12. 
8 Nov. 1722. 

II. " The wheels of the world governed by a wise Providence," Ezekiel i. 15, 
16. 1727. 

III. " The doctrine of merit exploded, and humility recommended, Luke 
xvii. 10. 1727. 

IV. " Thunder and earthquake, a loud and awful call to reformation, Isaiah 
xxix. 6. A fast sermon, occasioned by the earthquake in 1727. 

V. "Evangelical obedience the way to eternal life," a sermon I 
young men in Brookline, Mat. xix. 16, 17. 1731. 

VI. " The eternity of God, and the short life of man considered,' a - 
on the death of Samuel Aspinwall, A. M. Psalm cii. 11, 12. 1733. 

VII. "Magistracy an institution of Christ upon the throne,' an Election 
sermon, Isaiah vi. 1. 1744. 



In July, 1743, he wrote to a convention of ministers in 
Boston an account of an attention to religion among his 
people. In this letter he writes, " There have been scores 
" of persons under awakenings. Yea, I have sometimes 
" thought, there has not been a single person of my con- 
gregation, but has been more or less under concern 
about the important matters of another world, and what 
" he should do to be saved. Though these impressions, 
" I fear, are worn off in many ; in others, I have no rea- 
" son to doubt, but they have been carried to a sound and 
" saving conversion. Additions to the church have been 
" considerable for numbers of such, as, I hope, through 
" grace shall be saved ; and chiefly of younger persons ; 
u one of but eleven years of age, and another in the 
" eleventh and last hour of life, being above seventy ; 
" three of a liberal education, two of them since hopeful 
" young preachers."* 

Afterwards, from peculiar circumstances, perhaps from 
the apostasy of some, who had appeared strong in the faith, 
Mr. Allen was led to alter his views of this revival. This 
produced an alienation among some of his former friends ; 
so that the evening of his life was not so bright, as was 
the meridian of his ministry. 

The illness, of which he died, was a lingering consump- 
tion. The clergyman,! who supplied his pulpit, during 
his confinement, speaks of his last days, as happy. " He 
" was," says he, " in a frame becoming a christian. He 
" told me, he had a hope, which he would not part with 
" for a thousand worlds ; but he desired to have the light 
" of God's countenance shining upon him, in such a 
" manner, that he might be fearless ; and longed to have 
" stronger desires to depart, and be with Christ." 

Thus, " after he had served his generation, by the will 
of God, he fell on sleep," the eighteenth of February, 
1747, in the fifty sixth year of his age, and in the twen- 
ty ninth of his ministry. 

* For the whole of this letter, see " The Christian History," &c. published 
at Boston, 1743, vol. I. p. 394. 

t The Rev. John Walley, in his journal. He was afterwards minister of 
Ipswich and of Bolton. 

OF BROOKLI.M.. | j'l 

The additions to the church during his ministry were 
one hundred and fifteen, besides forty-four, who owned 

the covenant without coming to the Lord's table. The 
baptisms were two hundred and sixty one.* 

After Mr. Allen's decease, the church ami people gave 
a call to Mr. Cotton 13rown,t son of a former minister 
of Haverhill. He was accordingly ordained, the tweutj 
sixth of October, 1748. J So short was his ministry, 
that his people had hardly an opportunity to become ac- 
quainted with him, before he was summoned to the world 
of spirits.^ This happened, the thirteenth of April, 1751, 
when he had been ordained but little more, than two 
years, and in the twenty fifth year of his age. 

The additions to the church, while he was minister, 
were only two, admissions to the baptismal covenant 
two, and baptisms twenty lour. 

The Rev. Samuel Haven, afterwards of Portsmouth, 
and the Rev. Stephen Badger, afterwards of Natick, were 
next successively invited to settle in this place, and each 
returned a negative answer. 

After this, the Rev. Robert Rogerson,|| a foreigner, re- 
ceived and accepted an invitation to settle here in the 
ministry. But certain difficulties arising, he was dismis- 
sed by a mutual council. 11 

Then Mr. Nathaniel Potter** of Elizabethtown, New 
Jersey, was called to the pastoral office, and was ordain- 
ed, the nineteenth of November, 1755. But after he 
had been in the ministry about three years and a half, he 
was dismissed, agreeably to his request, the seventeenth 
of June, 1759-tt 

* There was at this period no regular record of marriages or of deaths. 

t He was graduated at Cambridge, 1713. 

X The Rev. Messrs. Cotton of Newton and Walter of Roxbnry praye I. P.- 
Appleton of Cambridge gave the charge ; and the Rev. Mr. Townsend < I N 
ham, the right hand of fellowship. The Rev. Samuel Cooke of Cambridge 
preached the sermon from 2 Tim. ii. 2, which was printed. 

§ His disorder was a violent fever. 

|| He had a degree of A. M. conferred at Cambridge, 1 3 

IT The difficulties, which arose, were not so much between him and tl 
pie, as between different parties among the people. He was afterv 
at Rehoboth, where he passed a long life in the ministry, highly beloved an \ 
respected, and eminently useful. 

** He was graduated at Princeton, New Jersey, 1753. 

XX He published a discourse, delivered here, 1 January, L758, from J 
viii. 20, entitled a new year's gift. 


The admissions to the church within this period were 
fifteen. Five owned the covenant ; and forty were bap- 

Immediately after his departure, the eyes of the peo- 
ple were generally directed toward Mr. Joseph Jackson,* 
Being a tutor at the neighbouring University, he had 
frequently preached in this place. Recollecting his ac- 
ceptable services, they chose him to officiate, as the sole 
candidate. He was soon invited to settle here in the 
ministry ; and was ordained, the ninth of April, 1760.f 

With what diligence, fidelity, devotion, and zeal he 
sustained the pastoral office, many can now testify. 
Though dead, he still lives in their memories and hearts. 

Not only among his affectionate people ; but in the 
societies, where he occasionally officiated, he was highly 
acceptable, as a preacher. Yet, such was his extreme 
modesty, such his diffidence, that he refused to preach 
on several publick occasions. t Never would he consent 
to issue a sermon from the press, though often and ear- 
nestly solicited. § 

As proof of the generosity and affection of his peo- 
ple toward him, though they were great sufferers by the 
late inveterate war with Great Britain, they regularly pro- 
vided for his comfortable support, while many were con- 
tent to discharge their obligations in contracts by the 
mere payment of the nominal sums in depreciated cur- 
rency. || 

In the year 1759, Samuel White, Esq. gave a valua- 
ble woodlot in a neighbouring town for the use of the 
ministry in Brookline. 

* He was graduated at Cambridge, 1753, and was, for several years, a much 
respected tutor at the University. 

t The Rev. Mr. Storer of Watertown and the Rev. Dr. Pemberton of Boston 
prayed. Dr. Appleton of Cambridge gave the charge ; and the Rev. Mr. Check- 
iey of Boston, the right hand. Dr. Cooper of Boston preached the sermon from 
2 Tim. i. 7, which was printed. • 

t At the Artillery Election, 1761 ', at the General Election, 1769, and in 1789 
before the convention of ministers. 

§ He even left positive orders to have all his manuscripts destroyed, immedi- 
ately after his decease. 

|| In like manner, after the peace, when the precious metals greatly depreci- 
ated, all his expenses, which exceeded his income, were allowed him from year 
to year above his stated salary. Town records. 


In May, 1762 the town received three hundred and 
eight half-johannes,* which Mr. Edward Devotion ver\ 

generously bequeathed to the town of Brookline, the in- 
terest of which is to be regularly appropriated to the use 

of schools. 

The town voted to build a steeple to their house, in 
September, 1771, and to accept with thankfulness the 
bell, which was the generous present of the late Nicholas 
Boylston, Esq. 

In the dangers, which threatened, and in the evils, 
which resulted from the late arduous conflict with our 
mother country, the inhabitants of this town bore their 
full share. It is but just to add, that thev unitedly man- 
ifested the spirit of freemen.f 

The fortifications at Sewall's point in this town are 
standing memorials of the dangers, to which they were 
exposed from the neighbouring enemy. When the 
sword was first drawn, and hostilities commenced, they 
rushed with ardour, as volunteers, into the embattled 
field ; and one J of their most active, respectable, useful, 
and beloved townsmen fell a victim to his patriotism and 
zeal in his country's cause. 

By their delegate to the convention, the Rev. Joseph 
Jackson, this town declared in favour of the federal con- 

In May, 1781, a building spot was purchased ; and, in 
the course of this and the subsequent year, a house was 
erected for the use of the ministry. 

In the summer of 1787, an engine company was form- 
ed by an equal number of the inhabitants of Brookline 
and Roxbury. The engine is in Brookline near the boun- 
dary line between the two towns. 

On the twenty second of July, 1796, the Rev. Joseph 
Jackson was removed by a sudden and awful death, in 

* Equal to 7.39 pounds 4 shillings in lawful money. After some loss * by 
paper money, the principal is now 22S0 dolls. G5 cts. 

t So early, as 1767, they unanimously voted, that this town will take nil pru- 
dent and legal measures to promote industry, economy, and manufactures, and 
to discourage the use of European superfluities. 

In 176S they sent a committee to Faneuil hall to meet similar commil 
from other aggrieved towns; and in 1772 they chose a commitl i corres- 
pondence to unite with others of a like description in consulting the 
good. Town records. 

t Isaac Gardner, Esq. 


the sixty second year of his age, and the thirty seventh 
of his ministry.* His health had been gradually decay- 
ing for a considerable time. The loss of an only son, 
six years before, was evidently instrumental in bringing 
him " down with sorrow to the grave." 

For some time before his death, he exhibited many 
presages, and expressed confident expectations of ap- 
proaching dissolution. But it was then, as it had been 
long his prayer, that his life and his usefulness might 
terminate together. His prayer was happily answered.f 

The last sabbath of his life, he preached all day ; A. M. 
from Heb. xiii. 5. P. M. from Heb. xii. 15. 

During his ministry, one hundred and twenty nine 
were added to the church ; seventy eight owned the co- 
venant ; three hundred and seventy nine received bap- 
tism ; two hundred and seventy six were removed by 

In an account, published of this town in the year 1785, J 
it is mentioned, that there were but fifty families in this 
place, and that this was the number at its incorporation. 
Since that period, there has been a considerable in- 
crease.^ This town can now [1813] number 110 fami- 
lies ; 67 of which are freeholders ; 43 tenants ; 10 occa- 
sional, and 100 constant residents. 

On 15 March, 1797, the present pastor was or- 
dained. || 

From the first organization of this church, 26 Oct. 
1717, to 24 Nov. 1805, about eighty eight years, eight 
hundred and eleven were baptized ; one hundred and 
forty four owned the covenant ; three hundred and forty 

* He was born, 2 Jan. 1735. At his funeral the Rev. Jacob Cushing of 
Waltham preached a discourse, which was published, from Luke xii. 35, 36, 37. 

t He had even procured a supply of his pulpit, for the sabbath after his 

t Boston Magazine for June. 

§ This increase has been principally occasioned by gentlemen, who own 
country seats in this town, many of whom reside in Boston during the winter. 
By the census in 1S00 Brookline contained 605 inhabitants. In 1810 it contained 
784. In the year 1797 there were 72 houses. There are now 95 houses, and 
another is building. 

|| On this occasion the Rev. John Bradford of Roxbury introduced the solem- 
nities with prayer ; the Rev. Thaddeus M. Harris of Dorchester preached a dis- 
course, which was published, from 1 Cor. iii. 10 — 15 ; the Rev. Dr. Thacher of 
Boston made the consecrating prayer ; the Rev. Jacob Cushing of Waltham gave 
the charge ; the Rev. Eliphalet Porter of Roxbury gave the right hand of fel- 
lowship ; the Rev. William Greenough of Newton concluded with prayer. 


were added to the church, and, after the fust of January, 
1760, when the regular records of deaths commenced, 
three hundred and forty six were numbered with the dead. 

A list of Brookline ministers with the time of their ordi- 
nation, dismission, or death. 

1. James Allen, A. M. ordained, 5 Nov. 1718 ; died, 
18 Feb. 1747, ret. 56. 

2. Cotton Brown, A. M. ordained, 25 Oct. 1748 ; died, 
13 April, 1751, ret. 25. 

3. Nathaniel Potter, A. M. ordained, 19 Nov. 1755 ; 
dismissed, 17 June, 1759. 

4. Joseph Jackson, A. M. ordained, 9 April, 1760; 
died, 22 July, 1796, ret. 62. 

5. John Pierce, A. M. ordained, 15 March, 1797. 

The following is a list of the deacons of Brookline church 
with the time of their choice, resignation, and death, as 
far as has been ascertained. 

Chosen. ( Thomas Gardner. 

1718, Dec. 7. { Benja. White, resigned, 12 Feb. 1749. 

C Samuel Clark, resigned, 12 Feb. 1749; 

1 died, 7 May, 1766, ;et. 81. 

( Thomas Cotton, dismissed to Pomfret. 

f Eben'r. Davis, resigned, 5 April, 1770; 

17/iQ r mq J ^ied, 30 Sep. 1775, set. 72. 
i/4y,*eu.iy.<; Jogeph ^^ resigned5 5 Aprilj mo . 

[died, 19 Aug. 1777, ret. 75. 
f Elisha Gardner, resigned, 2 Dec. 1792; 
A J died, 29 Jan. 1797, ret. 70. 

l//U,Ap. lo. < Wffl BowleSj dismissed to Newton, 20 

[Sept. 1772. 

man*? i an S Samuel Clark, 
1 /91,b eb.27. < T , D i • 

' ( John Robinson. 

An account of the church plate in Brookline, ivith the do- 
nors'* names. 
Four Tankards. 

1. The gift of Edward Devotion, 1744. 

2. The gift of Miss Mary Allen, 1750. 

3. The gift of Miss Ann White. 

4. The gift of Mrs. Susanna Sharp, 1770. 





Four Cups. 

1. The gift of Thomas Woodward, 

2. The gift of Mary Woodward, 

3. 4. The gift of William Hyslop, 1792. 
5. Baptismal vase by David Hyslop, 1806. 

The whole number of deaths in Brookline from 1 Jan. 
1760, to 1 Jan. 1806, including a period of 46 years. 





1784 4 







1785 4 







1786 6 







1787 3 







1788 4 







1789 6 







1790 4 







1791 3 







1792 10 







1793 7 







1794 4 





1795 3 




2 years, 



50 and 

60, 19 


2 and 10, 



60 and 

70, 35 


10 and 20, 



70 and 

80, 46 


20 and 30, 



80 and 

90, 29 


30 and 40, 



90 and 100, 3* 


40 and 50, 


Ages not mentioned, 24 















Rising of the lights 

King's evil 

► 1 

Small pox 










Throat distemper 
In child bed 



Mr. Vaughan died in 1775, aged 97. 


1 56 

One was killed in battle, and 168 died of diseases 

Of those, whose ages are specified, precisely one 
lived beyond the age of 40 ; nearly one quarter live* 
the age of 70; and about one in ten lived to the 
of 80. 

The average number of deaths is fifteen in every 
years, or seven one year, and eight the next, al 

The prevalent disorder has been consumption, of w 
about one sixth part have died. 

Deaths in the seven succeeding years. 



1 to 


1806, 7 

1810, 10 

1807, 14 

1811, 8 

1808, 12 

1812, 14 

1809, 6 

Total, 71 

Under 2 years, 


Between 50 and 60, 


Between 2 and 10, 


Between 60 and 70, 


Between 10 and 20, 


Between 70 and 80, 


Between 20 and 30, 


Between 80 and 90, 


Between 30 and 40, 



Between 40 and 50, 














Dropsy in brain 




Hooping cough 






Cholera morbus 










In child bed 


Since the first settlement of this place, twenty six have 
received an education at Harvard University, one at 
Princeton, [N. J.] and one at Providence, [R. I.] Oi 
these seven have been ordained ministers of the gospel. 


Here follows a list of those,* who have been educated 
at Harvard University from Brookline. 

1. Year, in which they were graduated, 1698. *Jokn 
White, A. M. He was ordained minister at Gloucester, 
April, 1703. He died, 16 Jan. 1760, set. 83. 

2. 1707. *Ebenezer Devotion, A. M. He was or- 
dained minister of Suffield in Connecticut, 28 June, 1710 ; 
and died, 11 April, 1741, set. 57. 

3. 1712. * Edward White, A. M. He was after- 
wards a farmer in Brookline, major of the regiment of 
militia, representative to the General Court, and justice 
of the peace. He was born, 10 July, 1693, and died, 29 
May, 1769, set. 76. 

4. 1712. * Andrew Gardner, A. M. He was ordain- 
ed minister of Worcester, in 1719, and was dismissed, in 
Oct. 1722. He was after that installed at Lunenburgh, 
15 May, 1728, and dismissed, 22 Feb. 1732. 

5. 1714. * Samuel Aspinwall, A. M. He was born, 
13 Feb. 1696 ; and died, 13 Aug. 1732, set. 37. 

The Rev. Mr. Allen published a funeral sermon on his 
death, in which he gives him an excellent character for 
moral and literary worth. The following account of him 
by the same hand appeared in the New England Weekly 
Journal, No. 283. " Brookline, Aug, 21. On the 13th 
instant, died here Mr. Samuel Aspinwall, of this town, 
in the 37th year of his age, after between six and seven 
years' illness. He commenced master of arts in Cam- 
bridge, 1717, and was designed for the ministry, but dis- 
couraged by an inward weakness ; which, after he had 
been for some little time settled here, so advanced, as to 
take him off from business, and at length proved fatal. 
He was a gentleman of bright parts, natural and acquir- 
ed, a strong memory, quick wit, and solid judgment, 
pleasant in his conversation, a steady friend, and a good 

6. 1733. *Eben-ezer White, A. M. He was born, 
29 March, 1713. He was minister of Norton, now 

* For several of the following particulars I am indebted to the Hon. William 
Winthrop, Esq. of Cambridge. 


7. 1737. * Jonathan Winchester, A. M. lie; was 
born, 21 April, 1717; and was ordained minister of 
Dorchester-Canada, since Ashfaurnham, 23 April, 17'iO. 
He died, 27 Nov. 1767, set. 51. 

8. 1733. * Henry Sewall, A. M. He was horn, 8 
March, 1720. He passed his days on one of his farms 
in this town ; and was justice of the peace. He died, 
29 May, 1771, an. 52. 

9. 1738. * John Druce, A. M. He was a physician 
at Wrentham. 

10. 1738. * Charles Gleason, A. M. He was horn, 
29 Dec. 1718; ordained minister of Dudley, 31 Oct. 
1744 ; and died, 7 May, 1790, tet. 72. 

11. 1742. * James Allen, A. M. He was son of 
the first minister of Brookline. He was born, 20 Sep. 
1723 ; and died young. 

12. 1744. * Benjamin White, A. M. son of Major 
Edward White, Esq. aforementioned. He was born, 5 
Oct. 1724. He spent his days on his farm in this town. 
He was justice of the peace; for many years a repre- 
sentative to the General Court, and a counsellor. He 
died, 8 May, 1790, eet. 66. 

13. 1747. * Isaac Gardner, A. M. He was horn, 
9 May, 1726, and led an agricultural life in Brookline. 
He was justice of the peace. On the memorable 19th 
of April, 1775, he went, as a volunteer, to Lexington 
battle, and was killed at Cambridge by the British troops, 
on their return to Boston. 

In his domestick, social, civil, and religious capacity 
he was equally beloved and respected. The melancholy 
circumstance of his death excited great publick sensi- 
bility, as well as private lamentation and regret. 

14. 1761. *Hull Sevvall, A. M. He was the son 
of Henry Sewall, Esq. born 9 April, 1744 ; and died, 27 
Nov. 1767, a3t. 24. 

15. 1761. * Samuel Sewall, A. M. He was born, 
31 Dec. 1745. He practised law for some time in Bqs- 
ton. At the commencement of hostilities with Great 
Britain, he left his native country, and resided at Bristol 
in England, where he died in May, 1811. 



16. 1764. William Aspinwall, A. M. M. D. physician 
of Brookline. For several years he was representative to 
the General Court, afterwards senator from the county 
of Norfolk, and then a counsellor. 

17. 1764. * Isaac Winchester, A. M. He was born ? 
5 Aug. 1743 ; and died in the continental army. 

18. 1768. * Henry Sewall, A. M. son of Henry 
Sewall, Esq. He was born, 19 Jan. 1749 ; and died ? 
17 Oct. 1772, set. 24. 

19. 1777. John Goddard, A. M. merchant in Ports- 
mouth, N. H. For many years he was representative to 
the court, and senator in the legislature of said state. 

20. 1786. *Elisha Gardner, A. M. He followed 
merchandise, and died at the southward. 

21. 1787. Caleb Child, A. B. physician. 

22. 1787. * Joseph Jackson, A. M. son of the fourth 
minister of Brookline. He died at Portsmouth, N. H. 
19 Aug. 1790, while pursuing the study of physick. 

23. 1804. William Aspinwall, A. M. M. D. son of 
the Hon. William Aspinwall, Esq. He practises phys- 
ick in his native town. 

24. 1804. Thomas Aspinwall, A. M. son of the 
Hon. William Aspinwall, Esq. For several years he was 
a lawyer in Boston. He is now a colonel in the United 
States' army. 

25. 1805. Samuel Clark, A. M. son of Deac. Sam- 
uel Clark. He is minister in Burlington, Vermont. 

26. 1805. Isaac S. Gardner, son of Gen. Isaac S. 
Gardner. He is instructer of youth in Georgetown, dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

* Caleb White was graduated at Princeton, [N. J.] 

Luther Harris was graduated at Providence, [R. I.] 

The late Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, F. R. S. a native of 
Brookline, has been so highly and so deservedly celebrat- 
ed, that a brief account of him cannot be unacceptable. 

He was born in this town, of respectable parents, in 
1679. After a good private education, he studied phys- 
ick with Dr. Cutler, an eminent physician and surgeon 

OF BROOK LINE. 1 . r ){) 

of Boston ; and, in process of time, arrived at great dis- 
tinction in his profession. 

In the year 1721, the small pox prevailed in Boston. 
Having being informed by the Rev. Dr. Cotton Mather 
of the mode, in which inoculation was practised in Tur- 
key, he boldly resolved, notwithstanding the inveterate 
prejudices of his countrymen against it, to commence the 
practice himself. 

He first inoculated his own children and servants. 
Encouraged by the result of this experiment, in 1721, 
and the beginning of 1722, he inoculated 247 persons in 
Boston and the neighbouring towns. Thirty nine were 
inoculated by others, making in the whole 286, of whom 
only six died. 

Notwithstanding this wonderful success, the populace, 
headed and inflamed by some of his own profession, were 
so exasperated, as to render it unsafe for him to travel in 
the evening. They argued, that he ought to be viewed 
and treated, as the murderer of those, who died in con- 
sequence of inoculation. To such a pitch did their pas- 
sions transport them, that a lighted grenado was, one 
evening, thrown into the chamber of a young man, who 
had been inoculated. He must inevitably have lost his 
life, had not the fuse been removed by passing through 
the window. 

Had Dr. Boylston gone at this time to England, he 
might have accumulated an immense fortune by his skill 
in treating the small pox. He did not however visit that 
country, till 1725, when inoculation was common. He 
was then received with the most flattering attention. He 
was chosen member of the Royal Society ; and he became 
acquainted with some of the most distinguished charac- 
ters in the nation. His communications to that so- 
ciety, after his return to America, were ingenious and 

After a long period of eminence and skill in his pro- 
fession, he retired to his patrimonial estate in Brook line, 
to pass the remainder of his days. He there expired, on 
the 1st of March, 1766, and was interred in his own 
tomb, which bears the following plain, through appropri- 
ate, and just inscription. 


" Sacred to the memory of Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, Esq. 
physician, and F. R. S. who first introduced the practice 
of inoculation into America. Through a life of exten- 
sive beneficence, he was always faithful to his word, just 
in his dealings, affable in his manners ; and, after a long 
sickness, in which he was exemplary for his patience and 
resignation to his Maker, he quitted this mortal life, in a 
just expectation of a happy immortality, on the first day 
of March, A. D. 1766, setat. 87." 

For a more particular account of him, see a sketch of 
his life and character, written by the late Dr. Thacherof 
Boston, and inserted in the Massachusetts Magazine 
for December, 1789, from which the above is principally 

It is but justice to add, that Dr. Aspinwall of this town 
continued the practice, which his renowned predecessor 
thus introduced, with equal diligence, fidelity, and zeal, 
and with still greater success. 

Perhaps no practitioner in the United States ever in- 
oculated so many persons, or acquired such skill and 
celebrity in treating this malignant disease. 

Besides his practice in this disorder, when it generally 
spread, he was allowed, after the year 1788, to keep a 
hospital open at all times, to which great numbers repair- 
ed, and from which they safely returned with warm ex- 
pressions of satisfaction. He continued in the success- 
ful treatment of this disease, till the general introduction 
of vaccine inoculation. 

In Indian wars several of the natives of this town have 
fallen victims in the prime and vigour of life.* 

Tradition has preserved the names of but few. The 
Rev. Dr. Holmes of Cambridge, in the first volume of 
his American Annals, page 429, has mentioned the fol- 
lowing inscription, found on a stone in Sudbury, giving 

* On Sewall's farm in this town are plainly discernible the remains of an 
Indian fort, containing about the eighth of an acre. It is of a square form, 
surrounded by a ditch nearly three feet deep, and a parapet about three feet 
high. It has an opening or gateway at each side. One of these is directly 
toward a large swamp, commonly called Cedar swamp, near which the fort is 
situated on a commanding eminence. Tradition, which has long preserved 
the memorial of this fact, gives no account, by what tribe of Indians, on what 
occasion, nor why it was erected. 


an account of the death of Lieutenant Sharp* of this town. 
" Capt. Samuel Wadsworth of Milton, his Lieut Sharp 
"of Brooklin, and twenty six other souldiers, fighting for 
" the defence of their country, were slain by the Indian 
" enemy, April 18th, 1676, and lye buried in this place.' 5 

16 May, 1804, it was voted to build a new meeting 
house, in the place of the old meeting house. 

But it being inconvenient, for several reasons, to ear- 
ly this resolution into effect, this vote was reconsidered : 
and, 5 September, 1804, it was voted to build the meet- 
ing house, where it is now located. 

The corner stone was laid, 11 April, 1805. The 
house was several days in raising with a very few hands 
by the help of machinery. The architect was Mr. Peter 
Banner, a native of England. 

The old meeting house was 44 feet long, and 35 feet 
wide. It originally contained but 14 pews. At its de- 
molition it had 28 pews on the floor ; and 4 in the gal- 

The new house is 68 feet long, and 64 feet wide. The 
porch is 19 feet long, and 38 feet wide. The lobbies at 
each side of the porch are 11 feet square. The height 
of the building from the top of the foundation to the 
eaves is 35 feet and 6 inches. From the foundation of 
the tower to the top of the spire it is 138 feet high. 

There are 74 pews on the floor, and 14 in the gallery. 

This second house of publiek worship was, by appro- 
priate religious exercises, dedicated to the service 1 of 
Almighty God, 11 June, 1806, it being then a few 
months more than a century from the incorporation of 
the town. 

* Great, great grandfather of the present Stephen Sharp, Esq. The BCH1 of 
this Lieut. Sharp afterwards lost his life in an expedition against the Indiana 
in Canada. 



Amherst, (N. H.) June 26, 1813. 

Rev. Sir, 

WHILE on a visit to Billerica in Massachusetts, last 
year, I inspected the records of that town. Among the 
iirst pages of the most ancient book, I found the follow- 
ing table of births, marriages and deaths, which time 
had nearly obliterated, and which was with difficulty 
transcribed. It is forwarded to you, Sir, with a request 
that it may be published in the Collections of the His- 
torical Society. 

With great deference, I am your humble and obe- 
dient servant, 


Rev. A. Holmes, D. D. 

Table of Births, Marriages and Deaths, in the town of Billerica, 
(Mass.) for forty one years. 







































































































































































It appears from the records, that Billerica was granted 
Feb. 17, 1654, by Henry Dunster, Richard Champney, 
Edw. Goffe and John Bridge to the following persons ; 
viz. Ralph Hill, sen. Win. French, John Stearns, Win. 
Patten, George Farley, Ralph Hill, jun. John Vroe, James 
Parker, Jonathan Danforth, Henry Sciffs, Wm. Cham- 
berlain and Robert Parker. 



Read to an assembly of Citizens at the opening of Washington Hall, 
Nov. 10, 18113, and afterward prepared, with notes, for the Massa- 
chusetts Historiccd Society. 13y Josiah Bartlett, M. 1). 

THERE are periods in society, as well as in the life 
of an individual, when it is peculiarly proper, by a review 
of past occurrences, to trace the progress of improve- 
ment, and excite such feelings, as may lead to future 
usefulness. On this occasion, when we are convened in 
such auspicious circumstances, and may rationally esti- 
mate the advantages of a laudable exertion for ourselves 
and our posterity, I deem it appropriate to attempt a 
general sketch of our municipal history, and offer such 
observations as comport with the design of our present 

Among the intrepid advocates of civil and religious 
freedom, who encountered the dangers of the ocean, and 
the greater dangers of the wilderness, were nine or ten 
persons,* who in the summer of 1628, travelled by land 
from Naumkeak, now called Salem, and, under the au- 
thority of governour Endicot, constituted this placet an 
English settlement. They here found an " English 
thatched house pallisadoed," and occupied by Thomas 
Walford, a smith by trade, of whom no particular account 
is preserved. By the Indians, who were very numerous, 
it was called Mishawum, and their chief was John Saga- 
more, by whose consent these enterprising travellers set- 
led themselves in the neighbourhood of town hill, 

* Among whom Ralph Sprague with his brethren Richard and William are 
particularly named in the record. 

t Charle-town, lying in lat. 42°, 23' N. and long. 4" E. from the meridian ol 
Cambridge, is of an irregular form, about 7 1-4 miles long, and 1 mile in aver- 
age width. Its bounds (formerly very extensive) were established by the 
General Court, March 3, 1635. It now lies S. W. on Cambridge, X- W. on 
Woburn, N. W. and N. E. on Mistick river, and S. E. on Charles river, from 
which its name is derived. The natural divisions are distinguished by within 
and without the neck. The first includes a peninsula, formed by Mistick and 
Charles rivers, somewhat of an oval form, about a mile and a quarter long, 
and half a mile wide, upon which the town is built, and which i- joined to the 
main by a narrow isthmus. The second division contains a gnat quantity of 
fertile land, rendered valuable from its vicinity to an excellent market. 


which was fortified * the year following, against invasions, 
with which the English were threatened. 

On the margin of that memorable eminence we are 
now assembled ; it has been repeatedly a citadel of de- 
fence, a resort for the instruction of youth, and devoted 
to the service of the Almighty. Here our fathers resisted 
the threatenings of untutored savages ; here they taught 
the rudiments of science, and projected measures for 
their future happiness ; here, if tradition is correct, they 
worshipped beneath the shade of a venerable oak, and 
perhaps anticipated a period like the present, when their 
descendants, on the same spot, in a spacious temple,t 
should pay their weekly adorations to the Great Crea- 
tor ; and in a convenient edifice,! dedicated to patriot- 
ism and philanthropy, should gratefully respect their 
memories, and cultivate the principles they so assiduously 

In 1629,^ Gov. John Winthrop arrived here with 
fifteen hundred persons, and resided several months, || 
during which time a church was gathered, which was 
the second in Massachusetts. The governour and other 
publick officers were accommodated with a building 
called the great housed on the westerly side of our pre- 
sent Market square, and near the late residence of the 
Hon. James Russell** deceased. The remainder resided 

* This was "performed by all bands, viz. of men, women and children, 
who labour in digging and building till the work is done." 

t The Congregational meeting house. t Washington Hall. 

§ The arrival of Gov. Wiuthropis stated by himself, Dudley, Mather, Holmes, 
and others, to have been in 1630 ; but the original town record, vol. 1. page 3, 
makes it in 162 r ', and the figures in the margin and text are perfectly plain. 

|| " The first Court of Assistants was held in Charlestown harbour, on board 
the Arabella, Aug. 23, 1G30, present, Gov. Winthrop, Dep. Gov. Dudley, Sir 
R. Saltonstall, Messrs. Ludlow, Rossiter, Nowell, Sharp, Pynchon, and Brad- 
street." The Hon. Simon Bradstreet was governour in 1679, and his descend- 
ants have continued here with reputation to the present period. 

If Built in 1628, on account of the patentees, by Thomas Graves, who 
planned the fort on Town Hill, and was appointed to " moddle and lay out the 
form of the town with streets," and to "measure out to each inhabitant a two 
acre lot to plant upon." He is spoken of as " a person skilful in mines of iron, 
lead, copper, mineral salt, and allum, fortification of all sorts, surveying, &c." 
He was an Assistant with Gov. Endicot, and appointed a sea commander by 
Oliver Cromwell. His descendants were citizens of repute, and sustained im 
portant offices. 

** The ancestors of Mr. Russell were among the first settlers of the town, 
and enjoyed the most important legislative, judicial and municipal offices. He 
died in 1798, aged 83, and was a descendant of the fourth generation, who 


in cottages, booths and tents. These persons, having 
experienced great sufferings from a variety of causes,* 
became so unhealthy, that many died soon after their ar- 
rival, in consequence of which, the governour, with many 
of the survivors, removed over Charles river to Skawmiit, 
which they called Boston, and others engaged in the set- 
tlement of Watertown, Cambridge, and other places, 
leaving but seventeen male inhabitants. 

In I632,f the small pox was very destructive to the 
natives, which rendered the lives of the emigrants more 
comfortable, and hastened an increase of their country- 
men, who, early in 1633, amounted to fifty eight, most of 
whom had families. At this period a church was again 
gathered ; the house J which Gov. Winthrop had occu- 
pied was purchased as a place of worship, and used as 
such till 1716, when a meeting house § was erected on 
the northerly part of the square. 

In 1634, the town was organized, delegates were elect- 
ed to the General Court, selectmen || and other officers 
were appointed ; and from that time it gradually popu- 

successively among other places of great trust, sustained the office of assistant 
or counsellor in the province. His son, the Hon. Thomas Russell of Boston, 
an eminent merchant and philanthropist, was a native of Charlestown, and 
was also a representative of Boston, and a counsellor. He died April S, 179G, 
aged 56. An eulogy on his character was delivered May 4 following, by John 
Warren, M. D. and is published. 

* It is said that but one. spring of fresh water was then to be found, and that 
upon the beach, near the present scite of the state prison. However this may 
be, no town is now better supplied. 

t The winter of this year was severe, and there was a scarcity of provisions. 
In the spring a vessel arrived from Virginia with Indian corn, which sold for 
ten shillings a bushel. 

John Sales was the first inhabitant convicted of theft. He was publickly pun- 
ished and " all he had was taken to make restitution." 

t " April, 1633. Agreed and concluded by the inhabitants, that the sum often 
pounds be collected of the said inhabitants, and be paid to John Winthrop, Esq. 
governour, and the rest of the gentlemen interested in the great house built in 
anno, 1623, by Mr. Graves and the company's servants ; which is for the pur- 
chase of the said house, now the puhlick meetinghouse in this town ; all which 
was accordingly done." This is a specimen of the early records of the town, 
which are very minute and entertaining to those who acquire a knowledge of 
the writing of that period. The town clerk was Mr. Increase Nowell, who was 
afterward secretary to the colony. 

§ This building was 72 feet long, 52 feet wide, and 34 feet (three stories) 
high, with a steeple. The cost stated at 2000 pounds. 

|| The number of " deputys at court" this year was three ; and of selectmen, 
eleven. The names of persons admitted inhabitants were recorded, and on 
the 8th of March, 1635, it was agreed, that "whosoever is warned to appear 
at any town meeting forty eight hours before the time appointed, and shall fail, 
unless the occasion be extraordinary, shall forfeit and pay eighteen pence." 



lated and improved, until a large part of it fell a sacrifice 
to the ravages of war. 

On the state of the town during an hundred and 
forty seven years to this event, it may be remarked, that 
the inhabitants were industrious, sober, and cultivated 
good principles. Publick worship was regularly attend- 
ed, schools were as well regulated as the state of society 
would allow. Navigation, which consisted principally in 
the whale fishery and West India trade, though not ex- 
tensive, was prosperous ; the mechanick arts were cher- 
ished, and advantages were derived from ship-building, 
the manufactory of rum, loaf sugar, candles, leather and 

Judicial courts were early instituted, and continued 
until the revolutionary war. A dry dock was made in 
1678, above the present draw bridge, near the navy yard, 
and was the only one in the country. The small pox* 
and other contagious diseases have generally prevailed 
when they did in the metropolis ; and there have been 
several fires f distressing to individuals, the most remark- 
able of which was in 1749, occasioned by the villany of 
three negro servants, who were convicted of poisoning 
their master, J and two of whom were executed, the other 
becoming evidence for the king. 

A ferry,^ communicating with Boston, which was re- 
puted to be the best regulated of any in the province, 

* The last spread of the small pox was in the autumn of 1792. The number 
inoculated was 1334 (879 inhabitants and 455 strangers) of which 9 died. 12 
had the disease the natural way, of whom 5 died. Vaccination is now gener- 
ally practised. 

t There is an account of several fires in Charlestown, during the eighteenth 
century, in the Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. I. 
second series, p. 81, &c. 

| Capt. John Codman, a respectable citizen, and an active military officer, 
destroyed by arsenick. The servants were named Mark, Phillis, and Phoebe, 
who were favourite domesticks. The man procured the drug, and the females 
administered it. Mark was hanged, and Phillis was burnt at the usual place 
of execution in Cambridge. Phcebe, who was said to have been the most cul- 
pable, became evidence against the others. She was transported to the West 
Indies. The body of Mark was suspended in irons on the northerly side of 
Cambridge road, about a quarter of a mile above our peninsula, and the gibbet 
remained till a short time before the revolution. Are there any other instances 
of burning or gibbeting in the annals of New England ? 

§ This ferry was first* rented to Edward Converse for forty shillings a year. 
In 1640, it was given to Harvard College, and afforded a handsome revenue. 
The bridge at the same place now pays it two hundred pounds a year. 


was established in 1631 ; and one was opened without 
the peninsula, to communicate with Maiden, in L640. 

There is now at this place a convenient bridge,* erected 
in 1787. 

On the retreat of the English troops from Concord, 
April 19, 1775, a great part of the inhabitants f of this 
town abandoned it, and they were dispersed in various 
parts of the country. On the 17th of June of that year, 
the Americans began a breastwork on Breed's Hill, 
which was discovered at Boston the following morninir, 
when a severe cannonade commenced. hi the afternoon 
an attack was made by the British, who, after a severe 
conflict, obtained a dear bought victory.f During the 
battle the town was set on fire, when the meeting house, 
a court house, prison, county house, two school houses, 
and a work house, ^ with upwards of three hundred and 
eighty dwellings and other buildings, valued on oath at 
five hundred and twenty three thousand dollars, were 
totally consumed, and two thousand persons, being the 
whole population of the peninsula, were reduced from 
affluence and mediocrity to poverty and exile. 

Connected with these solemn transactions was the 
death of the Hon. Joseph Warren, || a distinguished states- 

* Maiden Bridge was finished in six months, and cost 5300 pounds. The 
property is vested in 120 shares. It is 2400 feet long, including the abutments, 
32 feet wide, has a convenient draw, and eight lamps. The Mistick river, 
over which it passes, is, at high water, 23 feet deep. The property is per- 
petual, but the toll is subject to alteration at the expiration of fifty years. JUte 
president is the Hon. John Phillips of Boston. 

t James Miller, aged 66, and Edward Barber, aged 14, were killed on that 

t The Americans engaged in this enterprize were commanded by Col. 
Prescott, and 6tated at 1500. The British (being the flower of the army) were 
commanded by Gen. Howe, and stated at 3000. The loss of the former, in 
killed and wounded, was 450, and of the latter 1050. For an accurate account 
of the transaction, see Marshall's Life of Washington, vol. IT. p. 226. 

§ The scite of the meeting house was on the northerly part of the square, 
in front of the house now owned by the Hon. Matthew Bridge. The court 
house was on the easterly part of the square, in front of the estate belonging 
to the heirs of the Hon. Thomas Russell, deceased. One of the school houses, 
which was built for a town house, and on which were the town bell and clock, 
was on the spot where the Congregational meetinghouse now stands; the other, 
with the prison, county house, and work house, were on the margin of Town 
hill, in the vicinity of the present school house. 

|| The day previous to the battle, Warren, at the age of 35, was appointed 
a major general, and acted on this occasion as a volunteer. He was buried on 
the field ; but was afterward removed, and publickly interred at Boston, where 
an oration was pronounced, April 8, 1776, by Perez Morton, Esq. It wag 


man, an eloquent orator, and an intrepid warrior, who fell 
an early sacrifice on the altar of freedom. 

During the siege of Boston, that division of our terri- 
tory, which we distinguish by without the neck, and 
where there are several vestiges of fortifications,* was 
principally occupied by the American troops, and the in- 
habitants were consequently subject to considerable in- 
conveniences, which it has been supposed were fully 
compensated in 1778, by a temporary residence of the 
British and Hessian army, captured at Saratoga : whose 
necessaries and conveniences were purchased with spe- 
cie, whilst the circulating medium of the country was a 
depreciated paper currency. This section was exclu- 
sively agricultural, with the exception of the alewife fish- 
ery at proper seasons, until within a few years, since 
which the manufactory of bricks has afforded employ- 
ment for many of the citizens. Its growth has been 
gradual ; it has furnished a full proportion of the town 
officers, and has derived peculiar advantages! from its 
connexion with the peninsula. 

On the removal of the seat of war in 1776, many of 
the former inhabitants returned from their exile, { and 
commenced according to their respective means, to re- 
pair their waste places. A few of the number were able 
to erect convenient dwellings, whilst others, like their 
hardy predecessors, were only covered with temporary 
shelters. Those, who can call to mind the occurrences 
of that interesting era, must recollect their mingled emo- 
tions of despondency and pleasure. The only objects 
that retained their former appearance were desolated 
streets, and the grave yard of their ancestors and rela- 
tives ; but by a consideration of mutual sufferings, it was 
the endeavour of every individual to meliorate the con- 

* There are several hills in this town, famed in the American annals, the 
most of which command extensive prospects. On the peninsula are Bunker's 
and Breed's on the N. E. side ; and on the S. W. are Town hill (which has 
been much reduced) and a small hill used as a burying ground. Without the 
neck are Prospect, Winter, Plowed and Cobble hills (on this is the seat of the 
late Joseph Barrell, Esq ) with three others of less note, called Quarry, Reed's 
and Walnut hills. 

t Particularly in schools, and the highways. 

t Mr. Timothy Thompson, jun. was the first person born on the peninsula, 
after the town was opened ; and Susanna Hooper (now Mrs. Haven) was the 
first female. 


dition of his neighbour; to cultivate harmouv, and 
unite for the benefit of the whole. A block-house, 
erected by the enemy, at the place* originally fortified 
against the natives, was appropriated to the discharge 
of our civil duties, to the publick services of religion, 
and to the education of youth. Here, uninfluenced 
by political dissensions, we gave our first suffrages t 
for a chief magistrate and legislators, under the constitu- 
tion of this Commonwealth ; when, in the true spirit of 
republicanism, we exulted in the commencement of a 
government, achieved by our ablest statesmen, and cal- 
culated to promote our own happiness with that of our 
At the expiration of nine years to 1785, J the buildings 
on the peninsula were one hundred and fifty one, and the 
population was five hundred and fifty. The buildings 
without the neck, were one hundred and twenty eight, 
and the population four hundred and forty nine, making 
but a small difference at that time, in the geographical 
divisions of the town. The present number of inhab- 
itants, including temporary residents ^ for employment, 
is nearly six thousand, of which about five-sixths reside 
on the peninsula, where the natural population has been 
unusual || from a constant accession of young families. 
The buildings have increased in twenty eight years from 
one hundred and fifty one, many of which were tempo- 
rary and are abolished, to the present state of respecta- 
bility and convenience, wdiich far exceeds our former 

The principal streets were widened, straightened and 
improved, and the Market Square was regularly laid out, 

* Town Hill. 

t Sept. 4, 17S0. The votes for Governour were 4&. Lieut. Governour 39. 
Senators 3S. In 1813, the votes for Governour were 821. Lieut. Governour 
821. Senators 819. 

t The buildings and inhabitants were numbered at this time, when a con- 
cise account of the town was published, in part, in the Boston Magazine ; and 
afterward entire in No. 1 and 2 of the American Recorder (Dec. 9th and 13th, 
1805) a newspaper printed at Charlestovvn, but which was not long continued. 
That publication was prepared by the author of this sketch, and embraces some 
of the facts to that period, which are here stated. 

§ Estimated at 900, including women and children. 

|| It appears by extracts from the new year's sermons of the Rev. Dr. Morse, 
that in the last 25 years, the number of births on the peninsula, was 32225, and 
of deaths 1510. 



soon after the opening of the town in 1776 ; to facilitate 
which, a lottery was granted, and the state taxes were 
remitted for seven years. These with a brief, for assist- 
ance to erect a meeting house, and a partial support to 
the aged and infirm, who were reduced by the conflagra- 
tion, were the only instances of legislative aid for the 
sufferings of the inhabitants in the cause of their coun- 
try ; though a seasonable application on this subject, was 
respectfully submitted to the continental Congress, by a 
committee * appointed for that purpose. 

Our publick buildings are four meeting houses, five 
school houses, in one of which is a town hall ; a powder 
magazine belonging to the Commonwealth, and an alms 
house. f The present number of dwellings,! stores, 

* Hon. Nathaniel Gorham and Thomas Russell. 

By the report of a committee of Congress dated Philadelphia, May 16, 1777, 
they sympathize with the sufferers, and consider the estimate of damages to 
be very moderate ; but they " apprehend that if Congress were to pay that 
valuation, claims much more extensive, and of a similar nature, will be made 
by other sufferers, and subject the United States to the payment of sums of 
money which, in the present exigencies of their affairs, cannot be spared from 
the support of the present just and necessary war." 

In 1784 Mr. Gorham, at the request of the sufferers went to England, to so- 
licit aid ; but this mission (which was disapproved of by many) like that to 
Philadelphia, was unsuccessful. 

t A Congregational meeting house, 72 feet long, 52 feet wide and 27 feet 
high to the eaves, erected in 1783, and widened to 84 feet in 1804. It has a 
large tower, and elegant steeple. A bell of 1300 weight (which has been twice 
broken and replaced) was presented by Messrs. Champion, Dickason and 
Burgis, merchants of London, and an elegant clock, by the Hon. Thomas 
Russell. These are the property of the town. A convenient chapel, 26 feet 
long, 21 wide and 10 1-2 high, for parish and church meetings, lectures, &c. 
was built by subscriptions in the church in 1809, on part of a valuable parson- 
age lot, bequeathed in 1703, by Mr. Richard Sprague. 

A Baptist meeting house, 65 feet long, 50 feet wide and 29 feet high, erected 
in 1800. It is handsome and convenient, with a cupola and bell, but was re- 
linquished by the society for whom it was built, and now belongs to an indi- 

A Baptist meeting house, 65 feet long, 50 feet wide, and 14 feet high, built 
with brick in 1810. It is a well finished, respectable edifice, and belongs to 
the society who occupied the building above described. 

A Universal meeting house, 62 feet long, 62 feet wide, and 34 feet high, 
built "with brick in 1810. It is commodious, and handsomely finished. 

Two of the school houses are built with brick, two stories high, and are on 
the peninsula; the three others are of wood, and properly located without the 

There is a building erected by Major Timothy Walker for an Academy, 
which is kept by Oliver Brown, A. M. 

The Magazine on Quarry hill, is a strong stone edifice of a conic figure, and 
has been erected many years. 

The Alms house is a wooden building, two stories high, with proper ac- 
commodations for the keeper, and for the persons who are subjects of such an 
institution. The keeper is Mr. Gideon Foster. 

t Of these, some are elegant, many are spacious, and others are convenient. 
A law has lately passed, requiring a certain proportion of every new building 
to be of brick. 


barns, &c. is eight hundred and fifty, of which six hun- 
dred and seventy are on the peninsula. 

In 1812 an application was made to the legislature, for 
the reestablishment of Judicial Courts, which was pro- 
bably defeated, by an influence, that has recently decided 
on the erection of a court house and jail at Lechmcrc's 
Point in Cambridge ; an establishment which is consid- 
ered injurious to us, but which we are told will be com- 
pensated by an intended spacious causeway, to connect 
us with that territory. 

In 1803 an avenue was opened at the easterly part of 
the town, in nearly a direct line from Salem, by means of 
a turnpike road, and the erection of Chelsea Bridge.* 

The Congregational church, established in 1633, has 
continued to the present time ; a Baptist church was 
founded in 1801 ; a Universal church in 1811, and there 
are other religious societies, by which we enjoy the pri- 
vilege of attending publick worship according to our va- 
rious opinions ; and it is honourable to the different sects, 
that there is no apparent discord on this important sub- 

* This Bridge was built across Mistick river in 1803, about a mile below- 
Maiden bridge. It is longer, but of the same width, has two draws, and is 
accommodated with lamps. It cost 53,000 dollars, which is held in 2400 shares, 
half of which are the property of the Maiden Bridge Corporation. It reverts 
to the Commonwealth in 70 years. The President is Hon. Nathan Dane ol" 

t The Congregational ministers are as follows. 

Rev. John "Wilson, settled in Aug. 1G30, and removed with his church to 
Boston the Nov. following. He died in 1677, aged 78. 

Rev. Mr. James settled 1632. He went to Virginia in 1643. 
Rev. John Harvard, officiated a short time, and died in 1638. Age unknown. 
Rev. Thomas Allen, settled in 1638, went to England in 1651, and died in 
1673. Aged 65. 

Rev. Zechariah Symmes, settled 1652, died 1671. 
Thomas Shepard, 1659, 

Thomas Shepard, jun. 1680, 

Charles Morton, 1686, 

Simon Bradstreet, 1698, 

Joseph Stevens, 1713, 

Hull Abbot, 1724, 

Thomas Prentice, 1739, 

Joshua Paine, 1787, 

Jedidiah Morse, D. D. 1789. 

The present deacons of the church are James Frothingham, Thomas Mdler, 
and Amos Tufts. 

Baptist ministers — Rev. Thomas Waterman, settled 1802, and dismissed 
1803. He was pastor of the church, and an instructor of youth at Woburn, 
and died there, March 23, 1814, aged 39. Rev. William Collier, settled 1804. 
The deacons are David Goodwin, William Arnold, and James Fosdick. 


Aged 71. 


















In 1743 a fire society was formed, which is still con- 
tinued ; with the addition of three others, in 1795, 1800 
and 1810.* A lodge of Freemasons! was constituted, 
in 1783, and from its funds was erected, in 1794, a hand- 
some monument J on Breed's hill, in memory of a dis- 
tinguished member,^ and to perpetuate American bravery. 
Associations like these, for mutual assistance in periods 
of danger and adversity, have a beneficial influence, and 
they merit the attention of the benevolent and humane. 

In 1786 the opening of Charles River Bridge, || erect- 
ed where the ferry was kept, was celebrated, with the 

Universal ministers — Rev. Abner Kneelarul, settled in l&ll. His connexion 
is dissolved, and Rev. Edward Turner from Salem, is to succeed him. 

The deacons are Moses Hall and Samuel Thompson. 

There are two other Baptist societies, which worship in private buildings. 
They consider clerical titles and dress improper, deny the necessity of ordi- 
nation in the usual way, administer the communion every sabbath, and receive 
no contributions but from church members. The teachers are Mr. Walter 
Balfour and Oliver Holden, Esq. See Benedict's History of the Baptists, vol. 
II. p. 407—8. 

The first Baptist church in Boston, was gathered in Charlestown in 1665. 

* These are designated by the names of the Ancient, Phoenix, Washington, 
and Jefferson societies. 

t The Master is Mr. Thomas Hooper. 

X A Tuscan Pillar, 18 feet high, on a brick foundation 10 feet from the ground, 
eight feet square and enclosed by posts. On the top is a gilt urn, with the 
letters J. W. aged 35, entwined in masonic emblems. On the south side of 
the pedestal is the following inscription. 


By King Solomon's Lodge of Free-Masons, 
Constituted in Charlestown, 1783, 

In memory of 
Major-General Joseph Warren, 
and his Associates, 
who were slain on this memorable spot, June 17, 1775. 

" None but they who set a just value upon the blessings of Liberty are wor- 
thy to enjoy her. In vain we toiled ; in vain we fought ; we bled in vain ; if 
you, our offspring, want valor to repel the assaults of her invaders." 
Charlestown settled 1628. 
Burnt 1775. Rebuilt 1776. 

The enclosed land was given by the Hon. James Russell. 

§ Warren was Grand Master of Free-Masons for North America, at the 
time of his death. 

|| This Bridge, which was thirteen months in building, and considered as 
the greatest enterprize which had been undertaken in the country, is 1503 feet 
long, it has 75 piers, each composed of seven posts of oak timber, driven into 
the bed of the river, and united by cap pieces and girts. The piers are con- 
nected with string pieces, which are covered with four inch plank. The bridge 
is 43 feet wide, with a railed way on each side for foot passengers. It has a 
draw 30 feet wide, and is accommodated with 40 lamps. The depth of water 
in the channel on high tides is about 40 feet. The property is vested in 150 
shares, each of which was assessed 100 pounds, and it reverts to the State in 
70 years from 1786. The Bridges which have been since built in the vicinity, 
are on the same model. The President is the Hon. George Cabot, of Boston. 


greatest splendour and festivity, on the same spot, and 
at the same time, which eleven years before, was a scene 

of slaughter and devastation. 

A reading society and news-rooms, were opened in 
1812, upon a liberal establishment; but by the peculiar 
state of the times, another was afterward formed, which 
divided the original subscribers, and caused a different 
arrangement. That year also gave existence, in this 
town, to a branch of the " Washington Benevolent 
Society,"* the objects of which are to support the 
constitution, preserve the union of the States, recipro- 
cate advice in times of adversity, and relieve the indi- 
gent. Its first publick appearance was on the last anni- 
versary of the birth of our political father. 

Though I omit to detail our various publick celebra- 
tions,! (which are common to other places) and the dif- 
ferent motives of those who have encouraged them, I 
cannot forbear to mention that this town, in but seven- 
teen dayst from the mournful event, was the first in Mas- 
sachusetts, and I believe in the United States, that insti- 
tuted publick funeral honours on the death of Washing- 
ton. There are many who hear me, that can never for- 
get the united sympathies of six hundred and twenty 
persons, moving ^ by a solemn knell, and agonizing peals 
of cannon to the house of prayer ; or the copious tears 
of a crowded auditory at the recital of his unexampled 
services for his beloved country. The gazing school- 
boys, who accompanied us on that occasion, will renew 

* The President is Joseph Hurd, Esq. and the number of our inhabitants 
who are members is 230. 

t The 22d Feb. 4th March, 17th June and 4th July, have often been cele- 
brated by the different political sects ; and the 24th June by the Free-Masons. 

t Dec. 31, 1799. 

§ The procession consisted of the male inhabitants, from seven years of 
age and upwards ; the Magistrates, Town, Church and Parish officers, in- 
structers of the schools, the lodge of Free-Masons, and the Military, consisting 
of three companies in uniform. The stores and shops were shut ; the Hags on 
the vessels and on shore were displayed half staff high, and minute guns were 
fired from Breed's hill. The meeting house was shrouded in black, and an 
appropriate discourse from Deuteronomy xxxiv. 5, 7, 8, was delivered by Rev. 
Dr. Morse, which, with all the proceedings, were published by the town for 
the use of the inhabitants. 

The 22d of February, 1S00, being set apart by the Congress of the United 
States, was suitably noticed by the town. A procession was formed similar 
to the above, and an Oration delivered by the author of this history, which 
was published at the request of the selectmen and parish committee. 


their tender emotions, when they tell the melancholy 
story to their listening children, and the records of the 
town will transmit to future ages, a most honourable testi- 
mony of our esteem and veneration. 

By this cursory retrospect of thirty seven years, from 
the rebuilding of the town, we may discover the benefi- 
cial effects of industry and perseverance. Our com- 
merce, ship building, and other mechanick arts have ge- 
nerally been successful ; our manufactures, which in 
some branches are extensive, particularly of morocco 
leather, cordage, bricks, candles, soap of various kinds, 
the distillery of molasses, and the brewing of malt 
liquors ; with the extensive butcheries, tan-yards, and 
packing large quantities of provisions for foreign mar- 
kets, afford, in prosperous times, a productive income 
to the different proprietors, and a handsome support to 
various classes of our fellow citizens. 

Our pleasant, healthful and commodious situation, is 
frequently a subject of conversation, with occasional vis- 
itants. The events of the revolutionary war ; the Navy 
Yard* located in 1800, and now in active operation, by 
the building of a seventy-four gun ship, and the fitting 
of other vessels of war ; the Middlesex Canal,f opened 
in 1803, and creating a deposit for wood, lumber 
and other articles ; the Marine Hospital, t erected in 

* The territory comprising the national accommodations, being between 40 
and 50 acres, was ceded to the U. States in 1800, by the General Court, who 
retain no other jurisdiction than to prevent a refuge against breaches of our 
statutes committed without its limits. The persons residing there are subject 
to no taxes, nor the performance of municipal duties ; and it is considered as 
settled by the Judiciary, that they are not entitled to the ordinary rights and 
privileges of our citizens. The land appropriated, was valued by a Jury at 
37,280 dollars. A part of it is used for the Marine Hospital, and a part by the 
Military department, which is accommodated with stores, a magazine and 
barracks. The Navy department is furnished with an elegant dwelling house, 
extensive brick buildings for stores, lofts, &c a spacious wharf, batteries, and 
other conveniences, which are nearly completed. The principal officer is 
Commodore William Bainbridge. 

Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Cushing of the U. S. army, quarters here. There is 
also a house used as a military hospital, of which Fenjamin Waterhouse, M.fD. 
is surgeon, and about 300 soldiers, most of whom are prisoners on parole. 

t This Canal, which affords a water communication from Boston to Merri- 
mack river, terminates on the peninsula at Charlestown. For a particular 
description of this immense undertaking, see Morse's Universal Geography, 
fourth edition. Vol. I. p. 348. The President is Aaron Dexter, Esq. 

t The Marine Hospital of the United States is 100 feet by 40, two stories 
high, and a basement ; it is accommodated with kitchens, a spacious hall, and 
nineteen rooms, with a garden. The average number of patients is stated at 
30. It is controlled by the Collector of the Customs, and conducted by an 
overseer or steward, under the direction of the surgeon, who is David Town- 
send, M. D. 


1803, for the accommodation of sick and disabled sea- 
men ; and the State Prison * built in 1805, for the pun- 
ishment, employment and reformation of convicts, have 
given us publicity; and we cherish a belief, that these 
important circumstances and establishments, will be so 
estimated and conducted, as to answer the publick expec- 
tations, and promote the happiness of the town. 

On political occurrences 1 shall remark generally, that 
during our connexion with Great. Britain, we enjoyed 
the customary privileges ; a due proportion of the in- 
habitants were appointed to important offices; there was 
a regular compliance with the requirements of govern- 
ment, and a cheerful support of the publick burthens. 
But we participated fully in the effects of the stamp act 
in 1765, the revenue bill in 1768, the port bill in 1774, 
and of other tokens of ministerial impolicy. In proof of 
our patriotism it may be observed, that at the commence- 
ment of serious opposition f to parliamentary measures, 
we united, as I hope we ever shall, to resist oppres- 
sion, and that but a single inhabitant, t sought protection 
from the parent country, whilst many ^ engaged, in various 

* This Prison is said to be as secure as any in the world. It is 200 feet long, 
44 wide and 38 high, containing 90 cells for convicts, with kitchens, convenient 
rooms for officers, and guards, a chapel, hospital, store, work shops, and bathing 
place. The yard, in which is a garden, is encompassed with a stone wall, 
375 by 260, and 15 feet high, on which the guards are stationed. The number 
of convicts admitted from Dec. 1S05, to the time of this address, is 640, of whom 
296 have been discharged, 80 pardoned, 9 escaped, 22 died, 1 shot, and 232 
remain. The visitors are the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and 
the Supreme Judicial Court. The directors are James Prince, James T. 
Austin, and Caleb Bingham, Esq'is. ; the warden is Capt. Gamaliel Bradford ; 
and the physician is Josiah Bartlett, M. D. 

t E. N. a respectable citizen of this town, lately deceased at the age of 7^. 
has repeatedly mentioned to the writer, that he was among the Indians, who 
destroyed the tea at Boston in 1774. 

+ Thomas Dan forth, Esq. who was the only attorney at law in the town. 

§ At the commencement of hostilities, a company of our inhabitants waa 
raised and served eight months. It was in the battle on Breed's hill. 4 he 
officers were * Capt. Josiah Harris, * Lieut. Bartholomew Trow, Ensign 
Thomas Miller, Sergeants, James Berry, Timothy Thompson, * Samuel .Moore 
and Francis Greene. 

The citizens of this town, who held appointments in the array, and served 
for different periods, were, — In the line, Captains * Benjamin Frothingham, 
*Eliphalet Newell, and * William Harris. In the medical department, Doctors 
* Isaac Rand, who attended small pox patients, * Isaac Foster, an hospital 
surgeon, and afterward a deputy director general, Thomas Welsh, a regimental 
surgeon, and Josiah Bartlett, a hospital mate, and afterward surgeon. In the 
commissary's department, *Fzckiel Cheever, Richard Frothingham. and Thomas 
Frothingham, jun. — Those marked* are dead. 

Benjamin Frothingham, Isaac Foster, Josiah Bartlett, Ezekiel Cheever, 
Richard Frothingham, and Thomas Frothingham, jun. continued during the 


stations in the revolutionary army, and some continued 
until the termination of the contest. 

During the confederation of the United States, and 
the first administration of the federal government, we 
were tolerably united in principles and conduct; but a 
question on the adoption of the British treaty in 1795, 
revived our prejudices ; and the commotions of Europe, 
aided perhaps by that spirit of rivalship which is insepa- 
rable from the human character, excited in our citizens, 
those unhappy divisions, which paralyze the energies of 
our country, and threaten us with the most serious ca- 
lamities. May we all cultivate union, candour, modera- 
tion, and forbearance ; and let us remember, that by a 
noble support of a free constitution, ancient Rome was 
elevated to happiness and glory ; but by innovations and 
animosities, she fell from her exalted rank to infamy 
and slavery. 

If we except the years 1809 and 1812 (when a union 
ticket prevailed) the affairs of the town have for a long 
period been exclusively administered * by those, who es- 
pouse the present measures of our national government ; 
but it is pleasing to reflect, that political dissensions have 
not destroyed our social intercourse, our mutual charities, 
or the personal confidence of our citizens in each other. 

From the adoption of the constitution in 17^0, we 
chose but one representative annually to the General 
Court, until 1803, when we elected two ; in 1804 three ; 
in 1805 four ; and in 1806 five, which number has been 
continued to the last election, when by an equality of 
suffrages, for the different candidates, and an unintention- 
al errour in declaring the choice, the seats of four were 
vacated, and we are again reduced to a single member,f 

* The present Selectmen (1813) are David Goodwin, Esq. Messrs. Timothy 
Thompson and Richard Frothingham, Col. Isaac Smith, Mr. Peter Tufts, 
Capt. Joseph Miller and Mr. John Tapley. Town Clerk, John Kettell, Esq. 
Treasurer, Mr. David Devens. 

Elected 1814. Selectmen, David Goodwin, John Soley, and Jeremiah Evarts, 
Esq'rs. Deac. Amos Tufts, Messrs. Samuel Payson, Peter Tufts, and Joseph 
Tufts. Clerk, Mr David Dodge. Treasurer, Mr. D. Devens. 

t Capt. Joseph Miller. His predecessors in office from the operation of the 
constitution were * Timothy Tufts, Esq. * Hon. Nathaniel Gorharn, Thomas 
Harris, and * Richard Devens, Esq'rs. Hon. Josiah Bartlett, * Aaron Putnam, 
Esq. Hon- Matthew Bridge, David Goodwin, Esq. Messrs. Richard Frothing- 
ham, and Seth Wyman, Col. Nathaniel Hawkins, Messrs. Elijah Mead, 


on whom the responsibility devolves, at this most impor- 
tant crisis. 

We have usually furnished a senator for the district of 
Middlesex, and repeatedly a member of the supremo 
executive.* One of our respected inhabitants, who 
served in various offices, was, for many years, the; com- 
missary generalf of this commonwealth. Wo were 
also honoured with a president of congress under the 
confederation ; who was afterward a member of that au- 
gust assembly that formed the constitution of the United 
States, and of the convention of this State that ratified it. J 

This town enjoyed the residence, and here are deposit- 
ed the ashes of the most distinguished benefactor ^ of 

Daniel Tufts, Timothy Thompson, and David Devens ; Peter Tufts, jun. 
John Kettell, and William Austin, Esqrs. Elected for 1814 — Joseph Hurd 
and John Soley, Esqrs. and Mr. Joseph Tufts, who do not espouse the mea- 
sures of the national government. 

* The inhabitants, who have served as senators, under the present constitu- 
tion, are *Hon. Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah Bartlett, Matthew Bridge, and 
Samuel Dana. As members of the council, * Hon. Nathaniel Gorham, Josiah 
Bartlett, and Artemas Ward. 

t Richard Devens, Esq. who died in 1807, aged 86. " From a native strength 
of mind, quick discernment, and commendable industry, he was qualified for 
distinguished usefulness. He sustained at different periods the most impor- 
tant town offices • was a magistrate and legislator ; and bequeathed a large 
sum for charitable purposes." For a particular delineation of his character, 
see Panoplist, vol. III. p. 239. 

t Hon. Nathaniel Gorham, who died in 1796, aged 58. Having served in 
various town offices, he was chosen representative in 1771. and from that pe- 
riod was seldom disengaged from publick employments. He was Speaker of 
the House ; a Judge of the county Court, and, at the time of his death, super- 
visor of the national revenue for the district of Massachusetts. In testimony 
of his merits and important services, and in compliance with a vote of the 
town, an eulogy on his character was delivered, June 11, 1796, by Thomas 
Welsh, M. D. and is published. 

§ John Harvard died in 1638. All that can be ascertained of this gentle- 
man is, that he had been a minister in England, and died soon after his arrival 
in this country ; that he preached a short time in this town, and bequeathed 
about eight hundred pounds to the College. The writer has repeatedly searched 
for his grave, but could discover nothing to designate it. 

The following inhabitants of Charlestown (including exiles by the war in 
1775) received degrees at Harvard College, and their name? are copi 
the Catalogue For information on this subject before the memory of the writer, 
he is indebted to the politeness of the Hon. William Winthrop, of Cambridge, 
who is a descendant of the fifth generation from Govemour Winthrop. 

Those, who are not marked as dead, and have no place of residence annexed, 
are now inhabitants of the town. 

1617 * Comfort Star, Mr- Socius. 
53 *Samuel Nowell, Mr. Tbcsau. 
*Joshua Long, Mr. 

56 *Thomas Greaves, Mr. Soc 

57 *Zechariah Symmcs, Mr. Soc. 
*Zechariah Brigden, Mr. Soc. 


165S "Benjamin Banker, Mr. 
63 "Nathaniel Cutler. 
04 "Alexander Nowell, Mr. Soc. 
09 "Daniel Russell, Mr. Soc. 
71 "Isaac Foster \ Mr. Soc. 
'Samuel Phipps, Mr. 




Harvard University; and there are many of our departed 
citizens, who were highly esteemed as clergy, judges, 
legislators, magistrates, and publick benefactors.* 

86 "Nicholas Morton, 

90 "Nicholas Lynde. 

91 * Joseph Lord, Mr. 

1703 *Thoaias Greaves, Mr. Mass. 
Prov. Cur. Sup. Jurid. 
20 * Joseph Stitnson, Mr. 

22 *Seth Sweetser, Mr. 

23 * Joseph Lynde, Mr. 

24 *Henry Phillips, Mr. 

25 *Edward Dowse. 

26 *Thomas Greaves, Mr. 

27 * Benjamin Kent, Mr. 

28 * Simon Br adstreet, Mr. 

31 ^Chambers Russell, Mr. 

Mass. Prov. Cur. Sup. Jurid. 

* Joseph Kent, Mr. 

32 * Thomas Skinner, Mr. 
35 *Daniel Russell, Mr. 

* John Bunker, Mr. 

39 "Jonathan Kent, Mr. 

40 * Benjamin Stevens, Mr. S. T. D. 
*Samuel Henley, Mr. 

50 "Thomas Cheever, Mr. 

52 * William Foster, Mr. 

53 *David Jenner. 

57 "Charles Russell, M. D. Aberd. 

58 *David Wyer, Mr. 
*Isaac Foster, Mr. 

59 *John Gorham, Mr. 
61 "Thomas Carey, Mr. 

Isaac Rand, Mr. M. D. M. M. S. 
Vice Prseses et Prseses. S. M. 
Lond. Soc. Corresp. A. A. et 
S. H. S. Boston. 

63 *Richard Carey, Mr. 

64 * Thomas Abbot, Mr, 
*Thomas Brigden, Mr. 

'Joseph Dowse. 


1766 *John Stevens, Mr. 

71 John A. Mason, Mr. Boston. 
John Frothingham,Mr. Portland. 

72 Thomas Welsh, M. D. M. M. S. 

et A. A, Soc. Boston. 

76 *Ezekiel Henley, Mr. 

Isaac Hurd, Mr. M. M. S. Soc. 

William Stearns, Mr. Salem. 

77 *Jacob Conant. 

78 JosiahBartlett, M.B. 1791. M.D. 

1809. M. M.S. A.A.etS.H.S. 

81 *Timothy Swan. 

82 *Richard Codman, Mr. 

87 Thaddeus M. Harris, Mr. Bib. S. 
T. D. S. H. et A. A. S. Dorchester. 

88 James Gardner, Mr. M.D. M.M. 

S. Soc. Lynn. 
90 Abijah Tufts, Mr. Virginia. 
92 John Gorham, Mr. 
95 Benjamin Gorham, Mr. Boston. 

97 Joseph Hurd, Mr. 
*Benjamin Wood 

98 William Austin, Mr. 

Henry Gardner, Mr. M.D. M.M. 
S. Soc. Maiden. 
1800 *Aaron H. Putnam, Mr. 

3 Abner Gardner, Mr. Roxbury. 

4 Oliver Brown, Mr. 

5 Isaac Warren, Mr. Concord. 

6 Isaac Hurd, Mr. Lynn. 

7 Joseph Tufts, Mr. 

10 Joseph Eaton. 

William J. Walker, Mr. M. D. 

11 Charles Hurd. 
James Russell. 

13 Gorham Bartlett. 
Henry Thompson. 

The following - additional graduates at Harvard College reside in town at 
this time. 
1782 Samuel Payson, Mr. 

86 Elias H. Derby, Mr. 1803. 

95 Samuel J. Prescott, Mr. 

1801 Elias Phinney, Mr. 
2 Henry Adams, Mr. 

At Yale College, New Haven. 

1810 Samuel F. B. Morse. 

11 Svdnev E. Morse. 

12 Richard C. Morse. 
Theodore Dexter. • 

1783 Jedidiah Morse, Mr. et Nass. 

Tutor. S.T. D.Edin. A. A. et 

S. H. Mass. Soc. 
1802 Jeremiah Evarts, Mr. C. A. Soc. 

At Providence College. 1797 William Collier, Mr. 1802 Benj. Gleason, Mr. 
At Dartmouth College, Hanover. 

180S Leonard M. Parker. 1811 Abraham Andrews and William Gordon. 

Abraham R. Thompson entered in 1795, and continued till 1797. 

Inhabitants who are undergraduates at Harvard College. John M. Fiske, 
Josiah Bartlett, Jun. Samuel Bridge, John L. Payson, Samuel Soley. 

1665 *Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck, the only Indian who ever received a de- 
gree at Harvard College, died at Charlestown in 1666, aged 20. 

* The present magistrates are, justices through the state, Hon. Samuel Dana, 
(who has been president of the senate, and is chief justice of the Circuit Court 


Our military arrangements have generally been re- 
spectable. As early as 1630, a lot of land \\ as designa- 
ted as a training field, and lias been continued In that 
name, and for that use, to this time. Our present mili- 
tary force are three companies of militia, all of which are 
well officered and provided; an artillery company formed 
in 1786, and two companies of light infantry in 1804. 
These are so completely equipped and disciplined, as to 
sustain an equal rank with any in the commonwealth. 
We have now a brigadier general, three field officers, 

of Common Pleas) and Josiah Bartlett, Esqrs. Justices of th( quorum, John 
Soley and John Kettell, Esqrs. Justices of the peace, Benjamin Hurd, Ji - | 
Hurd, Oliver Holder), David Goodwin, Thomas Harris, *Abner Rogers, Mat- 
thew Bridge, Henry Adams, H. W. Gordon, Peter Tufts, Jim. William Austin, 
Elias Phinney, and Elias H. Derby, Esquires. Mr. Rogers died Feb. 23, 1814, 
aged 35. 

There are many ancient epitaphs on the burying hill, most of which are not 
legible. The following have been copied with difficulty, and may serve as a 
specimen of the taste of our forefathers. 

" Here lieth the body of Mr. John Greene, born at London, in Old England, 

who married Perseverance the daughter of Johnson in Amsterdam, by 

whom he had six children ; with whom and three children he came to Charles- 
town, in New-England, in 1G32, was ruling elder of the church, and deceased 
April 22, 1658, aged 05, leaving behind two sons and one daughter, viz. John, 
Jacob, and Mary, who erected this monument to the memory of him and his 
wife, their father and mother." 

•* Here lies interred the body of Richard Russell, Esq. who served his country 
as treasurer, more than a treble prentiship, and as a magistrate sixteen years; 
who departed this life the 14th of May, 1G7C, being the G5th year of hi r 

A saint, a husband, and a faithful brother, 

A friend, scarce equalled by any other, 

A saint, that walked high in either way, 

In godliness and honesty alt say. 

A husband rare to both his darling wives. 

To her deceas'd. to her who him survives. 

A father politick, and husband kind, 

Unto our state in treasureship we find. 

Of fathers good, as best to own to those, 

On him a fathership law did impose, 

A Moses brother kind, good Aaron lov'd, 

On whom love showers, full of strength improve, 

A friend to needy poor, whom he refresh'd ; 

The poor may well lament their friend suppress'd, 

In time of war he was remov'd in peace, 

From sin and woes to glory, by his decease." 

I copied the above from the original stone in 1787, and it was rep! 
the descendants at that time on a tablet of soft free stone, which is not proper 
for such uses, as the inscription is now almost effaced. 

" Here lies the body of John Phillips, Esq. who departed this life March 20, 
1725, abatis sua? 91, who served in divers posts ; was some time ju Ige of the 
admiralty, and treasurer of the province; as colonel and chieJ officer of the 
resiment ab anno 1G59 ad annum 1715 ; as one of of tl 
Court of Common Pleas, and one of his majesty's council, ab an i ad an- 

num 1716, successively." . 

The tomb stone of Capt. Richard Sprague (one of the first comers horn SalemJ 
is to be seen : but the whole inscription is not legible. 


two brigade staff officers, and a regimental surgeon.* 
Several of our citizens are members, and we have re- 
cently furnished a commander f of the Ancient and Hon- 
ourable Artillery Company, w 7 hich, in 1638, was formed 
at Boston, as a school for officers, and is the oldest mili- 
tary establishment in the United States. 

The learned professions,! as they are termed, have 
been honourably encouraged, decently remunerated, and, 
in general, properly conducted. But constantly varying 
in theory, and from their nature involved in obscurity? 
they are liable to abuses ; and their usefulness is oftener 
lessened by unworthy conduct in their members to each 
other, than by a want of candour in the publick. 

Our free schools were incorporated by a special act of 
the legislature, in 1793. They are governed by seven 
trustees ^ occasionally elected by the town in May. They 
are liberally endowed by permament funds and annual 
appropriations. || The trust is now in charge of those 
who are competent and faithful Let it be our care to 

* The militia companies are commanded by captains Lot Pool, Robert Tenney, 
and John Gibbs. The Artillery, by captain Loammi Kendall The Warren 
Phalanx, by captain Samuel T. Armstrong, and the Light Infantry, by captain 
James K. Frothingham. The other officers are, brigadier general Nathaniel 
Austin, Jun. (who is sheriff of the county) colonel Jonathan Page, majors 
Joshua B. Phipps, and William Fernald. Brigade quarter master, major 
Timothy Walker, brigade major and inspector, major Samuel Jaques. Surgeon, 
Abraham R. Thompson, L. M. 

t Captain Melzar Holmes. 

t The clergy are Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D. D. and William Collier, A. M. The 
Universal church is vacant, but Rev. Edward Turner is soon to be installed. 

Attorneys at law. — William Austin, * Abner Rogers, Elias Phinney, Henry 
Adams, and Joseph Tufts, Esqrs. and Leonard M. Parker, A. B. 

Practitioners in medicine. — Josiah Bartlett, M. D. and Abraham R. Thomp- 
son, L. M. who are fellows of the Massachusetts Medical Society. Theodore 
Dexter, A. B. a candidate for practice. 

§ The present board are the Rev. William Collier, President ; Capt. Nehemiah 
Wyman, Treasurer ; Dr. Abraham R. Thompson, Secretary ; Messrs. George 
Bartlett and David Stetson, Capt. Joseph Miller, and Mr. Daniel Reed. 

Their predecessors in office were * Richard Devens, Esq. * Hon. Nath. Gorham, 
and Josiah Bartlett ; * Aaron Putnam and Joseph Hurd, Esqrs Col. Nath. 
Hawkins and Mr. Seth Wyman (who are named in the act) Messrs. Samuel 
Tufts and Jonathan Teel, Rev. Jedidiah Morse, Benjamin Hurd, Esq. Mr. 
Timothy Thompson, Maj. Timothy Walker, David Goodwin, Esq. Hon. Mat- 
thew Bridge, Thomas Harris, Esq. Messrs. Samuel Payson, Joseph Phipps, 
John Stone, Elijah Mead, James Greene, John Tufts, and Samuel Thompson ; 
Peter Tufts, Jun. and John Kettell, Esqrs. Messrs. Samuel Kent, Daniel Parker, 
David Devens, Jonas Tyler, Philemon R. Russell, and Ebenezer Cutter, William 
Austin. Esq. 

The instructcrs on the peninsula, are Abraham Andrews, A. B. Messrs. David 
Dodge, John Bennet, and Oliver Jaqueth. Without the neck, Messrs. Moses 
Hall, Jacob Pierce, and Benjamin Greene. 

IS The permanent fund is $5081, and the appropriation for 1813 $ 3500. 


■(lengthen their hands, and encourage their hearts; for 

free schools were the glory of our ancestors, tin \ are 
the boast of New-England, and the palladium of our fu- 
ture prosperity. 

In the year which is nearly closed, an extensive soci- 
ety * of all the religious denominations, and of different 
political principles, has been organized for the reforma- 
tion of morals, which, if prudently conducted, may tend 
to the peaee and happiness of the town. 

By a display of publick spirit, and with a degree of 
unanimity, ominous of future success, this handsome. 
convenient edifice,! designed for the accommodation 
of our reading society,! and for purposes like the pre- 
sent, has been expeditiously completed, and in the act of 
incorporation § is designated by the name of Washing- 
ton Hall. 

* The president is Rev. Jedidiah Morse, D. D. 

t This is a brick building, situated on the main street, and accomi 
with a handsome rear entrance from Town Hill. It is 53 feet long, 29 feet wide, 
and three stories high. The property is vested in fifty shares, subscribed for by 
34 persons, viz. Benjamin Swift 5 shares, Joseph Hard :!. Timothy Walker 3, 
Ashur Adams 3, Josiah Bartlett 3, Jedidiah Morse 2, Nathan Tufts 2, Apollos 
Field 2, Richard Boylston 2, David Stetson, Nathaniel Austin. .Inn. Samuel 
Soley, William Pratt, Thomas Kettell, Stephen Gorham, Cluster A lai is, 
Nathan Adams, Thomas Osgood, Elias Phinney, Oliver Jaqueth, Benjamin 
Adams, John Soley, Ab. R Thompson, Henry Adams. Elisha W heeler, Thomas 
Boylston, *Benjamin Hard, Jun. Samuel Kidder, John Skinner, William Fer- 
nald, Samuel Jaques, Isaae Warren, Amos Tufts, and Jeremiah Evarts 1 each. 
Mr. Hard died Sept. 15, 1813, aged 37. 

The expense, including the land, was $6250. The cellar and lower story are 
used for an elegant druggist's store ; the second story is for reading and news 
rooms; in the third is the Hall, and a convenient drawing room, appropriated 
for various uses. In the yard is an office ahout 15 feet square, occupied la- 
Mr. James Frothingham 3d, portrait painter. 

t This institution is furnished by the " Washington Hall Association" with 
newspapers, books, &c. of which there is a considerable collection. Subscri- 
bers are admitted by the Directors, each of which pay $5 a year. The 
number is 85, and the officers of the association, elected 1814, i Hard, 

Esq. President; Major Timothy Walker, Vice-President ; Mr. Samu I - 
Clerk and Treasurer; John Soley, Esq. and Mr. Thomas Kettell, who form a 
board of Directors. 

The other reading Society has a room in the Square ; the pay 3 

a year, the number is 53, and the officers are Major William Thorn 
dent; John Kettell, Esq. Messrs. Jesse Brown, Leonard M. Parker, 
Bailey, Committee; Maj. W. Thompson Treasurer ; L. M. Parker, A. B ' 

An Act to incorporate sundry persons in Charlestown, in the enmity of Middle- 
sex, by the name of the Washington Hall Association. 

Sect. 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in Gen- 
eral Court assembled, and by the authority of the same, Thar Joseph FI , J 
siah Bartlett, David Stetson, Timothy Walker, and Benjamin Swift, with such 
others as have associated, and purchased a lot of land, bounded tbirtj 
the main street, in said Charlestown, running back one hundred and i 
and are erecting a building thereon by the name of Washington Hall, foi 



We now solemnly and joyfully dedicate it to the 
memory of that illustrious, unequalled patriot 
whose name it bears. Here may we venerate his virtues, 
cultivate his principles, and practise by his example. 
Within these walls may our successors manfully sup- 
port the doctrines of rational liberty ; and when an hun- 
dred and eighty five years, the period we have so imper- 
fectly reviewed, shall have again expired, may they 
recognize the efforts of the present era, as we now cele- 
brate the exertions of those who have passed before us 
to the regions of immortality. 


THE following is a detail of the births and deaths (be 
fore noticed) on the peninsula for the past 25 years. 


















































































reading rooms, and other purposes ; be, and they are hereby incorporated, for 
holding in fee simple, and managing the affairs of the said estate, which is di- 
vided into fifty shares ; and they are authorized to use a common seal, and to 
establish such by laws, relating to the said corporation, as are not repugnant 
to the constitution and laws of this Commonwealth ; provided the annual 
income of said corporation shall not exceed the sum of fifteen hundred dollars. 

Sect. 2. Be it further enacted, That said Joseph Hurd be authorized to call 
the first meeting of the said corporation, by a written notification to each mem- 
ber, at least three days before the time of meeting. 

Approved, June 16, 1813. CALEB STRONG. 

The persons named in the act were the Directors, to provide materials, make 
contracts, and conduct the erection of the building. Mr. Chester Adams was 
Clerk and Treasurer. 


A census of the inhabitants of Charlestown, taken in 
August and September, 1310, by Mr. Timothy Thomp- 
son,, Jun. who was appointed for that purpose by the 
marshal of the United States for the district of Massa- 

Males. Females. 

Under ten years of age 651 771 

From ten to sixteen 308 351 

sixteen to twenty six 496 510 

twenty six to forty five 612 496 

forty five and upwards 281 260 

Convicts in the State Prison 195 5 

2543 2393—4936 
Included above, are 25 black males and 37 females. 

Mr. Thompson has also furnished the following ac- 
count of manufactures in the town, taken at the same 

Articles. Value per year. 

Eighteen millions bricks - 650,000 

One hundred and seventy chaises - - 34,000 

Two hundred and fifty gallons rum per day 50,000 

Four thousand hides tanned - 28,000 

Cordage - - 106,000 

Twine ..... 1,500 

One hundred and fifty thousand morocco skins 225,000 

Stone and earthen ware - 6,500 

Thirty thousand pounds fine soap - - 9,000 

Ninety thousand pounds common do, - 9,000 

Ten thousand boxes mould candles - - 70,000 

Four thousand hats ----- 14,000 

Plated ware 7,550 

Cabinet work ------ 19,000 

Twenty eight hundred and fifty yards common 

weaving - - - - - - 2,113 


Establishments for preparing spirit of turpentine and 
lamp black, and for a brewery, were not valued. 


There have been, an extensive distillery erected, two 
tan yards completed, a factory for preparations of vitriol 
established, and salt petre works commenced, since the 
census was taken ; but it is the opinion of competent 
judges, that the manufactory of bricks, chaises, cordage, 
morocco leather, plated ware, and cabinet work, has 
greatly lessened since that period. 

The Schools are in a state of great prosperity ; as 
will be shewn by the following extract from a report, of 
the trustees to the town, May 2, 1814. 

"At the late examinations, we found the schools under 
the most perfect government, and in the highest state of 
improvement ; we cannot refain from congratulating 
our fellow-citizens on a situation of their publick schools, 
so auspicious to the best interests of the town, so grati- 
fying to the dearest hopes of parents, and bearing such 
honourable testimony to the eminent ability and fidelity 
of the instructers." 

On the acceptance of the report, the town voted one 
thousand dollars in addition to the usual annual appropri- 
ation, for the education of young children ; in conse- 
quence of which, twenty one districts are established, 
and to each a schoolmistress is appointed, for the instruc- 
tion of those, from four to seven years of age, the whole 
number of whom is four hundred and twenty five ; the 
scholars of both sexes, in the other schools, from seven 
to fourteen years of age, are seven hundred and seven- 
teen ; which makes the whole number, instructed at the 
expense of the town, eleven hundred and forty two. 

A publick support of schools, kept by women, for 
primary instruction, and free to every inhabitant, under 
the direction of the trustees, though novel, is honourable 
to the town, and affords a pleasing presage of future im- 

Charlestoivn, May 9, 1814. 




[Extracted from the original records, 1803. Ed.] 

1638, April 24. AN order was granted, signed b) 
John Winthrop, governour, and Thomas Dudley, deput) 
governour, to Robert Keine and others, by which they 
and their successors were incorporated by the name of 
" the Military Company of the Massachusetts." Among 
their privileges were, " that no officer should be put upon 
" them, but of their own free choice ; " " that no other 
"trainings, nor other ordinary town meetings, be in the 
" towns on the first Monday of the month, their stated 
"meeting;" "that they may assemble in any town 
" within this jurisdiction." At the same time they had 
a gift of 1000 acres of land. 

1673, October 15. A return was made and approved 
by the General Court, elated llth Sept. laying out the 
1000 acres on the Merrimack river; and 500 acres more 
were granted, adjoining the former. 

1685 — 1691. There was an intermission during Sir 
Edmund Andros's government. 

1700, September 2. The title lt Ancient and Honour- 
able " is first used in the records. In the articles, then 
agreed to by the successors of the original members, 
they continue to be styled, " the Military Company of 

1731, June 14. An order passed the House of Repre- 
sentatives, in consequence of a petition from the compa- 
ny, by a committee, empowering them to " sell their 
lands, and invest the produce in such other real estate as 
may be most for their advantage." 

1748. A town meeting was called at Boston ; but be- 
ing contrary to the company's charter, it was declared 
null and void. 

1749, June 15. An order passed the Council, and 
was concurred in by the House of Representatives, Jan. 
13, in consequence of a petition from the company, that 
certain taxes imposed on the treasurer for three years 
past, by the assessor of the town of Boston, amounting to 
/. 45, 13/*4, O. T. be remitted ; and that all donations to 

186 dr. colman's letter 

the company be exempt from all taxes until this Court 
order otherwise." 

1775 — 1786. An intermission by reason of the war, &c. 

Aug. 4. The company met, and voted that the offi- 
cers chosen June, 1774, continue as such till June next. 

Members' names registered 1300, Gen. Winslow ob- 
served, (April, 1803) there are about 100 to be recorded. 

A list of those who have preached the annual sermon, 
on their election of officers, with the texts, &c. was pre- 
pared by the compiler of this article, and published with 
Rev. Mr. Foster's sermon, 1809. A list of the preachers, 
on the general election of counsellors in Massachusetts, 
was also added to Rev. Dr. Osgood's sermon, that 
year. Both these, omitting the texts, are contained, 
with various other lists, of preachers and orators on pub- 
lick occasions, in the catalogue of the library of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, 8vo. 1811, p. 84 — 91. A 
list, of those, who have commanded the Ancient and Hon- 
ourable Artillery Company, is annexed to Rev. Dr. 
Wood's sermon in 1808. 


[It is known to be in the hand writing of Dr. C. and is from a file of 
MSS. presented to the editor by Mr. William Taylor, 1798.] 

Sir, Boston, August 22, 1743. 

PREACHING with Mr. Byles yesterday, I was in- 
formed by him that you were determined on a voyage to 
London in the mast-ships. I am sure then it is my duty 
to attend you over sea, with the best wishes and fervent 
prayers of a most sacred friendship ; which your per- 
sonal worth commanded and constrained long before it 
pleased the king to honour you with his commission of 
commander in chief over us ; and the undeserved regard 
with which your excellency honoured me through all 
the years of your filling the chair, have laid new bonds 
upon me, never to be forgotten. When you came over 

* He was governour of the colony of the Massachusetts Bay from 1730 to 1740. 
See an admirable life of him in Dr. Eliot's Biograph. Dictionary, p. 52 — 7. Ed. 


governour, mine was the highest joy; and when you 
left the chair, none but jour own family fell an equal 
grief. Indeed I have been very happy, through rhe 
whole forty years of my ministry in the town, thai I have 
honoured and truly reverenced all the governours, whom 
it has pleased the king to set over us, and they have all 
had an excellency of one kind and degree or other, which 
gave a pleasure in rendering the respect which their high 
station demanded. It has been a circumstance through 
life, in which a most gracious providence is to be de- 
voutly acknowledged. And though I seldom wait on 
the present governour,* yet his excellency seems to 
venerate me for my age, and does me the justice to 
number me among his friends. 

Since your excellency left the chair, you have honour- 
ed me with the most endearing testimonies of a religious 
confidence, wherein you have once and again edified, 
warmed, and humbled me, and increased the veneration 
I had for you in your more publick life. May the divine 
Presence and Influence fill up your remaining days on 
earth with satisfactions, which this world and all the 
glories of it can never give, nor the absence of them 
take away. Your treasure and your reward, may it be 
on high ; and whatever merit you may be able to plead 
before an earthly sovereign, and his high ministers of 
state, whose instructions were, it may be, but too sacred 
with you, because of the oath of God as you kneeled at 
his majesty's feet ; may a righteous and gracious sove- 
reign attend to your just plea, and give you your petition. 

We all here know, that you spent a great part of your 
paternal estate, beside what you had yourself acquired 
in your youth, while you were in the chair over us : and 
it will rejoice many of us, his majesty's faithful subjects 
here, if, of his great goodness, he shall please to make 
your old age easy and honourable, by any royal allow- 
ances, "nt in otia tuta recedas" as Juvenal has it. 

Sir, I cannot possibly omit writing to Mrs. Holden, 
Dr. Watts, and Dr. Guyse, on such an occasion as your 
going from us ; will it please you to honour the letters 
With a place in your chest, and could there be room for 
a small pacquet to the Doctor, from whom your excel- 

* His Excellency William Shirley, Esq. Governour, from 17 1' * — o7. 

188 s. quincy's letter 

lency has often, with pleasure, received for me and 

May the Most High, whom seas and winds obey, fa- 
vour you, sir, with a most prosperous voyage, and his 
comforts refresh your soul every morning and evening 
in your absence from us : may you find your beloved 
Jonathan in health, and he have the joy again of your 
tender embraces ; may every just desire of your heart 
be granted you, and a glad return to us, or a more happy 
enjoyment of life than America can pretend to afford 
you, be chosen for you by the God of your life : May 
he give his angels charge over you in all your way, and 
may his grace be ever with your spirit, to guide and 
preserve you to his heavenly glory. And with a return 
of like affection and supplication, when before the throne, 
please (dear and ever honoured sir) ever to remember 
your most unworthy, most obliged, dutiful humble ser- 
vant, B. C. 


Dear Sir, Savannah, Oct. 23, 1735. 

YOURS by Mr. Foster, together with a kind present, 
came to hand, for which 1 return you and my good 
cousin a great many thanks. • We are in daily expecta- 
tion of the arrival of Mr. Oglethorpe, who comes over 
to over-see the building of forts on our frontiers, pursu- 
ant to the king's orders. Affairs here are but in an ill 
situation, through the discouragements attending the 
settlement, which have rendered some of the better sort 
of people very discontented, and if the trustee, W'ho comes 
over, does not remove them, I believe many will leave 
the place. The magistrate, to whom the government of 
the colony was left, proves a most insolent and tyrannical 
fellow. Several just complaints have been sent home 
against him, w 7 hich do not meet with a proper regard, 
and this has made people very uneasie. Indeed it has a 
very ill aspect ; for it looks as if they designed to estab- 


lish arbitrary government, and reduce the people to a 
condition little better than that of slavery. There ant 
some things likewise in their very constitution, which 
looks this way; the tenure by which they hold their 
land subjects them to a kind of vassalage, not consistent 
with a free people. In short, Georgia, which was seem- 
ingly intended to be the asylum of the distressed, unless 
things are greatly altered, is likely to be itself a mere 
scene of distress. Some of the people, to support their 
extravagance, and others out of real necessity, have run 
themselves miserably in debt ; the store-keepers having 
given them credit in hopes of possessing themselves of 
their houses, and even their persons, by obliging them 
to be their servants ; and if the trustees do not disconcert 
these designs, great numbers must be unavoidably ruin- 
ed ; though to do this must needs ruin the store-keep- 
ers, for they are most of them deeply indebted to their 
merchants in Carolina : But I think indeed they deserve 
no pity, because their designs appear to have been rapa- 
cious and dishonest. This is our present condition, and 
the small improvements that are made on lands, gives us 
a very indifferent future prospect. Notwithstanding the 
place has been settled nigh three years, 1 believe I may 
venture to say there is not one family, which can subsist 
without farther assistance, and most would starve if they 
had not dependence on the trustees ; but the trustees 
have raised very large assistance to carry it on, and will 
no doubt do their utmost to support it, and therefore it 
is to be hoped that it may in time come to something, 
though on the present footing things are established, it 
will never be a desirable place, and therefore none will 
choose to settle in it who can remove elsewhere, unless it 
be some who are particularly favoured by the trustees. 
I heartily pray for your and family's welfare, and am, 
Dear sir, your affectionate kinsman, 
and most humble servant, 





[The following is published from a very fair manuscript of Rev. An- 
drew Eliot, D. D. the father and immediate predecessor of the late 
ever to be lamented Rev. John Eliot, D. D. of this town. " Ex- 
tracts from these Remarks, &c. were published in England by Dr. 
Francis Blackburn?" * archdeacon of Cleaveland, with whom the 
author held a correspondence. It is believed, and indeed may 
be asserted, that they were never printed entire. Although the 
controversy is now at rest, it has been thought that the views here 
given, would be interesting to many of our readers, and are well 
worth preserving, on account of the historical facts they include, 
as well as for their merit as a composition. The writer was one of 
the bright lights of ournation. Of these Remarks, he speaks to his 
correspondent, Mr. Thomas Hollis, as follows. " 7 Dec. 1767. 
" When I saw your MS. note, I immediately wrote some remarks 
" which I designed for the press ; but upon communicating the ser- 
" mon to Dr. Chauncy, he said he would insert some marginal notes 
" relative to it.f I wish he had said more about it, than I find he 
M has. I send you a copy, which you are at liberty to make what 
" use of you please." Ed.] 

THE Bishop of Oxford, now his grace of Canterbury, 
[Thomas Seeker, D. D.] in his sermon preached before 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, &c. ac- 
quaints his auditory, that the Society was " established, 
first, for the support of Christianity in our colonies and 
factories abroad, then for the propagation of it amongst 
the heathens intermixed with them, and bordering 
upon them." " Every possible reason," says his lord- 
ship, " required our predecessors in this excellent under- 
taking to begin with inspecting the state of the English 
plantations in America." 

To prove this fundamental point, his lordship paints 
the state of the British colonies in the blackest colours. 

" The first European inhabitants- —too many of them, 

carried but little sense of Christianity abroad with 
them : A great part of the rest suffered it to wear out 
gradually ; and their children grew of course to have 

* New-England Biographical Dictionary, by J. Eliot, D. D- p. 193, note. 

t In his observations on Dr. Ewer's, lord bishop of LandafF, sermon 1767. 
A letter to Dr. E. was also published by the celebrated William Livingston, 
on his lordship's sermon. Ed. 


jet less than they; till in some countries there were 

scarce any footsteps of it left, beyond the mere name. 
No teacher was known, no religions assembly was held ; 
the Lord's day distinguished only by more general dis- 
soluteness ; the sacrament of baptism not administered 
for near twenty years together, nor that of the Lord's 
supper for near sixty, amongst many thousands of 
people, who did not deny the obligation of these duties, 
but lived notwithstanding in a stupid neglect of them. 
Such was the state of things in more of our colonies than 
one ; and where it was a little better, it was, however, 
lamentably bad." 

In how many, or in which of the colonies, this was 
the melancholy state, his lordship doth not say ; it was 
" in more than one ; " in the rest it was only " a little 
better ;" in all it was i( lamentably bad" Bad it was 
indeed, if the representation in the words that immedi- 
ately follow is, in any measure, just. " Some persons 
seem very desirous of seeing what sort of creatures 
men would be, without the knowledge of God. Here a 
sufficient trial was made of this: And it shewed, to an 
unhappy degree of certainty, that they would be wicked, 
and profligate, and brutal in every respect, and return, in 
a few generations, to entire barbarism." " In these cir- 
cumstances, the poor inhabitants made, from all parts, 
the most affecting representations of their deplorable con- 
dition : The truth of which was but too fully confirmed 
by their respective governours, and the persons of prin- 
cipal note in each province. There could not be wor- 
thier objects of regard, than such complainants. And if 
they, who remained insensible, did not deserve pity so 
much, they wanted it still more." 

Nothing could be more finely imagined than this state 
of the colonies ; or better adapted to excite the compas- 
sion of the hearers, and to procure a large collection for 
the relief of their stupid, uninstructed brethren. But 
it is to be hoped, the original is not quite so dark as this 
picture represents ; some allowance is to be made lor a 
very lively fancy. It can hardly be supposed, that any 
of the colonies, in their worst state, were sunk into such 
ignorance and stupidity, as to give opportunity for "a 


trial " which " some persons seem very desirous of see- 
ing," but never had been sufficiently made, even among 
the most ignorant barbarians, viz. " what sort of crea- 
tures men would be without the knowledge of God." 
If his lordship had mentioned any one colony, even the 
most " profligate and wicked," as answering to this de- 
scription, the inhabitants of that colony would have 
thought themselves greatly injured, and would not have 
silently borne the reproach. Bad as they were, they 
knew the existence of a Deity, and had some sense of 
moral obligation. 

After this moving introduction, his lordship gives an 
account of the proceedings of the honourable society. 
" The society, therefore, in proportion to their own 
ability, and the need of each place, first sent over mis- 
sionaries to perform the offices of religion amongst them, 
then schoolmasters, to instruct their children in the prin- 
ciples of it, who, after enduring much contradiction of 
sinners, and going through a variety of labours and diffi- 
culties, have, through the blessing of God, made a re- 
markable change in the face of things, and laid a noble 
ground-work of what, we hope, will every day be carry- 
ing on towards perfection. But at present much remains 
to be done. Multitudes continue, as before, in a thought- 
less disregard to almost every part of Christianity ; and 
multitudes also are daily petitioning for help ; which to 
some we cannot give at all ; and to others so little, that 
they have divine service only once in many weeks ; and 
several districts of sixty, seventy and eighty miles long, 
have but one minister to officiate in each of them." 

This passage plainly discovers the sentiments, which 
both his lordship and the society had of the state of reli- 
gion in the colonies. It had just been said, that "the 
poor inhabitants made, from all parts, the most affecting 
representations of their deplorable condition" Here it is 
declared, that " the society, in proportion to the need of 
each place, first sent over missionaries to perform the 
offices of religion amongst them, and then schoolmasters, 
to instruct their children in the principles of it." Those 
places, therefore, where the society sent their mission- 
aries and schoolmasters, are the places which his lordship 


had described in such pathetick language. At least, 
this is what a stranger, who had been an auditor of this 
discourse, must have concluded. 

If it would not be presumption to question what is 
delivered by so great an authority, some would take the 
liberty to inquire, whether these "affecting representa- 
tions of their deplorable condition," were made from the 
three provinces of the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, 
or New-Hampshire. If they were, they were injurious 
aspersions. From the beginning of New-England, 
Rhode-Island excepted, there was ample provision made 
for a gospel ministry. As soon as a town was settled, 
a church was formed, and a minister ordained. When 
one minister was removed, care was very soon taken to 
look out for a successour, so that \ery few parishes have 
been long vacant. There was the like concern to supply 
each town with schools, and, if the town was of any con- 
siderable bigness, with a grammar school. When the 
society sent missionaries and schoolmasters to these 
three colonies, they did not send " in proportion to the 
need of each place ; " unless those places in which there 
are Congregational ministers, men of character for learn- 
ing and religion, stand in more need of their help, than 
places in which there are no ministers at all. Dr. Bray, 
the father of the society, " found very little need of mis- 
sionaries for the propagation of Christianity from New- 
York northward, the Narragansett country excepted ; and 
in the colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts none 
at all." But it seems, they, who had the direction, were 
of a different opinion. The society, very soon after their 
foundation, sent missionaries to places in New-England, 
where the inhabitants were well supplied with Congrega- 
tional ministers. In 1740-1, when this sermon was de- 
livered, the number of missionaries and schoolmasters, 
employed by the society in the three before mentioned 
provinces, was fifteen ; at the same time, in North- 
Carolina, which comes the nearest to his lordship's mel- 
ancholy description of any one of the colonics, there were 
only two missionaries. In that extensive province, (and 
I believe in no other,) it is very probable, there were 
" several districts of sixty, seventy, and eighty miles 


long/' that had " but one minister to officiate in each of 
them." But it is a very natural inquiry, why the society 
suffered it to be so. Why so many were sent to places, 
in which the inhabitants were obliged by law to have an 
orthodox minister and schoolmaster, and so few to those 
districts that were almost destitute ? " The churches of 
this country," as was observed by Mr. Hobart, " in 
which they maintain missionaries, generally stand within 
a mile, and often a few rods of a Presbyterian or Congre- 
gational church, where the people they provide for might, 
without any charge to the society, constantly attend the 
publick worship and ordinances of God." Of these 
countries then, it could not with truth be said, " there 
were scarce any footsteps of Christianity left, beyond the 
mere name. No teacher was known, no religious assem- 
bly held, the Lord's day distinguished only by more gen- 
eral dissoluteness ; the sacrament of baptism not admin- 
istered for near twenty years together, nor that of the 
Lord's supper for near sixty." " Such," his lordship says, 
" was the state of things in more of our colonies than 
one, and where it was a little better, it was, however, 
lamentably bad." This last clause evidently takes in all 
the colonies, which were not included in the description 
immediately preceding; and to make it quite certain, 
his lordship says, p. 11, "You have now heard, in brief, 
the state of our colonies with respect to religion." Not 
one word, of the provision made in some of these colo- 
nies for the instruction of the inhabitants in the truths of 
religion, and for the regular administration of divine 

Can it be supposed, that his lordship, at that time, 
knew the true state of things ; that there were in the New- 
England colonies, whom he had characterized with the 
rest, as in such deplorable circumstances, several hun- 
dred Presbyterian and Congregational ministers, men of 
education and of good morals ? And that in those places, 
to which a great part of the society's missionaries had 
been sent, there was as much of the appearance of reli- 
gion, and the ordinances of the gospel were as regularly 
administered, as in any part of the British dominions ; 
if this can be supposed possible, where the administrator 


hath not been set apart by the sacred hands of a diocesan 


As his lordship had his education among the Dissenters 
in England, he could not but know, that a man may be 
a non-conformist, and yet have the knowledge of God, 
and be in no danger of returning to entire barbarism. 

It is very surprizing, that one of his lordship's exten- 
sive knowledge should, in a publick discourse, describe 
the colonies as having " scarce any footsteps of Christian- 
ity beyond the very name ; " at least, that he hath not 
greatly limited this character, and allowed that things 
were, and always had been, more than a little better in 
some of them ; particularly in many of those places, 
where the society had sent their ministers and school- 
masters. And it is the more strange, as, it appears by 
another part of the discourse, his lordship did actually 
know, there was " one considerable province," in which 
the Independents, as he is pleased to denominate them, 
had something which they called the established church. 
The means of instruction in Connecticut and Massachu- 
setts Bay were as plenty, as when Dr. Bray, with a can- 
dour that does honour to his memory, gave his opinion, 
that they needed no missionaries at all. And the cir- 
cumstances of New Hampshire, in this respect, were much 
the same, though it was not mentioned by Dr. Bray, 
probably because that province was then so small that it 
did not come within his notice. It is no reflection on 
those employed by the Society, to say, that the gospel 
hath been preached in those colonies, and in many places 
in New-York and the Jersies, both before and since their 
introduction, as well as it ever was by them. And it 
would discover a more Catholick spirit in the Society, 
as well as better answer the end of their institution, if 
they sent their missionaries to those places in which ' : mul- 
titudes continue in a thoughtless disregard to almost ev- 
ery part of Christianity, and multitudes are daily peti- 
tioning for help, which to some they cannot give at all, 
and to others so little, that they have divine service only 
once in many weeks : And to those districts, of sixty, 
seventy and eighty miles long, that had but one minister 
to officiate in each of them." 

196 'on episcopacy 

The true state of things hath been published to the 
world, more than once. The late excellent Dr. May- 
hew has given a just representation of facts in his writings, 
which have been published in England, and his reason- 
ing upon them is unanswerable. If the honourable So- 
ciety choose to persevere in the course they have been 
in, it cannot be helped ; but many of the Church of Eng- 
land, as well as other denominations, apprehend it will 
discover a spirit, which reflects no honour on that great 
and respectable body. If this is their resolution, it 
would certainly be more just fairly to own, that their 
design is to episcopize the colonies, than to publish such 
unkind accounts from year to year. The people of Great 
Britain get more and more acquainted with the state of 
America; and they will find out, that the European in- 
habitants are not so destitute of Christianity, as they have 
been represented. This may produce such reflections 
on the Society, as I sincerely wish they may never more 
give occasion for. 

His lordship informs his auditory, p. 7, that the mis- 
sionaries, " after enduring much contradiction of sinners, 
and going through a great variety of labours and difficul- 
ties, have, through the blessing of God, made a remarka- 
ble change in the face of things, and laid a noble ground- 
work, of what, we hope, will every day, be carrying on 
towards perfection." I shall not attempt to blacken the 
character of the missionaries; some of them have been 
men of worth, and have regularly attended the duties of 
their station : But I have never heard of any peculiar 
" labours and difficulties " they have been called to, in 
any of the colonies. In New England they generally re- 
side in our capitals, and most populous towns, are treat- 
ed with respect, and live comfortably on the salaries al- 
lowed them by the Society, and what is given by their 
own people. I know of no remarkable change for the 
better in the northern colonies, since the missionaries 
have been sent among us. There are, it is true, more 
Episcopalians than there were ; this is owing to a variety 
of causes, which I need not specify. But their number 
is yet comparatively small. There is, at present, no 
great appearance of a ground-work, upon which the 


Episcopal hierarchy can be erected. If this is the fabrick, 
which, it is hoped, "will everyday be carrying on to- 
wards perfection," we also hope, iH our turn, that the 
descendants of those excellent and heroiek men. w ho first 
settled New-England, will never forget the glorious er- 
rand of their fathers, but that they will "stand fast in the 
liberty, wherewith Christ hath made them free."' 

His lordship undertakes, page 34, to answer a very im- 
portant "objection to the conduct of the Society," viz. 
"That they have sent missionaries to sonic places, in 
which there were already christian assemblies established 
and supported." The objection had been more fairly 
put, if, instead of " some places," it had been said, that 
a very great, if not the greater part of the missionaries 
were sent to "places in which there were already chris- 
tian assemblies;" while one whole province was left al- 
most destitute of the means of instruction, and there was 
not one missionary wholly employed to propagate the 
gospel among the numerous tribes of Indians, that sur- 
round our settlements. This was in fact true, when his 
lordship delivered this sermon. There were christian 
assemblies in every place in New-England, to which the 
Society sent a missionary, Rhode Island not excepted. 
Several places in New York, the Jersies, and Pennsylva- 
nia, which partook of this charity, were under the same 
happy circumstances. Nor were these assemblies only 
Quakers and Baptists, against which his lordship his par- 
ticular exceptions, and which, for this and no other rea- 
son, I join together ; but Presbyterian and Congrega- 
tional assemblies, well furnished with ministers, in which 
the sacraments of the gospel were regularly administer- 
ed, and in which infants were not "denied the sacra- 
ments of baptism." But his lordship tells us "in the 
least exceptionable, there are several things, which tin 1 
consciences of many, we apprehend with great reason, 
cannot acquiesce in ; who were not therefore to be left 
destitute of publick worship." By these "least excep- 
tionable," it is very probable arc intended those of the 
Presbyterian and Congregational persuasion. They can- 
not greatly value the distinction so plausibly given them : 
as it seems designed, only to introduce a most severe re- 


flection on them, and their worship. His lordship more 
than intimates, that the Episcopalians, who live in places, 
where there are Presbyterian and Congregational assem- 
blies, are left destitute of publick worship, if the society 
for propagating the gospel doth not maintain ministers 
for them. And they are encouraged to absent themselves 
from all those christian assemblies, that do not worship 
God according to the rites of the Church of England. 

We have not greatly wondered, that some of our big- 
otted missionaries have advised their conforming breth- 
ren, to tarry at home, even on the Lord's day, when 
there was no Episcopal minister to officiate, and by no 
means to go into a Congregational assembly, however 
near and convenient. More candour might justly be ex- 
pected from one of his lordship's penetration and charac- 
ter. But this eminent prelate not only says nothing to 
discourage such narrow and contracted sentiments, but 
determines, that, since the Episcopalians have great rea- 
son not to acquiesce in several things, in these assem- 
blies, even the least exceptionable, they are not to be 
left by the Society destitute of publick worship, though 
many places are left destitute that have no assemblies, no 
worship, no means of instruction at all. This seems to 
be the natural construction of these words, taken in con- 
nexion with other parts of the sermon. 

If the Society had large funds, and had taken all prop- 
er care to bring the heathen on our borders to the knowl- 
edge of Jesus Christ ; and had supplied those places, 
" where multitudes continue in a thoughtless disregard 
to almost every part of Christianity," it would not be sur- 
prising, considering the attachment men generally have 
to their own forms and modes of worship, that they af- 
forded some assistance to their Episcopalian brethren in 
other parts, who had not ability to maintain ministers 
for themselves. But while, in consequence of the sums 
expended in places, where there are other christian as- 
semblies, the Society " cannot give at all to some," who 
are quite destitute of the means of instruction ; " and to 
others so little, that they have divine service only once 
in many weeks ;" they must expect to find their conduct 
objected to and censured, and they will have hard work 


to justify it. They have, it is true, a right to judge for 
themselves; and the publick will also judge, whether 
their conduct is candid, and agreeable to the true spirit of 

their charter. 

His lordship seems to think, the Episcopalians, who 
are in places where there are other christian assemblies, 
come within the very words of the charter. After having 
said, " they were not to be left destitute of publick wor- 
ship," he adds, " especially as our charter was granted in 
express terms,/or the maintenance of an orthodox clergy in 
those parts." Is it possible there should be a more con- 
clusive argument ! The charter was granted in express 
terms for the maintenance of an orthodox clergy in those; 
parts ; as, therefore, those " places, in which there were 
already christian assemblies," had not an orthodox cler- 
gy, the Society was obliged, by their charter, to supply 
them. I should be sincerely glad, if any other conse- 
quence coujd be drawn from his lordship's words, but 
they are too plain to admit of any other construction ; 
and such sentiments reflect no honour on a Protestant 
bishop, in an age so justly celebrated for candour and 
generous thinking as the present. I cease now to won- 
der at the affecting representation his lordship gives, at 
the beginning of his sermon, of the deplorable state of 
the colonies, that some were " without the knowledge of 
God," and returned " to entire barbarism : " And at his 
general assertion, that u where it was a little better, it 
was, however, lamentably bad." A christian community 
is undoubtedly in a bad state, that is destitute of an or- 
thodox clergy. Happy for the colonies ! Happy for 
New-England in particular ! that a higher authority has 
determined more favourably of their clergy. — The case 
I refer to is this. A tract of land was granted in the 
Narragansett country, the income or improvement there- 
of to be "for an orthodox person, that shall be obtained 
to preach God's word to the inhabitants." There being 
no preacher in the place, the land came into the posses- 
sion of one Mr. Mumford. When Mr. Torrey was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational church there, he 
brought an action for the possession of this land. The 
case "was carried before the kins in council. Judgment 


was given in favour of Mr. Torrey, as an orthodox min- 
ister according to law, (the very terms of the royal judg- 
ment) and ordering Mr. Torrey, as such an one, to be put 
in possession.* Dr. Mac-Sparran, who, some time be- 
fore, from a zealous Presbyterian became a warm Epis- 
copalian, and a missionary in Narragansett, imagined, that 
no minister, who was not of the Church of England, 
could be denominated orthodox ; and brought an action 
against Mr. Torrey for possession of these lands. This 
case was also carried before the king in council. Judg- 
ment was again given in favour of Mr. Torrey : by which 
judgment he now holds these lands ; and they are, it is 
hoped, secured to a Congregational minister forever : a 
judgment of vast consequence to New-England. The 
legislature of the Massachusetts Bay were so alarmed 
with this ungenerous claim, that, although the lands in 
controversy were out of the province, they published a 
brief for a collection in all the churches to ^defray Mr. 
Torrey's charges in this suit. It would be ungrateful to 
the memory of that great and good man, Dr. Herring, 
who then filled the Archi-episcopal see of Canterbury, 
not to mention his steadfast adherence to justice and reli- 
gious liberty in that decisive trial. He attended the hear- 
ing, publickly asserted the justice of Mr. Torrey's claim, 
and gave his opinion in his favour; although he could not 
but know the obloquy and reproach, which would be cast 
upon him, by men of less candid and generous minds. 

His lordship proceeds to give another reason for the 
Society's assisting the Episcopalian colonists, which is 
confined to New England. " And the members of this 
church, I am sorry to say it, lying under peculiar bur- 
dens in one considerable province, which other profes- 
sors of Christianity do not, though equally dissenters 
from the majority there, they seem of right entitled to 
some peculiar assistance in return." In a marginal note 
this passage is explained thus ; " In New England they 
are rated to the support of what the Independents, who 
are the greater part of that people, call, though without 
right, the established church. And the goods of many 
have been seized, or their bodies imprisoned, for non- 

* See " Answer to a printed letter," &c. written by the late Rev. Mr. Prince, 
and dated October, 1739. 


payment. The Anabaptists, on their petition, were ex- 
empted from paying this rale; and the Quakers with- 
out petitioning; but the petition of the members of our 
church was rejected." 

It is not easy to determine, why his lordship was ;; sor- 
ry to say," that the Episcopalians were " rated to the 
support of what the Independents call the established 
church ; " (but for which, it seems, his lordship could 
not find any proper name.) Was it from his extreme 
tenderness for the colonies, and because the imposing of 
such burthens was a dishonour to them ? This would be 
an implicit reflection on the national church, or on the 
legislature, which rates all denominations of Dissenters to 
the support of that church. 

The Episcopalians are " Dissenters from the majority" 
in New-England, as the Nonconformists are Dissenters 
from the majority in England. The burthen, therefore, 
is as hard and unreasonable in one country as the other. 
It will doubtless be answered, that the Dissenters in Eng- 
land are rated to the church established by law, whereas 
the Dissenters in New-England " are rated to the sup- 
port of what the Independents call, without right, the es- 
tablished church." 

The Independents, or rather the Congregationalists, 
think thevhave a right to call themselves the established 
church ; and under this apprehension they have as much 
right, seeing they are the majority, to tax those, who 
dissent from them, as any other people whatever. They 
have as good a right in nature, to think for themselves, 
and they have as good a constitutional right to impose 
taxes, provided the king consent to the laws made for 
this purpose. Nor would the Episcopalians have any 
more reason to complain, than the Dissenters have in 

It is not worth dispute, whether " the goods of many 
have been seized, or their bodies imprisoned for non- 
payment." If any suffered in this manner, it was be- 
cause they did not submit to the laws in force. When 
laws are made in any province, and allowed by the king, 
they must be executed, or anarchy and confusion will 
follow. I conclude his lordship would not complain, if 



the goods of a Dissenter in England should be seized, 
or his body imprisoned, for non-payment of the taxes, 
which the law obliges him to pay to the established 
church. This was equally justifiable in New-England, 
if it was in execution of the laws, as it would be, or ever 
was, in England. 

But I shall not labour this point, as I am not fond of 
the establishment of a particular form of religion in any 
place ; all such establishments are contrary to the natural 
rights of mankind, and to the religion of Jesus Christ, 
whose kingdom is not of this world. I desire no law to 
tax the Episcopalians to the support of any ministers but 
their own ; and think it would be an honour to the na- 
tion, if all such burthens were removed from the Dis- 
senters in the parent country. 

The principal objection I make to this passage is, that 
it is not a just representation. By one considerable pro- 
vince, which his lordship calls New-England, it is plain, 
from the margin, that he intends the province of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bay, which is in New-England. The best way 
to ascertain the truth is, to look into the laws themselves ; 
and I am the more desirous to set this matter in a just 
light, because Dr. Mayhew, who has honoured himself 
and his country by his writings relative to the conduct 
of the Society, has taken it for granted, that the Episco- 
palians were taxed to the support of the Congregational 
ministers. Whereas the government of the Massachu- 
setts hath, if I mistake not, discovered a singular can- 
dour towards them. If they have not done all that they 
might have done, they have done more than any other 
government, except perhaps the other New-England col- 
onies, with whose laws I am not acquainted. 

In 1692, the year after the present charter took place, 
a law was made, in which it was enacted, " that the in- 
habitants in each tow T n within this province shall take due 
care from time to time to be constantly provided of an 
able, learned, orthodox minister or ministers, of good 
conversation, to dispense the word of God to them ; 
which minister or ministers shall be suitably encouraged 
and sufficiently supported and maintained by the inhabi- 
tants of such town," &c. At the time when this law was 


made, there was only one Episcopalian Society in the 
province. This was in Boston, where the ministers 
of every denomination have been always maintained by a 
voluntary contribution in each Society. The members 
of the church of England in Boston have never been tax- 
ed to the support of Congregational ministers. 

Anno 1727. An act was passed in addition to the 
several acts for the settlement and support of ministers, 
wherein it is enacted, " that all persons, who profess 
themselves to be of the church of England, and usually 
attend the publick worship of God according to the man- 
ner of that church, and those who are of the churches es- 
tablished by the laws of this province, shall be taxed for 
the support of the ministry in such town, parish, or pre- 
cinct, where they respectively reside. But if it so hap- 
pen, that there be a Society of the church of England, 
where there is a person in orders, according to the rules 
of the church of England, settled, and abiding among 
them, and performing divine service within five miles of 
the habitation, or usual residence of any person professing 
himself as aforesaid of the church of England, so that he 
can conveniently and doth usually attend the publick wor- 
ship there, then and in such case the collector or collec- 
tors of such town, parish or precinct, having first indif- 
ferently levied the tax as aforesaid, and paid the same to 
the treasurer of the town, parish or precinct respectively, 
such Treasurer shall deliver or cause to be delivered the 
said taxes collected of such person declaring himself and 
attending as aforesaid unto the minister of the church of 
England, as aforesaid; which minister shall have full 
power to receive, and if need be to recover the same in 
the law, in order to his support in the place assigned to 
him. And the parishioners of the church of England, 
professing and attending as aforesaid, are hereby excused 
from paying any taxes for the building meeting houses 
for the use of the present established churches within this 
government, any law, usage or custom to the contrary 

When this act was passed, there were only three very 
small Episcopal congregations in the province besides 
those in Boston. Five miles, it was supposed, included 


all who attended on any particular church ; and the gov- 
ernment thought it necessary to fix some bounds, to pre- 
vent frauds and impositions ; and that angry, disappoint- 
ed, avaricious, or dissolute persons might not avail them- 
selves of a law made for the relief of the conscientious. 
They saw, and endeavoured to guard against the evils, 
which actually were the consequence of this indulgence, 
as far as it reached ; and which have been more extensive 
since the limitation was taken off. 

It is worthy of our notice, that this act excuses only the 
members of the church of England, and not the Anabap- 
tists and Quakers. At that time the members of this 
church did not lie under " peculiar burthens, which other 
professors, though equally Dissenters," did not. The 
principles of liberty and christian candour have gradually 
obtained in New-England, as in other places. 

Anno 1728. This five mile act. of exemption and re- 
lief was extended to the Anabaptists and Quakers. But 
a difference was still made between them, and the mem- 
bers of the church of England. By the act in 1727 the 
whole estate of the Episcopalians was exempted from 
paying taxes to Congregational ministers : by this of 
1728 the polls only of the Anabaptists and Quakers are 
exempted from charge, in the support of the ministers of 
the churches by law established in this province ; " but 
not their estates. 

Anno 1729. The estates of the Anabaptists and Qua- 
kers were exempted, under the same conditions and lim- 
itations that their polls were " by the former act." 

Anno 1731. The Quakers were wholly exempted 
from taxes "for the support of the minister or ministers 
of the churches established by the laws of this province." 

Anno 1734. This exemption was extended to the 

Anno 1735. The act made 1726 for the exemption 
of Episcopalians, who lived within live miles of an Epis- 
copal minister, was extended to " all such persons as pro- 
fess themselves to be of the church of England," " that 
live in the bounds of any town, parish or precinct through- 
out the province." The Episcopalians were, by this act, 
to be taxed for the support of the ministry with the other 


inhabitants, but the treasurer of each town was obliged to 
deliver their ministerial tax to the minister of the church 
of England, upon whom they usually attended. 

^ This act had been passed at least five years, when the 
bishop of Oxford preached before the" Society. Mis 
lordship was therefore mistaken in saying, " the members 
of this church, lying under peculiar burdens in one con- 
siderable province, which other professors of Christianity 
do not, though equally Dissenters from the majority 
there, they seem of right entitled to some peculiar as- 
sistance." This argument of right was certainly of no 
force, at the time when his lordship made use of it. And 
the marginal note might have been spared, which asserts, 
that in New England they are rated to the support of 
what the Independents, who are the greater part of that peo- 
ple, call, though without right, the established church." 
The Episcopalians were not rated at that time, and very 
few of them ever had been. This mistake, however in- 
nocent in his lordship, was very injurious to " one con- 
siderable province." 

His lordship very peremptorily asserts that " what 
the Independents call the established church," they call 
so " without right." In almost all the acts relative to the 
Congregational churches, they are called " the churches 
established by the laws of this province ; " and in the act 
which exempts the Episcopalians from taxes, these 
churches are called " the churches by law established ," 
and the members of the church of England " are excus- 
ed from paying taxes for the building meeting houses for 
the use of the established church within this government ." 
These laws have been transmitted to the king for his ap- 
probation, and have been allowed by him : they are his 
laws, and are executed by his officers. This expression, 
therefore, seems to contain a reflection on majesty itself, 
as well as on the Independents, (as his lordship is pleas- 
ed to denominate the Congregationalists.) And the New- 
England colonists are so good subjects, that they are 
quite willing to stand or fall with their prince. 

His lordship's discourse to the Society was reprinted 
in 1765, in a collection of his sermons on several occa- 
sions. In this new edition the passage in the sermon 


stands without any alteration. The marginal note has 
this addition. " N. B. This grievance hath been re- 
dressed under the administration of governour Shirley, 
in the province of the Massachusetts Bay ; and I believe 
since the year 1752 in the colony of Connecticut also." 
How it was in Connecticut I am not certain. But in 
Massachusetts-Bay, to which it is plain his lordship had 
particular reference when he spake of one considerable 
province, this grievance was redressed years before this 
Sermon was preached, or governour Shirley came into 
the administration of government. It was redressed 
under the administration of governour Belcher, who was 
a professed Congregationalist, and a member of one of 
our churches. 

There can be no other reason for fixing upon the era 
of governour Shirley's administration than this. The 
assembly of the Massachusetts, when they passed the 
act in 1735, saw fit to limit it to five years. When it 
was renewed, under governour Shirley, it was made per- 
petual. This limitation was not peculiar to this act. It 
is a frequent thing when the assembly makes a new law, 
to make it for a certain number of years, for which prac- 
tice there is this very good reason. When a law is once 
passed, it cannot be repealed without the king's assent. 
It is therefore a prudent caution to make their acts tem- 
porary at first, that they may see what effect they will 
have ; and may not bind themselves more than is neces- 
sary. This limitation will by no means justify his lord- 
ship's assertion, that the members of the church of Eng- 
land " are rated to the support of what the Independents 
call the established church," since, I am persuaded, no in- 
stance can be given of such a rate since 1735. There 
is the same limitation in the acts, which exempt the Qua- 
kers and Anabaptists from rates to the ministers of the 
Congregational churches; so that in this respect the 
Episcopalians did not lie " under peculiar burdens in 
one considerable province, which other professors of 
Christianity " were exempted from. All the different 
persuasions of Dissenters are now released from paying 
taxes to any but their own ministers, bylaws which have 


no limitation of time or place ; which laws, I hope, will 
never be repealed. 

These acts are not without their inconveniences ; per- 
sons, who are disaffected to their ministers, or who have 
any difference with the parish in which they reside, gra- 
tify their passions by separating from the christian socie- 
ty to which they belong, and joining with the church of 
England, the Baptists, or the Quakers at their pleasure. 
And the ministers or leaders of these respective denomi- 
nations have, " I am sorry to say it," discovered too 
great a fondness for receiving such proselytes. Councils 
of churches, which have met to adjust differences that 
have arisen in parishes, are often threatened by those to 
whom their result has not been agreeable, that they would 
have their redress by joining themselves to the church of 
England, and this has frequently been the effect. But it 
is much better to submit to these, and many other incon- 
veniences, than that they, who profess themselves Dis- 
senters, should complain, that they lie under any " pecu- 
liar burdens," or should be treated in the manner the 
Dissenters are in England, which cannot be justified by 
any principles of reason or Christianity. I cannot omit, 
that since all these burdens have been confessedly remov- 
ed, the missionaries of the church of England have been 
greatly increased in the New England colonies. 

It appears by the recital of the foregoing acts, that the 
members of the church of England in Boston never were 
rated to what the Independents call the established church ; 
that when there were a very few professors of that church 
out of the town, an act was made for their relief, which, 
however limited, very probably reached almost all of that 
denomination, w r ho desired to be included in it; that 
when their number increased, although it was yet very 
small, and it was found, that their zeal for episcopacy, 
or something else, w 7 ould carry them to attend the worship 
of the church at a greater distance than that mentioned in 
the law, all limitation of place was taken off; and every 
professed member of the church of England, in whatever 
part of the province he lives, though at the distance of 
forty or fifty miles, is released from paying taxes for the 
support of the minister, settled in the place where he 


resides, provided he obtain a certificate from an Episcopal 
minister and his church wardens, "that such person is a 
member of the church of England, and usually and fre- 
quently attends the publick worship of God with them on 
the Lord's day." 

After such indulgence shown by the government to the 
members of the church of England, it is exceeding hard 
to be represented by so great an authority in such an as- 
sembly, as intolerant, if to no others, yet to Episcopa- 
lians ; and, as his lordship's sermon will doubtless live, 
to have such a character of them transmitted to all future 

It is strange, that his lordship chose to bring this sub- 
ject into publick view, not only as it unavoidably turns 
our thoughts to the burdens laid on the Dissenters in 
England, but to the Episcopal colonies in America. In 
which of them is there an act made to exempt Dissenters 
from paying to the support of what the Episcopalians call 
the established church? They are all rated to Episcopal 
ministers, and, if they should refuse payment, their goods 
would be seized, and their bodies imprisoned. Time 
has been, when no minister, who w 7 as not episcopally or- 
dained, was suffered to preach in some of those colonies. 
Since the grievance, of which his lordship complains, was 
redressed in the Massachusetts, Presbyterian ministers 
have been punished only for preaching in Virginia. Even 
the ministers of other denominations, who are settled with 
them, are not excused from paying rates to Episcopal 
ministers. In the province of New- York, the members 
of the church of England are far from being the majority. 
" Col. Fletcher, when governour, procured the assembly 
to set out six churches, with allowances for the mainte- 
nance of ministers." In several of the towns, where 
these churches are " set out," there are Presbyterian 
churches ; but all the Presbyterians, both ministers and 
people, are obliged to pay to the Episcopal ministers. I 
have been informed by a gentleman, who was many 
years pastor of a Presbyterian church in the city of New- 
York, that he was rated every year during his residence 
there to the support of the Episcopal ministers of that 
city. We shall, it is probable, be told, that the church of 


England is the established church. The church of Eng- 
land, then, has an exclusive right to lay burdens on all, 
who dissent from her. Wherever she gains the ascen- 
dant all must be taxed for her support, but the members 
of that church must never be taxed for the support of any 
other minister. Beware, ye colonists, who have not yet 
submitted to this yoke. Beware, ye inhabitants of New- 
England, whose noble predecessors left their native land, 
and ventured into the American deserts, that they might 
enjoy that religious liberty, which was denied them there. 
You have reason to fear the prevalence of a church, the 
members of which hold such intolerant principles, and 
where they have power, practise upon them. Watch 
against her encroachments. Can any wonder, that you 
fear the approach of a bishop? If a prelate is introduced, 
some way must be found out for his support. Every art 
will be used to prevail with our assemblies to lay a tax ; 
and who can assure us, that they will never be cajoled in- 
to a compliance. Their hopes of gaining some favour in 
the parent country, or their fears of incurring the dis- 
pleasure of those in power there, may influence them to 
that, of which there is no prospect at present. [I am told 
that there was but one member of the church of England 
in the assembly of New-York.] If such a tax should 
once be laid, the law would be like the laws of the ancient 
Medes and Persians ; it could not be altered, unless there 
should be some happy change of the hierarchy, which we 
have no reason to expect; and which cannot take place, 
till the clergy are less fond of power and opulence, or the 
nation is blessed with a ministry, who will have the spirit 
to control that order of men, and to confine them to their 
proper department. 

If the provincial assemblies should refuse to tax the in- 
habitants for the support of a bishop, the whole strength 
of the church of England will be united to procure an act 
of parliament [to tax the colonies] to raise a revenue for 
this purpose. If this is obtained, no colony can expect 
an exemption [because the church of England is estab- 
lished in all.] We have been told, that "when any part 
of the English nation spread abroad into colonies, as they 
continued a part of the nation, the law obliged them 


equally to the church of England, and to the christian 
religion." It would be unreasonable to exempt the 
New-England colonies from the support of a church that 
is equally established in all the colonies, and of a bishop 
whose jurisdiction would extend equally to them all. Such 
a partiality would give offence to the other colonies, and 
must therefore be avoided. Nothing can be more spe- 
cious, than the present plans with respect to an American 
bishop ; he is to be a mere ecclesiastick, and the estab- 
lishment of episcopacy is to have the most happy effects ; 
such effects as it never yet had, and it is to be feared, 
never will have. These things are publickly given out 
to prevent opposition, and to smooth the way for the ac- 
complishment of a design, which has been long in agita- 
tion, but has hitherto been happily prevented. However 
tenderly our Episcopal brethren may at present express 
themselves, we have reason to expect, from their whole 
conduct, and from the leading characters in this scheme, 
that their language will soon alter, when they have carried 
their point ; an American bishop will be like other pre- 
lates ; he will aim at power and pomp ; and will think it 
hard, if he is distinguished from his brethren at home, 
and confined wholly to ecclesiastical matters. And the 
English bishops will think it necessary to assist and pro- 
mote him, for the sake of preserving the splendour of the 
order, and lest their own dignity should be affected, when 
it is seen, that Episcopacy may subsist without temporal 
power and the honours of this world. If a bishop is once 
introduced, it will be easy to find pretences to extend his 
authority. He must be a stranger to clerical machina- 
tions, who thinks there is no reason for such fears. And 
no one can blame those, who endeavour to guard against 
an event, they have so much reason to fear. There is 
one other passage in this remarkable sermon, which I 
cannot omit, as it gives an opportunity to transcribe some 
excellent remarks, written, I am well informed, by a cler- 
gyman of great distinction in the church of England. 
" We acknowledge it, whoever is taught Christianity by 
our care, will be taught it as professed in the church es- 
tablished here by law." " And that none," says the re- 
spectable remarker, " will be taught Christianity, by the 


care of the Society, in any other way, appears from a 
question, which follows presently after ; " Which is Tight- 
er, that heathens, and persons of no religion, should con- 
tinue what they are, or become what we would make 
them?" Here you see the alternative is plain and ex- 
press : Either learn Christianity according to the forms of 
the church of England, or continue, for any thing we 
care, what you are, whether heathens, or persons of no 
religion." " Not a single sixpence to he expended upon 
those, who may happen to think some fourth thing right- 
er than any of them, which is the more extraordinary, as 
we are told just before, that " the Society's converts will 
have the Bible put into their hands, to judge for them- 
selves." "Judge, what? Why, which is rightest, the 
church of England, heathenism, or no religion? Un- 
doubtedly the Bible w 7 ould, in this case, give it clearly for 
the church of England. But suppose the convert should 
go one step farther with his Bible, and find something 
in it that is still lighter than even the church of England, 
and dispose himself to deviate from the church of Eng- 
land, and to follow the road that appears to him, after 
judging for himself, to be righter. What is to be done r 
I can see but tw 7 o things left to his choice ; either, 1. to 
give up his Bible, and to follow 7 the church of England, 
implicitly ; or, 2. if he has a mind to keep, and to be 
directed by, his Bible, to refund the price of it to the 

" Ye worthy and respectable members ! Ye learned, 
pious, and venerable fathers, who preside over this noble, 
christian, and benevolent incorporation ! lay jour hands 
upon your hearts, and speak sincerely, Is it honourable 
to the Society to acknowledge this? or can the im- 
partial and judicious christian and protestant think the 
learned preacher fairly entitled to his conclusion, viz. 
" that the expences which must attend so good a design, 
ought to be supplied ; especially when it hangs 
upon these feeble premises being so properly ex- 
ecute*)? Can he think this way of executing the good 
design, is either proper in itself, or proper with respect 
to the liberal sentiments of the glorious William III. 
who panted the charter? No: Let us not, for shame. 


slander the memory of our great deliverer, by imputing 
to him views and principles worthy only of that wretched 
superstition, w T hich he came to put to flight." 

I have now finished my remarks upon his lordship's 
sermon, but cannot conclude without expressing my 
surprize, that the answerer to Dr. Mayhew, who is sup- 
posed to be a very high dignitary in the church, should 
assert, in so strong terms, that " the present Arch-Bishop 
of Canterbury mentioned it," [the case of the Episcopa- 
lians in the Massachusetts and Connecticut] " very ex- 
plicitly, above twenty years ago : and at the end of their 
sermons, both before and since, lists of their missionaries, 
their places of residence and their salaries, with accounts 
of the state of their congregations, have been published 
annually." It is true his lordship explictly mentioned 
the Episcopalians in these provinces ; but he mentioned 
them as in very deplorable circumstances, as oppressed 
by the Independents, and as left destitute of publick 
worship, if the Society did not assist them. It is true, also, 
the Society, in their abstracts, publish lists of their mis- 
sionaries, the places of their residence, and some account 
of the state of their congregations. But these accounts 
are such as are far from giving a just view of things. I 
have before me an abstract annexed to a sermon, preach- 
ed by Dr. Maddox in 1733, by which it appears, that 
the Society themselves are not acquainted with the state 
of some of the places to which they send missionaries, or 
else, that they suppose those places, who have ministers 
not episcopal!) 7 ordained, to be in as bad a state as those 
that have no teachers at all. " The Society," says the 
abstract, " have this year very much increased the num- 
ber of their missions, upon the earnest petitions of the 
principal inhabitants of each place, representing, that they 
have lived several years without the celebration of pub- 
lick divine worship, and without the administration of 
the sacraments, for want of ministers ; that a deep ig- 
norance prevailed among them ; that the rising genera- 
tion must be still more ignorant, as having never seen, 
nay, scarce heard any thing of the publick worship of God, 
and administration of the sacraments ; and that such 
gross ignorance must open a wide door to all immorali- 


ties. The Society have therefore sent the Rev. Mr. 
Smith to Providence, and the other of the inhabited Ba- 
hama Islands, the Rev. Mr. Forbes to Monmouth county 
in New Jersey ; the Rev. Mr. Gowie to St. Bartholo- 
mew's in South Carolina ; the Rev. Mr. Fraser to Kent 
county in Pennsylvania ; the Rev. Mr. Davenport to Scit- 
uate in New -England." 

Is it possible for words to express a more deplorable 
state of ignorance and barbarity, than is contained in this 
account of the places to which the Society sent their 
missionaries, and which they say is the representation of the 
principal inhabitants of each place? One of these places 
is Scituate, a very ancient town in the Massachusetts 
Bay ; in which there had been an uninterrupted succes- 
sion of able, faithful ministers from the very beginning 
of New-England, and where there were, at the time 
of Mr. Davenport's appointment, two Congregational 
churches, with a worthy pastor in each. Could the hon- 
ourable Society have their information from the principal 
inhabitants of this place, that such " deep ignorance pre- 
vailed among them ?" The principal inhabitants belong- 
ed to the other christian assemblies in the town, and had 
no desire to introduce the church of England. The So- 
ciety has most probably often been imposed upon by false 
accounts, which even those, who wrote them, would 
hardly be willing to own. Nothing else can excuse them 
in publishing the very pompous accounts, transmitted by 
some of their missionaries, of the additions made to their 
churches, as if they, who joined them, were converted 
from a state of heathenism or infidelity, when, in truth, 
they have only left the christian societies to which tliey 
belonged, and not always from the best motives, and 
have professed themselves members of the church of 
England. Could the people of Britain, who, till of late, 
have been such strangers to the colonies, when they read 
the anniversary sermons, describing the colonies in gen- 
eral, as in a state of the most deplorable ignorance ; and 
observed the conduct of the Society in sending a great 
part of their missionaries to New-England, and compared 
the accounts sent by these missionaries, could they pos- 
sibly imagine, that, in New-England, there were only a 



few Episcopalians, scattered among regular churches of 
the Congregational or Presbyterian persuasion, which 
were supplied with learned, able, faithful ministers, and 
in which they might have all necessary means of instruc- 
tion, though not exactly according to the rites used in 
the church of England ? Could they find out, that this 
was the situation of the New-England colonies, from a 
few dark hints now and then inserted in a sermon, and 
which seem calculated rather to save the veracity of the 
preacher, than to enlighten the auditory ? Would they 
believe, that the collections, made for propagating the 
gospel, were expended in a great measure in places so 
well provided for, to the neglect of the heathen natives, 
and of a great number of their own countrymen and fel- 
low subjects, who had no means of instruction at all ? 
If any did know the true state of things, and yet were 
willing to contribute, we allow they have a right to think 
and act for themselves, but we pity their want of charity 
and christian candour. 

It is most likely, that great numbers, who have con- 
tributed, as well as many of the Society themselves, have 
been deceived. Some have possibly given very false 
accounts of the state of some places, and very exagge- 
rated ones of others, in order to introduce themselves into 
business, or to raise their own character by magnifying 
the difficulties they have been called to undergo. I 
would not charge all the gentlemen, who have come in 
the character of missionaries, with misrepresenting the 
country. There are among them, some, who despise 
these mean arts ; but we cannot think so favourably of 
all. One of the Society's missionaries had the confidence 
to carry to the President a diploma from the university of 
Oxford, to be inserted in the book of diplomas at Harvard 
College, wherein were these words : " Cumque nobis 
compertum fuerit egregium hunc virum apud anti-episco- 
pales nutritum postmodum agnito errore in ecclesise an- 
glicanse sinum se recepisse, et eadem de causa, a suis 
multimodis contumeliis et injuriis vexatum esse," &x. 
The university doubtless had this account from the gen- 
tleman himself, than which nothing can be more false 
and abusive. No one among us hath ever heard of these 


reproaches and injuries, which he is represented to have 
suffered on account of his conformity to the church of 
England; on the contrary, he has always been treated 
with candour and tenderness. What may we not expect 
from men, who would fix an indelible mark of disgrace 
on their country in the public records of that renowned 
university ! 

I had not said so much concerning a sermon, preached 
so long ago, if the same reflections had not been east on 
the colonies in the two last Society sermons, which are 
all we have been able to get a sight of for some years. 
The right reverend persons, who delivered these dis- 
courses, might think themselves safe in following so 
great an example. Dr. W[a]-rb[u]-rt[o]-n [1766] and 
Dr. Ew[e]-r [1767] had not perhaps treated the colonies 
with so great freedom, if His Grace of Canterbury had 
not gone before them. 

When the bishop of Landaffs [Dr. Ewer, 1767] ser- 
mon was first put into my hands, a judicious friend pointed 
out the following passage. " Even the Romish supersti- 
tion, within a province lately added to the British domin- 
ions, is completely allowed in all points ; it hath bishops 
and seminaries." I expected a protestant bishop would 
take this publick opportunity to bear his testimony against 
a measure, that was like to fix the inhabitants of Canada 
in their superstition, and to be of so dangerous consequence 
to the British interests : and that he would zealously 
press the Society, to exert themselves to prevent the fa- 
tal effects, by sending over a number of able missiona- 
ries to propagate the reformed religion, by setting up 
Protestant schools, and that the missionaries and school- 
masters mi^ht be furnished with French Bibles to dis- 
perse among those, who should be willing to receive 
them. But how great was my surprize ! when I found 
this eminent prelate only made use of this unhappy in- 
dulgence as an argument for sending a bishop ol the 
church of England into the colonies. His lordship could 
not suppose the completely establishing episcopacy m 
the colonies, in all points, was of equal importance with 


the reducing our new fellow-subjects from the darkness 
and superstitions of the church of Rome. I should be 
extremely sorry for any thing that would create new 
jealousies in any of the American provinces ; this would 
certainly be the effect of sending a bishop at the present 
time, of which they cannot see any occasion at any time. 


1. WHAT is the situation of the colony under your 
government, the nature of the country, soil and climate, 
the latitudes and longitudes of the most considerable pla- 
ces in it ? Have those latitudes and longitudes been set- 
tled by good observations, or only by common compu- 
tations, and from whence are the longitudes computed ? 

2. What are the reputed boundaries, and are any parts 
thereof disputed, what parts and by whom ? 

3. What is the size and extent of the colony, the num- 
ber of acres supposed to be contained therein, what part 
thereof is cultivated and improved, and under what titles 
do the inhabitants hold their possessions ? 

4. What rivers are there, and of what extent and 
convenience in point of commerce ? 

5. What are the principal harbours, how situated, of 
what extent, and what is the depth of water, and nature 
of anchorage in each ? 

6. What is the constitution of the government? 

7. What is the trade of the colony, the number of 
shipping belonging thereto, their tonnage and the num- 
ber of seafaring men, with the respective increase or 
diminution within ten years past ? 

8. What quantity and sort of British manufactures do 
the inhabitants annually take from hence, what goods 
and commodities are exported from thence to Great 
Britain, and what is the annual amount at an average ? 

9. What trade has the colony under your government 
with any foreign plantations, or any part of Europe, be- 
sides Great Britain, how is that trade carried on, what 


commodities do the people under your government send 
to or receive from foreign plantations, and what is the 
annual amount thereof, at an average ? 

10. What methods are there used to prevent illegal 
trade, and are the same effectual ? 

11. What is the natural produce of the country, staph 1 
commodities, and manufactures, and what value thereof 
in sterling money may you annually export ? 

12. What mines are there? 

13. What is the number of the inhabitants, whites 
and blacks ? 

14. Are the inhabitants increased or decreased within 
the last ten years ; how much, and for what reasons ? 

15. What is the number of the militia, and under 
what regulations is it constituted ? 

16. What forts and places of defence are there within 
your government, and in what condition ? 

17. What number of Indians have you, and how are 
they inclined ? 

18. What is the strength of the neighbouring Indians ? 

19. What is the revenue arising within your govern- 
ment, and how is it appropriated and applied ? 

20. What are the ordinary and extraordinary expenses 
of your government ? 

21. What are the establishments, civil and military, 
within your government, and by what authority do the 
officers hold their places ; what is the annual value of 
each office, civil or military, how are they respectively 
appointed, and who are the present possessors ? 


New Haven, 16 May, 1774. 


I HAVE your honoured letter before me of the 
18th February last, and for answer, 

1. The latitude of New-Haven is 41° 18' north, and 
long. 73° 30' west from London, taken by good obser- 



5. New Haven has the principal harbour in the western 
part of the colony, situated north and south, half a mile 
wide at the entrance, and from the entrance to the town 
four miles, having two fathoms and an half water at low 
water, and three fathoms and four feet at common tides, 
and very good anchorage. 

7. The trade from this part of the colony is entirely 
to the West India islands, and the exports are horses, 
oxen, pork, beef, tallow, and lumber, and the imports 
West India produce. The shipping belonging to this 
port, are one hundred and eight vessels, consisting of 
brigantines, sloops, and schooners, amounting to seven 
thousand one hundred and seventy tons, carpenter's 
measure. The number of seafaring men are seven hun- 
dred and fifty-six. As for their increase or diminution, 
I must refer your honour to the last return, ten years ago. 

8. British manufactures and India goods, imported an- 
nually from Great Britain into the port of New Haven, 
on an average amount to about 4000/. sterling ; for which 
remittances are made in pot and pearl ashes and bills of 
exchange. European and India goods, taken from Bos- 
ton and New York, annually amount to about 40,000/. 
sterling ; for which remittances are made in pork, beef, 
wheat, rye, Indian corn, flax-seed, pot and pearl ashes. 

9. We trade with no foreign plantation, except the 
French islands in the West Indies ; nor to any parts of 
Europe but Great Britain. We carry to the French 
plantations, horses, oxen, and lumber, and receive in re- 
turn, sugar and molasses, to the amount of about 3000/. 
sterling annually on an average. 

10. The methods to prevent illegal trade are, the 
custom house officers go on board all vessels as soon as 
they come into port, and after due search being made, 
they report to the king's collector the cargo on board, 
which proves very effectual. 

11. The natural produce of the country is wheat, rye, 
Indian corn, and flax ; the staple commodities are pork, 
beef, wheat, rye, Indian corn, flax-seed, pot and pearl 
ashes. Our manufactures are coarse linens and woollens 
for the poorer sort of people and servants, also iron- 
mongery ; but we export none. 


Thus, sir, I have been as particular as I am capable of, 

iu the above answers. And on this occasion beg leave 
sincerely to congratulate your honour on the happy 
event of the late election, and purpose to wait on your 
honour next week, and in the mean time am, sir, \ our 
honour's most obedient and very humble servant, 

David Wooster. 
To the Hon. Jonathan Trumbull, Esq. 


Answer 1. THE latitude of New London, the best 
harbour in Connecticut, is, by observation, 41° 25' north, 
and longitude 4° 45' west from London, that is, 71° 15' 
west from London, by observation of the eclipses of the 
moon, calculated by Halley's tables. 

5. New London, as above, is one of the principal 
harbours, and opens to the south ; and from the light- 
house at the mouth of the harbour to the town is about 
three miles, and a breadth of three fourths of a mile and 
more in some places, from 5 to 6 fathoms water, a clear 
bottom, tough ooze, and entirely secure and commodious 
one mile above the town for large ships. 

7. The principal trade of this government is to 
the West India islands, excepting now and then a vessel 
to Ireland with flax-seed, and to England with lumber 
and pot ashes, and a few to Gibraltar and Barbary, 
There is 72 sail of vessels now belonging to this district, 
amounting to 3247 tons, in which there are 406 seafar- 
ing men employed, besides upwards of 20 sail of coast- 
ing vessels, that employ about 90 seamen. On compar- 
ing, the trade is on the decrease ; for in the year 17G3 
there were 79 sail of vessels belomrimr to this district, a 
difference of 7 sail. 

8. It is impossible to enumerate the various sorts 
of British manufactures that are here imported : bat in 
general almost every sort is consumed here ; which v\ c 
have principally from New York and Boston, to the 


amount, upon a medium, from the best information I can 
get, of 150,000/. or 160,000/. sterling per annum. 

9. Besides the English islands, (which supply 
this government with more than its home consumption 
of rum and sugar) it has a trade with the French and Dutch 
West Indies, Gibraltar and Barbarj. Those vessels 
that go to the French and Dutch plantations carry horses, 
cattle, sheep, hogs, provisions and lumber; those for Gib- 
raltar and Barbary carry flour, lumber, New England rum, 
and stores for muling, the whole annual amount of which 
(I should think) about 50,000/. sterling ; for which we re- 
ceive molasses, cocoa, cotton, and some sugar, and from 
the Dutch plantations bills of exchange ; and the mules 
from Barbary are generally sold in the West Indies for 
bills of exchange, the most of which importation and 
bills goes to New York and Boston to pay for the British 
goods this government, receives from those places. 

10. The custom house officers here are attentive 
to their duty, besides which, this harbour is so situated, 
that the coming in form sea is between the east end of 
Long Island and Block Island, and by the west end of 
Fisher's Island, where the king's cruisers are generally up- 
on the look out, and very critical in examining the vessels 
they meet with. 

11. The natural produce of this country is timber, 
iron and copper ore, myrtle wax, &c. The produce, 
and staple commodities are Indian corn, wheat, rye, beef, 
pork, flax, flax-seed, oats, beans, peas, potatoes, cheese, ci- 
der, apples, &c. which articles are carried in the coast- 
ing vessels to New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Virginia 
and Carolina, to what value is very difficult to determine ; 
but I should think to at least 20,000/. sterling, which, 
with the 50,000/. sterling in the foreign trade, makes, on 
this estimation, the annual amount of exportation from 
this District 70,000/. sterling. It is evident the whole 
falls short of paying for the British manufactures we re- 
ceive, as many of our traders have failed, and the New- 
Yorkers have taken their landed interest in this colony in 
payments to a very considerable amount. The chief 
manufactures are pot and pearl ashes, bar iron, and ne- 
cessary implements for husbandry, &c. 



Governow Trumbull, Philadelphia, 1 Oct. 1774 


WE arrived in this city the 1st of Septem- 
ber last, and the delegates from Virginia, North Car- 
olina, and New York not being come, the Congress was 
not formed until the 5th, when the Hon. Peyton Ran- 
dolph. Esq. was unanimously chosen President, and 
Charles Thompson, Esq. Secretary; a list of the mem- 
bers we enclose. The mode of voting in this Congress 
was first resolved upon, which was, that each colony 
should have one voice ; but as this was objected to as 
unequal, an entry was made on the journals to prevent 
its being drawn into precedent in future. Committees 
were then appointed to state American rights and griev- 
ances, and the various acts of the British parliament, 
which affect the trade and manufactures of these colonies. 
On these subjects the committees spent several days, 
when the Congress judged it necessary, previous to com- 
pleting and resolving on these subjects, to take under 
consideration, that of ways and means for redress. On 
the 16th arrived an express from Boston with letters to 
the delegates, and the Suffolk resolves. These were laid 
before the Congress, and were highly approved of and 
applauded, as you will see by the enclosed paper of the 
19th, in which the proceeding of the Congress thereon 
is published, at large, by their order. A general non- 
importation of British goods and manufactures, or of any 
goods from thence, appearing to the Congress one of the 
means of redress in our power, and which might prob- 
ably be adopted, to prevent future difficulties and alter- 
cations on this subject among those, who might now be, 
or for some time past had been, sending orders for goods. 
The Congress unanimously came into the enclosed reso- 
lution on the 22d, and the same was ordered to be pub- 
lished immediately. Since this, a nonimportation of 
goods, &c. from Great Britian and Ireland, from and af- 
ter the first of December next, has been unanimously 


resolved on ; but to carry so important a resolution into 
effect, it is necessary, that every possible precaution 
should now be taken, on the one hand to prevent wicked 
and desperate men, from breaking through and defeating 
it, either by fraud or force, and on the other to remove 
as far as possible every temptation to, or necessity for 
the violation thereof: for this a committee are appointed, 
who, not having as yet completed their report, nothing is 
published particularly on this subject more than what we 
now are at liberty, in general, to relate. We have the 
pleasure of finding the whole Congress, and through 
them the whole continent, of the same sentiment and 
opinion of the late proceedings and acts of the British 
parliament ; but at the same time confess our anxiety for 
greater despatch of the business before us, than it is in 
our power, or perhaps in the nature of the subject, to ef- 
fect. An assembly, like this, though it consists of less 
than sixty members, yet coming from remote colonies, 
each of which has some modes of transacting publick 
business peculiar to itself, some particular provincial 
rights and interests to guard and secure, must take some 
time to become so accquainted with each one's situation 
and connexions, as to be able to give an united assent 
to the ways and means proposed for effecting, what all 
are ardently desirous of, in this view. Our president, 
though a gentleman of great worth, and one who fills 
and supports the dignity of his station to universal ac- 
ceptance, yet cannot urge forward matters to an issue 
with that despatch, which he might in a different assem- 
bly ; or, considering the great importance of something 
more than a majority, an unanimity, would it be safe and 
prudent ? Unanimity being in our view of the last im- 
portance, every one must be heard, even on those points, 
or subjects, which are in themselves not of the last im- 
portance. And indeed it often happens, that what is of 
little or no consequence to one colony, is of the last to 
another. We have thus hinted to your honour, our gen- 
eral situation, which we hope will account for our being 
delayed here beyond the time which either the colony or 
we ourselves expected. 


Though our private concerns and connexions, as well 
as the publick expectation and interest of the colon) urge 

us to make all possible despatch, yet as we find it would 
not only be of dangerous consequence, but perhaps im- 
practicable to attempt pushing matters to a decision fast- 
er, than they now come to it in the course they are, we 
find it. most prudent to wait patiently the issue. We shall 
be able to write you more particularly in a few days ; but 
could not omit this opportunity of writing thus far on the 
subject of our delegation here. 

We take liberty to enclose the copy of lord Dun- 
more's proclamation, on which we shall only say, it appears 
in some parts of it very extraordinary, and would occa- 
sion much greater speculation here than it does, were it 
not that few or none, save the proprietors, consider them- 
selves interested in the controversy, and the whole atten- 
tion of the publick is taken up on more important sub- 
jects. Laurel Hill is about forty miles on this side Fort 
Du Qucsnc, alias Fort Pitt, and is a range of mountains 
running northerly nearly in a line with the west boundary 
of the province of Maryland, and cuts off from this prov- 
ince one whole county, lately erected, by the name of 
Westmoreland. His lordship is now in those parts near 
the Ohio, with an army of fifteen hundred Virginians, 
reducing the Indian tribes to subjection, or driving them 
off the land. We cannot be positive as to the time of 
our return, but hope to be at New-Haven before the ris- 
ing of the Assembly, and may probably be able to write 
with greater certainty in our next. W 7 e are, with the 
greatest respect, your honour's most obedient and most 
humble servants, 

Eliphalet Dyer, 
Rocer Sherman, 
Silas Deane. 

Since writing the above, we see the resolutions of the 
Congress respecting Suffolk County, &c. are printed in 
the Commonwealth papers, therefore judge it unneces- 
sary to enclose them. 

224 AFFAIR OF 19 APRIL, 1757. 


Boston, 29 April, 1775. 

I TRANSMIT you herewith a circumstantial 
account of an unhappy affair that happened in this prov- 
ince, on the 19th instant, between his majesty's troops 
and the people of the country ; whereby you will see the 
pitch their leaders have worked them up to, even to com- 
mit hostilities upon the king's troops, when an opportu- 
nity offered. It has been long said, that this was their 
plan, and so it has turned out. I am with regard and 
esteem, sir, your most obedient, humble servant. 

Thomas Gage. 
Hon. Governour Trumbull. 


ON Tuesday, the 18th April, about half past 10 at 
night, Lieutenant Colonel Smith of the 10th regiment 
embarked from the common at Boston, with the grena- 
diers and light infantry of the troops there, and landed 
on the opposite side, from whence he began his march 
towards Concord, where he was ordered to destroy a 
magazine of military stores, deposited there for the use 
of an army to be assembled in order to act against his 
majesty, and his government. The colonel called his offi- 
cers together, and gave orders that the troops should not 
fire, unless fired upon ; and, after marching a few miles, 
detached six companies of light infantry, under the com- 
mand of major Pitcairn, to take possession of two bridges, 
on the other side of Concord ; soon after, they heard ma- 
ny signal guns, and the ringing of alarm bells repeatedly, 
which convinced them, that the country was rising to op- 
pose them, and that it was a preconcerted scheme to op- 
pose the king's troops, whenever there should be a 
favourable opportunity for it. About 3 o'clock the next 
morning, the troops being advanced within two miles of 
Lexington, intelligence was received that about 500 men 

mi aiii of 19 ipril, 1776. £25 

in arms were assembled, and determined to oppose the 
king's troops; and, on major Pitcairn's galloping up to 
the head of the advanced companies, two officers inform- 
ed him that a man (advanced from those that were as- 
sembled) had presented his musquet, and attempted to 
shoot them, but the piece Hashed in the pan. On this, 
the major gave directions to the troops to move forward, 
but on no account to lire, nor even to attempt it, without 
orders. When they arrived at the end of the village, they 
observed about 200 armed men, drawn up on a green : 
and when the troops came within one hundred yards of 
them, they began to iile off towards some stone walls 
on their right Hank. The light infantry, observing this, 
ran after them. The major instantly called to the soldiers 
not to fire, but to surround and disarm them. Some of 
them, w r ho had jumped over a wall, then fired four or five 
shot at the troops, wounded a man of the 10th regiment, 
and the major's horse in two places ; and at the same time 
several shots were fired from a meeting house on the 
left. Upon this, without any order or regularity, the 
light infantry began a scattered fire, and killed sever;) 1 
of the country people ; but w T ere silenced as soon as the 
authority of their officers could make them [hear.] 

After this colonel Smith marched up with the remain- 
der of the detachment, and the whole body proceeded to 
Concord, where they arrived about nine o'clock, with- 
out any thing further happening ; but vast numbers of 
armed people w T ere seen assembling on all the heights. 
While colonel Smith, with the grenadiers and part of the 
light infantry, remained at Concord to search for cannon, 
&,c. there; he detached captain Parsons, with six light 
companies, to secure a bridge at some distance from Con- 
cord, and to proceed from thence to certain houses, 
where it was supposed there w 7 as cannon and ammu- 
nition. Captain Parsons, in pursuance of these orders, 
posted three companies at the bridge, and on some heights 
near it, under the command of captain Laurie oi the 43d 
regiment, and with the remainder went and destroyed 
some cannon wheels, powder, and ball. The people still 
continued increasing on the heights, and in about an hour 
after, a large body of them began to move towards the 


226 AFFAIR OF 19 APRIL, 1775. 

bridge. The light companies of the 4th and 10th then 
descended, and joined captain Laurie ; the people contin- 
ued to advance in great numbers, and fired upon the 
king's troops, killed three men, wounded four officers, 
one serjeant, and four privates ; upon which, (after re- 
turning the fire) captain Laurie and his officers thought it 
prudent to retreat towards the main body at Concord, and 
were soon joined by two companies of grenadiers. When 
captain Parsons returned with the three companies over 
the bridge, they observed three soldiers on the ground, 
one of them scalped, (his head much mangled, and his ears 
cut off,) though not quite dead ; a sight, which struck the 
soldiers with horrour. Captain Parsons marched on, 
and joined the main body, who were only waiting for his 
coming up, to march back to Boston. Colonel Smith 
had executed his orders without opposition, by destroy- 
ing all the military stores he could find ; both the colonel 
and major Pitcairn having taken all possible pains to con- 
vince the inhabitants, that no injury was intended them, 
and that if they opened their doors when required, to 
search for said stores, not the slightest mischief should 
be done ; neither had any of the people the least occasion 
to complain ; but they were sulky, and one of them even 
struck major Pitcairn. Except upon captain Laurie, at 
the bridge, no hostilities happened from the affair at Lex- 
ington, until the troops began their march back. As 
soon as the troops had got out of the town of Concord, 
they received a heavy fire on them from all sides, from 
walls, fences, houses, trees, barns, &c. which continued, 
without intermission, till they met the first brigade, with 
two field pieces, near Lexington, ordered out under the 
command of lord Percy, to support them. Upon the 
firing of the field pieces, the people's fire was, for a w 7 hile, 
silenced ; but as they still continued to increase greatly 
in numbers, they fired again, as before, from all places, 
where they could find cover, upon the whole body, and 
continued so doing, for the space of fifteen miles. Not- 
withstanding their numbers, they did not attack openly 
during the whole day, but kept under cover on all occa- 
sions. The troops were very much fatigued, the great- 
er part of them having been under arms all night, and 


made a march of upwards of forty miles before they ar- 
rived at Charlestown, from whence they were ferried 
over (o Boston. 

The troops had above fifty killed, and many more 
wounded. Reports are various about the loss sustained 
by the country people; some make it very considerable, 
others not so much. 

[The following Journal was found in MS. among the papers of the 
late President Stiles. It was probably procured for him by 
Josiah Meigs, Esq. who was a tutor at Yale College in the time of 

the revolutionary war ; afterward professor of mathematicks and 
natural philosophy in that seminary : and since president of the 
University of Georgia — a brother of .Major .Mr. .>, the writer of this 
Journal. The name, at the close of the Journal, is in his hand 
writing. Major (afterward Colonel) Meigs, was of Middleton, in 
Connecticut, and was one of the distinguished heroes of the Ameri- 
can revolution. Beside the proof of his courage and other military 
accomplishments, furnished on the following occasion, his expedi- 
tion to Long Island, in 1777, was one of the most brilliant and 
completely successful enterprizes, that was achieved during the 
war. For this achievement Congress directed a sword to be pre- 
sented to him, and passed a resolution " expressive of the high sense 
entertained of his merit, and of the prudence, activity, and valour 
displayed by himself and his party in this expedition. 1 ' He was with 
ijeneral Wayne at the takingof Stony Point, in 1779; and is men- 
tioned with honour by general Washington among those officers, 
" who conducted themselves with that coolness, bravery and perse- 
verance, that will ever ensure success." — See Coll. Hist. Soc. II. 
50, 102. Marshall's Life of Washington, vol. II. chap. 5. vol. IV. 
ch. 2. and Trumbull's print of " The Death of Montgomery." En.] 


Which happened within the circle of my observation, in tht detachment 
commanded by Col. Benedict Arnold, consisting of two battalions, 

which were detached from the army at Cambridge, in the year 177.5. 

Field officers' names, Col. Christopher Green, Col. Roger Enos, 
Maj. Return J. Meigs, Maj. Timothy Bigelow. 

1775. Sept. 9th. 1 MARCHED from Roxbury, (where 
I had been stationed the summer,) to Cambridge. 

10th, 11th, 12th. At Cambridge, preparing for our 
march. 13th in the evening marched toMystick. 1 ith 
continued our march through the towns of Maiden, Lynn, 
and Salem, and encamped in Danvers. 


15th. In the morning continued our march through 
the towns of Beverly, and Wenham, and encamped at 

16th. In the morning continued our march, and at 
10 o'clock, A. M. arrived at Newburyport and encamped. 

17th. Sunday, attended divine service at the Rev. 
Mr. Parsons' meeting at Newburyport. Dined at Mr. 
Nathaniel Tracy's. Weather line. 

18th. Preparing to embark. Dined at Mr. Dalton's. 
Weather fine. 

19th. Embarked our whole detachment, consisting 
of 10 companies of musketmen and 3 companies of rifle- 
men, amounting to 1100 men onboard 10 transports. 
1 embarked myself on board the sloop Britannia. The 
fleet came to sail at 10 o'clock, A. M. and sailed out of 
the harbour and lay to till one o'clock, P. M. when we 
received orders to sail for the river Kennebeck, fifty 
leagues from Newburyport— received, with our sailing 
orders, the following for signals, viz. 

1st signal. For speaking with the whole fleet. En- 
sign at maintopmast head. 

2d signal. For chasing a sail. Ensign at foretopmast 

3d signal. For heaving to. Lanthorn at maintop- 
mast head, and two guns if head on shore, and three if off 

4th signal. For making sail in the night. Lanthorn 
at masthead, and 4 guns ; in the day, jack at foretopmast 

5th signal. For dispersing, and every vessel making 
the nearest harbour. Ensign at main peak. 

6th signal. For boarding any vessel. Jack at main- 
topmast head, and the whole fleet draw up in a line, as 
near as possible. 

The wind being fair and very fresh I was very sea- 

20th. In the morning w r e made the mouth of Kenne- 
beck right ahead, which we soon entered. The mouth 
of the river is narrow. We were hailed from the shore 
by a number of men under arms, which were stationed 
there. They were answered, that we were continental 

M kJOR MEIGS 3 JiUKN \l.. 229 

troops, and that we wanted a pilot. They immediately 
sent one on hoard. The wind and tide favouring us, 
we proceeded up the river; 5 miles from the mouth lies 
an island, called Rousack. Upon this island is a hand- 
some meeting house, and very good dwelling houses. 
The river to this island of very unequal width, from 
one mile to a quarter of a mile wide, the water deep, 
great tides, the shores generally rocky ; ten milt's 
from the month some elegant buildings, at a place 
called Georgetown ; twenty miles from the mouth is 
a very large bay, called Merry-meeting Bay, 25 miles from 
the month an island, called Swan island. A little above 
this island we came to anchor, opposite to Pownal borough, 
where is a block-house. I would mention here 1 , that this 
day makes fourteen only, since the orders were first 
given for building 200 battoes, collecting provisions for 
and levying 1100 men, and marching them to this place. 
viz. Gardiner's Town, which is great despatch. 

21st. All day at Gardiner's Town ; weather line. 

J id. Embarked on board battoes — proceeded up the 
river toward evening. I lodged at the house of Mr. 
J\orth, and was very agreeably entertained. 

23d. In the morning proceeded up the river, about 6 
miles, to Fort Western, where an unhappy accident hap- 
pened in the evening. A number of soldiers being in 
a private house, some words produced a quarrel, and one 
M'Cormick, being turned out of the house, immediately 
discharged his gun into the house, and shot a man through 
his body, of which he soon expired. M'Cormick 
was tried by a Court Martial, and received sentence of 
death ; but denied the crime till he was brought to the 
place of execution, when he confessed the crime. But 
for some reasons he was reprieved till the pleasure of 
General Washington could be known. 

24, 25, and 26th. At Fort Western, preparing for our 
tour to Quebec. Fort Western stands on the east side 
of the river Kennebeck, and consists of 2 block-houses, 
and a large house, 100 feet long, which were enclosed 

only with pickets. This house is the property of 

Howard, Esq. where we were exceedingly well entertain- 


ed. Captain Morgan, with 3 companies of riflemen em- 
barked in battoes, with orders to proceed with all expe- 
dition to the great carrying place, and clear the road, while 
the other divisions came up. 

26th. Colonel Green embarked on board battoes 
three companies of musketmen, with whom went major 
Bigelow, on their tour to Canada. 

27th. At three o'clock, P. M. I embarked on board 
my battoe with the third division of the army, consisting 
of 4 companies of musketmen, with 45 days' provision, 
and proceeded up the river, hoping for the protection of a 
kind providence. We encamped at evening 4 miles from 
Fort Western ; the water some part of the way rapid. 
1 had forgot to mention, that the navigation for vessels is 
good to Fort Western, which is 50 miles from the mouth. 

28th. Proceeded up the river — the stream very rapid, 
and the bottom and shores rocky. 

29th. In the morning continued our route up the riv- 
er. At 11 o'clock, A. M. arrived at Fort Halifax, which 
stands on a point of land between the river Kennebeck 
and the river Sebastecook. This fort consists of two 
large block-houses, and a large barrack, which is enclos- 
ed with a picket fort. I tarried half an hour at the fort — 
then crossed the river to a carrying place, which is 97 
rods carriage — then proceeded up the river, which falls 
very rapidly over a rocky bottom, 5 miles, and encamp- 
ed. The above falls are Toconock. 

30th. Proceeded up the river 7 miles, and encamped, 
where Colonel Arnold joined us at night, and encamped 
with us. 

October 1st. Proceeded up the river 9 miles, and 
encamped. The land we passed this day generally very 
good ; the timber, butternut, beech, hemlock, white pine, 
red cedar, &c. 

2d. In the morning proceeded up the river, and at 
10 o'clock arrived at Scohegin falls, where is a carrying 
place of 250 paces, which lies across a small island in the 
river. Here 1 waited for my division to come up, and 
encamped on the west side the river, opposite the island, 
with captain Goodrich. It rained in the night. I turned 
out, and put on my clothes, and lay down again and slept 


well till morning. Our course In general, from tin 
mouth of the river to this place, lias been from north to 
north east. 

3d. Proceeded up the river to Norridgewalk. On 
my way I called at a house, where I saw a child 14 
mouths old. This is the fust white child born in Nor- 
ridgewalk. At 7 o'clock in the evening, a little below 
Norridgewalk, my battoe filled with water going up the 
falls. Here I lost my kettle, butter, and sugar, a loss 
not to be replaced here. At Norridgewalk are to be seen 
the vestiges of an Indian fort and chapel, and a priest's 
grave.* There appears to have been some intrenchment, 
and a covered way through the bank of the river, for the 
conveniency of getting water. This must have been a 
considerable seat of the natives, as there are large Indian 
fields cleared. This day 1 wrote to Mrs. Meigs, to my 
brother, and Ensign Warner. — Opposite to Norridgewalk, 
which lies on the east side the river, a river conies in 
from the westward, called Sandy River. 

4th. I proceeded up the river about one mile, and 
crossed the river, where is a carrying place of one mile 
and a quarter ; here I came up with the second division. 
commanded by col. Green. 

5th. All day at the carrying place. At evening 
moved one company up the river one mile, where they 
encamped, waiting for the other companies of my divis- 

(ith. Still at the carrying place, getting over boats 
and provisions. At 4 o'clock, P. M. 1 proceeded up 
the river 5 miles, and encamped. 

7th. Continued our march up the river, and 12 
o'clock arrived at Carratuncas carrying place. Here the 
river is confined between two rocks, not more than 40 
rods wide, which lie in piles 40 rods in length on each 
side the river. These rocks are polished curiously in 
some places, by the swift running of the water. The 
carrying place here is 433 paces in length. 

8th. All day at the carrying place at Carratuncas — 
weather very rainy. Captain Dearborn's company passed 
the carrying place this day, at 3 o'clock, P. M. 

* The grave of Sebastian Ralle, the French Je<uit missionary, who was killed 
here in 1724. Ed. 


9th. Captain Ward's company passed the carrying 
place this day, at 12 o'clock. At one o'clock, P. M. I 
left the carrying place, and proceeded up the river, about 
4 miles, and encamped. The stream these 4 miles very 
rapid, and in some places very shoal, being divided by a 
number of islands, which appear fine land. From this 
encampment some high mountains rise to our view to 
the northward. 

10th. Proceeded up the river, which continues its 
course northwest between two high mountains, and en- 
camped at the great carrying place, which is 12| 
miles across, including three ponds, which we are obliged 
to pass. 

11th. I crossed the great carrying place, as far as the 
third pond. There had the pleasure to discover Lieut. 
Steel and party, who had been sent forward on a recon- 
noitering command, as far as Chaudiere pond. They 
discovered nothing with regard to the enemy. I return- 
ed back to the second pond, and lodged with Col. Green. 

12th. In the morning I repassed the second and first 
pond, and went to the river and gave orders, which I re- 
ceived from Col. Arnold, for building a block-house ; and 
then returned and crossed the first pond and encamped. 
In these ponds we found great plenty of trout. Col. 
Enos arrived this day at the great carrying place, with 
the 4th division of the army, consisting of three compa- 
nies of musketmen. 

13th. Employed in carrying our boats and provision 
across the first pond and the second portage. I went 
myself once across the third portage, and returned back 
to the east side of the 2d portage, and encamped with 
Col. Arnold— the wind so high, that the boats could not 
cross the third pond. To this time our men have killed 
four moose, which is excellent meat. 

14th. At eleven o'clock, I repassed the first pond to 
see Capt. Dearborn's and Capt. Ward's companies over. 
Last night a tree, blown down by the wind, fell, upon one 
of our men, and bruised him in such a manner, that his 
life is despaired of. In the evening I returned back to 
the 2d portage, and encamped with Capt. Ward. 

M UOB MEIGS 3 JOl K.\ u.. 

15th. This morning orders were given, that the al- 
lowance should be 3-4 lb, pork and 3-4 lb. flour jut man 
per diem. At 1 o'clock I crossed the 3d pond, and en- 
camped in a cedar swamp. This ;>d pond is about nine 
miles in circumference, and is surrounded with cedar 
timber. This pond is much larger than the other two, 

lfith. In the morning 1 went forward to the dead riv- 
er, and took part of capt. Goodrich's company, and re- 
turned to the third pond, where I met capt. Ward's com- 
pany. At evening I returned to the dead river, marched 
one mile up the river, and encamped with capt. Hanchet. 

17th. In the morning I set out with capt. Hanchet 
to reconnoitre a very high mountain that lies about 10 
miles from our encampment. But we were too late in 
the 4 day, and returned towards evening without being able 
to ascend the mountain. 

18th. In the morning ordered eight men to kill two 
oxen, which we had drove with great difficulty to this 
place, and to bring forward i\xo quarters to the detach- 
ment that was gone forward, and to leave three quarters 
under a guard lor col. Enos's division. Then 1 pro- 
ceeded up the river with my division about 'JO miles, 
the water running with a very gentle current, and en- 
camped on thi j south side the river. Here I joined col. 
Arnold and col. Green's division. The land we passed 
this day very fine — thinly timbered, and mostly covered 
with grass as high as a man's waist. 

19th. In the morning it rained. We tarried in our 
camp till 2 o'clock, P. M. Then continued our route 
up the river 5 miles, and encamped on the north side the 
river. This afternoon we passed three small falls; the 
current, except the fall, verj gentle. This day I receiv- 
ed orders from col. Arnold to proceed with my division, 
with the greatest expedition, to Chaudiere river, and 
when arrived there, to make up our cartridges, and wait 
for the rear division, and furnish a number of pioneers, 
under command of Mr. Ayres, to clear the carrying 

20th. Proceeded up the river, passed several small 
falls and one portage, only 13 rods across, and encamped 
at evening. Weather rainy all day. 


21st. In the morning proceeded up the river about 
3 miles, to a carrying place 35 perches across. Then 
continued our route up the river about 2 miles to a por- 
tage 30 perches across, where we encamped. 

22d. Continued our route up the river about 3 miles. 
In our way we passed 2 portages, or carrying places, 
each 74 perches. Our whole course this day is only 3 
miles, owing to the extraordinary rise of the river the last 
night. In some parts of the river the water rose 8 feet 
perpendicular, and in many places overflowed its banks, 
and filled the country with water, which made it very 
difficult for our own men that were on shore to march. 

23d. In the morning continued the march, though 
very slow, on account of the rapidity of the stream. A 
number of our men that marched on the shore, marched 
up a river that came in from the westward, mistaking it 
for the main river, which, as soon as we discovered, we 
despatched some boats after them. The river now falls 
fast. Encamped this evening at a carrying place, 15 
perches across. Here a council was held, in which it 
was resolved, that a captain, with 50 men, should march 
with all despatch by land to Chaudiere pond, and that the 
sick, of my division and captain Morgan's, should return 
back to Cambridge. At this place the stream is very 
rapid, in passing which, five or six battoes filled and 
overset, by which we lost several barrels of provisions, a 
number of guns, some clothes and cash. 

24th. Proceeded up the river, though with great fa- 
tigue, the water being very rapid. Our whole course 
this day only 4 miles, when we encamped. This day I 
wrote to Mrs. Meigs by the officer that returned with the 

25th. Continued our route up the river, about six 
miles, and encamped; the stream very rapid. In our 
way we passed 3 carrying places, two of them 4 rods 
each, the other 90 rods. 

26th. Continued our route, and soon entered a pond, 
about two miles across, and passed through a narrow 
streight, only 2J perches wide, about 4 rods long; 
then entered another small pond about a mile over, and 
then through a narrow streight about a mile and an half 

MAJOR MEIGS 5 .101 i;n \|.. 235 

long, to a third pond, three miles wide; then passed 
through a narrow streight, and entered a fourth pond, 
about a quarter of a mile wide : then entered a narrow, 
crooked river about three miles in length, to a carrying 
place, 15 perches across, to a pond about 100 perches 
across, and encamped on the northwest side, upon a high 
hill, which is a carrying place. These ponds are sur- 
rounded with mountains. 

27th. In the morning continued our route across the 
carrying place, which is one mile, to a pond 50 rods 
wide, to a carrying place, 44 perches long, to a pond 
about two miles wide, to a carrying place of 1 miles and 
60 perches. This carrying place lies across the height 
of land. (This high land runs through the colonies to 
Georgia.) It is about 2 miles from tin; last mention- 
ed pond to the height, where the streams all run the 
reverse of the rivers we came up in. \\ e encamped this 
evening on the height of land. 

28th. In the morning crossed the heights to Chau- 
diere river. Made division of our provisions and am- 
munition, and marched back upon the height and en- 
camped. Here 1 delivered the following sums of money 
to the following persons ; to col. Green 500 dollars, to 
major Bigelow 501, do. and paid Mr. Gatchel 44 dollars ; 
paid to Mr. Berry 4/. 5s. lawful money. 

29th. Continued our march by land towards Que- 
bec. At one o'clock we came to Nepess Lake, which 
we then supposed to be Ammeguntick Lake, but were 
mistaken. We continued our march till night, and en- 
camped on the bank of Lake Nepess, where there had 
been an Indian cam]). 

30th. Marched through the woods about 15 miles, 
and encamped near the north end of Ammeguntick Lake. 

November 1st. Continued our march through the 
woods — the marching this day exceedingly bad. This 
day I passed a number of soldiers, who had no provis- 
ions, and some that were sick, and not in my power to help 
or relieve them except to encourage them. One or two 
dogs were killed, which the distressed soldiers eat with 
good appetite, even the feet and skins. This day, on our 
march upon the banks of the Chaudiere, we saw several 


boats, which were split upon the rocks, and one of cap- 
tain Morgan's men was drowned. ' The travelling this 
day and yesterday very bad, over mountains and morasses. 

2d. In the morning continued our march on the banks 
of the Chaudiere. The marching this day better than 
we have had. The river grows wider and runs very 
quick, and some places very shallow. We passed this 
day several small islands — the weather this day exceeding 
fine, clear, and as warm as ever I saw at this season in 
New England. 

3d. Continued our march on the banks of the Chau- 
diere. At 12 o'clock we met provisions, to the inex- 
pressible joy of our soldiers, who were near starving. 
After refreshing ourselves, marched a few miles and en- 

4th. In the morning continued our march. At 11 
o'clock arrived at a French house, and were hospitably 
used. This is the first house I saw for 31 days, having 
been that time in a rough, barren, uninhabited wilderness, 
where we never saw human being, except our own men. 
Immediately after our arrival, we were supplied with 
fresh beef, fowls, butter, pheasants, and vegetables. This 
settlement is called Sertigan. It lies 25 leagues from 

5th. Marched down to the parish of St. Mary's — 
the country thinly settled — the people kind. They sup- 
ply us with plenty of provisions. 

6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th. I was on business up and 
down the country on each side the river — the Canadians 
very hospitable. This day our men, that were gone 
forward to Point Levi, made prisoner of Mr. M'Kenzie, 
a midshipman of the Hunter sloop of war. This night 1 
lodged at St. Henry's. 

10th. I marched down to Point Levi, and joined the 

11th, 12th, and 13th. I was at Point Levi. Nothing 
extraordinary happened, except that a deserter came in to 
us from Quebec, by whom we are informed, that col. 
M'Lean had arrived from Sorel with his regiment. I 
had forgot to mention, that the Lizard frigate arrived a 
few days before our arrival at Point Levi. On the even- 

ing of this day, at nine o'clock, we began to embark our 

men on hoard 35 canoes, and at 4 o'clock in the morn- 
ing we got over and landed about 500 men, entirely un- 
discovered, although two men of war were stationed to 

prevent us. We landed at the same place that general 

Wolfe did, in a small cove, which is now called l\'olfr\ 
cove Soon after our landing, a barge from the Lizard 
frigate came rowing up the river. We hailed her, and 
ordered her to come in to the shore. They refusing, we 
fired upon them. They pushed off shore, and cried out. 
After parading our men on the heights, and sending a re- 
connoitering party towards the city, and placing sentries, 
we marched across the plains of Abram, and took pos- 
session of a large house, which was formerly owned by 
general Murray, and other houses adjacent, which were 
fine accommodations for our troops. 

14th. This morning employed in placing proper 
guards on the different roads, to cut off the communica- 
tion between the city and country. At 12 o'clock the 
enemy surprised one of our advanced sentries, and made 
him prisoner. The guard soon discovered the enemy, 
and pursued, but were not able to overtake them. We 
rallied the main body, and marched upon the heights near 
the city, and gave them three huzzas, and marched our 
men fairly in their view ; but they did not choose to 
come out to us. They gave us a few shot from the ram- 
parts. We then returned to our camp. This afternoon they 
set fire to the suburbs, and burned several houses. This 
evening col. Arnold sent a flag to the town, with a demand 
of the garrison, in the name and behalf of the United Colo- 
nies. As the flag approached the walls, he was fired up- 
on, contrary to all rule or custom on such occasions. 
We constantly lie on our aims to prevent surprise. We 
are informed by a gentleman from Quebec, that we 
might expect an attack very soon, from Quebec. 

15th. The commanding officer this day sent into the 
town a flag, concluding that the firing on our flag yester- 
day was through mistake ; but he was treated in the same 
manner as yesterday, on which he returned. An express 
went off to general Montgomery this morning. About 
12 o'clock we were alarmed with a report, that troops in 



town were coming out to attack us. We turned out to 
meet them ; but it proved a false report. 

16th. This morning it is reported, that Montreal 
surrendered to general Montgomery the last Sabbath, 
and that the shipping were taken. One of our men, a 
sergeant in one of the rifle companies, received a shot 
from a cannon in one of his legs, which was shattered in 
such a manner, that amputation was necessary. This day 
we sent a company of men and took possession of the 
general hospital. The Canadians are constantly coming 
in to express their satisfaction at our coming into the 

17th. The sergeant that was wounded yesterday, 
died this morning, with great composure and resignation. 
We have this morning a confirmation of the surrender of 
Montreal to general Montgomery. A soldier just came 
in from Quebec — no intelligence extraordinary from 
him — a party of our men gone over to Point Levi with 
boats, to bring over a part of our detachment that were 
left there with provisions. Weather pleasant. 

18th. We have orders to parade tomorrow morning 
at 3 o'clock. 

19th. Early in the morning decamped, and marched 
up to Point aux Trembles, about 7 leagues from Que- 
bec. The country through which we marched thick 
settled ; every few miles a handsome little chapel. We 
have with us 7 prisoners and 2 deserters. 

20th. An express came in this morning from general 
Montgomery at Montreal. The contents are, that the 
king's troops had abandoned the town in the shipping, 
and that he was about to attack them with row gallies 
and boats, with artillery mounted in them ; and that he 
should immediately join our detachment with men and 
artillery. We have now an express ready to return to 
Montreal, by which conveyance I wrote to my family. 

21st. The curate of the parish at Point aux Trembles 
dines this day at head quarters. I wrote this day to my 
honoured father and to Mrs. Meigs, by Mr. William 

22d. An express arrived from Montreal, who in- 
forms, that all the shipping there were taken last Sabbath 


evening, and that general Montgomery was about to 

march for Quebec. 

2.5(1. An express arrived from Montreal, by whom 
we have intelligence, that general Montgomery was on 
his march yesterday, and that he had sent clothing the 
250th instant for our troops. One of our men canoe in 
from the woods, who had been left behind, who says, that 
himself, with one more, killed a horse, and lived on 
his flesh several days. 

24th. This morning the Hunter sloop of war and 3 
other armed vessels appeared in sight. An express now 
going to meet the troops that are coming down from 

25th. The Hunter sloop, a large snow, and an armed 
schooner, came to anchor opposite our quarters. This 
morning a number of men were sent up the river, in a ca- 
noe, to meet the troops that are coming down. 

26th. A number of gentlemen came in this morning 
from Quebec. I wrote to my father, and two letters to 
Mrs. Meigs. 

27th. We are informed, that the house of major 
Caldwell, in which our troops were quartered, in St. 
Foy's, is burned. 

23th. Colonel Arnold gone up to Jackarty to hasten 
down the ammunition. 

29th. Captain Morgan, who had been sent down to the 
neighbourhood of Quebec, sent up to our quarters two 
prisoners, which he took in the suburbs. 

30th. This day an express is gone to meet general 
Montgomery. Captain Duggin is arrived with ammu- 
nition and provisions. 

1st December. General Montgomery arrived this 
day at one o'clock, with three armed schooners, with 
men, artillery, ammunition and provision, to the great 
joy of our detachment. Towards evening our detach- 
ment turned out, and marched down to the general's 
quarters in two battalions, and was there reviewed. The 
general complimented us on our appearance. 

2d. In the morning 1 assisted in sending down our 
field artillery by land. The large cannon are ordered down 
in battoes, which when landed, the battoes are to go to 
Point Levi for the scaling ladders. 


3d. Major Brown arrived from Sorel. The soldiers 
drawing their clothing. 

4th. We marched at 12 o'clock for our camp before 
Quebec. At evening quartered at the house of the curate 
of the parish of St. Augustine. We were entertained with 
hospitality and elegance. The curate's name, Michael 

5th. In the morning proceeded on our march for St. 
Foy, our camp before Quebec, where we arrived about 
noon. This day I wrote to Mrs. Meigs. 

6th. I wrote to Titus Hosmer, Esq. at Middleton. 
Weather cold, with squalls of snow. 

7th. Yesterday, I am informed, that our men took a 
sloop, with provisions and some cash. 

8th. I sent my watch to repair. We received some 
shot from the city ; but no person hurt. 

9th. A party of 100 men are ordered to cover the 
train this evening, while they bombard the town. 1 went 
with this party — twenty-seven shells were thrown into the 
town. This day we began to erect a battery before St. 
John's gate. 

10th. The enemy began to cannonade our camp early 
in the morning, and continued it till night. A party of 
our men are ordered into St. Roch this evening, to cover 
the train who are ordered there this evening, with five 
mortars and two field pieces. This evening 45 shells 
were thrown into the town. The enemy returned a few 
shells, and some 24 round and grape shot — -none of our 
men were hurt ; but a Canadian woman was shot through 
the body by a cannon shot from the enemy. 

11th. The enemy kept up a faint cannonade upon 
our men this day. One of our men this morning lost his 
way in a snow storm, and found himself under the walls 
of the town, and was fired upon from the walls of the ci- 
ty, and wounded in the thigh, but came off. This even- 
ing we sent 45 shells into the town. 1 had the command 
of the working party at the battery this night. The wea- 
ther extreme cold. I froze my feet. The enemy gave 
us a few shot and shells, but none of them struck the bat- 


12th. The platforms nearly ready for the gun battery. 
Weather cold. One of our guns was rendered unfit for 

use, by a shot from the enemy. 

13th. We opened our battery. We had two men 
wounded this day in the battery by a cannon shot from 

the town — 5 men of col. Livingston's regiment of Cana- 
dians were wounded by a cannon shot, which went through 
a house in St. John's suburbs, where 4 they were quartered. 
14th. I have just now received an account that one 

of onr men was killed in our battery, and several wound- 
ed this evening. We threw into the town 24 bombs. At 
the same time we were briskly cannonaded from the town. 

15th. This morn in it before sunrise our battery began 
to play on the town, and continued one hour, and then 
ceased by order of the general ; and a flag was sent to the 
city, but was refused admittance. After some discourse 
with the officer from the ramparts, the flag returned. At 
2 o'clock, P. M. our battery began to play on the town. 
Our mortars at the same time began to play from the 
suburbs of St. Roch, and sent into the town 50 bombs. 
This day we had two men killed at our battery, and one 
of our guns damaged by a shot from the enemy. It is 
now in agitation to storm the town, which, if resolved, I 
hope will be undertaken with proper sense of the nature 
and importance of such an attack, and vigorously execu- 

16th. The enemv this morning began to cannonade 
our quarters. Several shot struck the house. It was 
thought best to remove to other quarters. One of our 
men was shot through the body with a grape shot. His 
life is despaired of. I wrote this day to Mrs. Meigs by 
way of Montreal. This evening a council was held by 
all the commission officers of col. Arnold's detachment ; 
a large majority of which were for storming the garrison 
of Quebec, as soon as the men arc provided with bayo- 
nets, spears, hatchets, and hand granadoes. 

17th. All day at capt. Hanchet's quarters. Nothing 
extraordinary happened. Weather cold and snow v. 

18th. This morning I came to Mr. Devine's house 
to quarter. This day I wrote to Mrs. Meigs. Weather 



19tl). No occurrences extraordinary. Weather mod- 
erate and snowy. 

20th. Weather cold. Several of our men have the 
small pox at this time. 

21st. We have orders that all our men wear hemlock 
sprigs in their hats, to distinguish them in the attack up- 
on the works. I have wrote this day to Mrs. Meigs. 

22d. Preparation is making, and things seem ripening 
fast for the assault upon the works of Quebec. The 
blessing of heaven attend the enterprise. This evening 
is celebrated as the anniversary of a happy event or cir- 
cumstance in my life. 

23d. This day the officers of our detachment met. 
The general attended to compose some matters, which 
were happily settled. 

24th. I was on a general court martial. Our chap- 
lain preached a sermon in the chapel of the General Hos- 
pital, which is exceedingly elegant inside, and richly dec- 
orated with carvings and gilt work. 

25th. Col. Arnold's detachment paraded this evening 
at capt. Morgan's quarters, at 4 o'clock. His Honour 
general Montgomery attended, and addressed us, on the 
subject of an assault upon the town of Quebec, in a sen- 
sible, spirited manner. 

Memo. The sun sets on the 21st day of December, 
at 4 hours, 13 minutes, 21 seconds, and rises at 7 hours, 
46 minutes, 41 seconds. The shortest day is 8 hours, 
27 minutes, 38 seconds. 

26th. Nothing material happened. Weather cold. 

27th. This evening the troops assembled by order of 
the general, with design to make an attack on the works 
of Quebec ; and were about to march, when an order 
from the general came for their returning to quarters, 
the weather not being thought proper for the attack. 

28th. The following came out in general orders: 

Viz. " The general had the most sensible pleasure in 
seeing the good disposition with which the troops last 
night moved to the attack. It was with the greatest re- 
luctance he found himself called upon by his duty to re- 
press their ardour ; but he should hold himself answera- 
ble for the loss of those brave men, whose lives might be 
saved by waiting for a favourable opportunity." 


This day is the 35 1 1 1 anniversary of inv birth, A va- 
riety of scenes have presented themselves, in this short 
terra — prosperity and adversity have alternately chequer- 
ed my path. Some dangers escaped, and Favours innu- 
merable, demand a tribute of the warmest gratitude. 

29th. This day dined with general Montgomery, and 
spent the afternoon and evening with him in an agreeable 
manner. This evening as a party of our men were exe- 
cuting a command in the suburbs of St. Roch, were fired 
upon from the walls, and had one man wounded in the 

30th. This morning between the hours of 1 and 3 
o'clock in the morning our train threw into the city about 
30 shells, which produced a number of shells and a brisk 
cannonade, which continued all the day. As it had been 
determined to make an attack upon the city, the ladders 
being ready, and the weather stormy, which was thought 
best for our purpose, the troops arc ordered to parade 
at 2 o'clock tomorrow morning. 

31st. The troops assembled at 2 o'clock this morning. 
Those that were to make the attack by the way of Cape 
Diamond assembled at the general's quarters upon the 
heights of Abraham, and were headed by general Mont- 
gomery.* Those that were to make the attack through 
the suburbs of St. Roch, assembled at our guard house in 
St. Roch, and were headed by col. Arnold ; which were 
two battalions that were detached from the army at Cam- 
bridge and Roxbury. 

Colonel Livingston, with a regiment of Canadians, and 
major Brown with part of a regiment of Boston troops, 
were to make a false attack upon the walls to the south- 
ward of St. John's gate, and in the mean time set fire to 
the gate, with combustibles prepared for that purpose. 

These different bodies were to move to the attack from 
their respective places of assembly, exactly at 5 o'clock : 
but the different routes these bodies had to make, the 
depth of the snow, and other obstacles, prevented the 
execution of col. Livingston's command. 

* The division of the army commanded bv aeneml Montgomery, consisted of 
the 1st, 2d, 3d, and 4th battalions of New 'York troops, and part of col. Eas- 
ton's regiment. 


The general moved with his command, with a number 
of carpenters with him, to the pickets at Cape Diamond. 
The carpenters soon cut the pickets with saws, the gen- 
eral pulled them down with his own hand, and entered 
with his aid de camp Mr. M'Pherson, Mr. Antill the en- 
gineer, capt. Cheeseman, and the carpenters, and some 

The troops did not follow, except a few, who attacked 
the guard house. The enemy gave them a discharge of 
grape shot from their cannon, and of small arms at the 
same time — at which time the general, his aid de camp, 
capt. Cheeseman, and some few others bravely fell. The 
firing then entirely ceased ; the lights in the guard house 
were out, at which time, it is said, the troops might have 
entered. Col. Campbell thought best to retreat ; which 
they did, and carried off the wounded to the camp. 

I now come to col. Arnold's division, which was to 
proceed to the attack in the following manner. A lieu- 
tenant and 30 men were to march in front, as an advanced 
guard ; then the artillery company, with a field piece 
mounted on a sled ; then the main body, of which capt. 
Morgan's company was first. The advanced party were 
to open when arrived near the battery, which w r as raised 
upon a wharf, which we were obliged to attack in our 
way ; and when our field piece had given them a shot or 
two, the advanced party were to rush forward, with the 
ladders, and force the battery above mentioned, while capt. 
Morgan's company was to march round the wharf, if 
possible, on the ice. But the snow being deep, the piece 
of artillery was brought on very slow, and we were final- 
ly obliged to leave it behind ; and, to add to the delay, 
the main body were led wrong, there being no road, the 
way dark and intricate, among stores, houses, boats, and 
wharves, and harassed at the same time with a constant 
fire of the enemy from the walls, which killed and wound- 
ed numbers of our men, without our being able to annoy 
them in the least from our situation. The field piece 
not coming up, the advanced party with captain Mor- 
gan's company attacked the battery, some firing into the 
port holes, or kind of embrasures, while others scaled the 
battery with ladders, and immediately took possession of 


it, with the guard, consisting of 30 men. This attack 
was executed with so much despatch, that the enemy 
only discharged one of their cannon. In this attack we 
lost hut one or two men, the enemy lost about the same 
number. In the attack of this battery, col. Arnold re- 
ceived a wound in one of his legs, with a musket ball, 
and was carried to the General Hospital. As soon as 
the prisoners were taken care of, and a few men came up, 
which was perhaps half an hour, our men attempted the 
next barrier, but could not force it, as the main body 
were some time in coming up, occasioned by obstacles 
before mentioned. To add to this, that part of the army, 
commanded by general Montgomery, after his fall having 
retreated, gave the enemy an opportunity to turn their 
whole force and attention upon us, so that before our men 
attempted the second barrier, the enemy had got such a 
number of men behind the barrier and in the houses, that 
we were surrounded with such a fire from treble our num- 
bers, that we found it impossible to force it, the enemy 
being under cover, while we were exposed to their fire. 
Here we found some brave officers and men. To add to 
our embarrassment, we lost the advantage of one of our 
companies, which was quartered on the north side of the 
river St. Charles, not having notice in season, who, in 
endeavoring to join the main body, was surprised by a 
body of men, who made a sortie through Palace gate, and 
the most of them made prisoners. Our men near the se- 
cond barrier took possession of some houses, and kept up 
a fire from them for some time ; but as the body, which 
sallied out of Palace gate, came upon the rear, and our 
numbers greatly lessened by our killed and wounded, it 
was thought best to retreat to the first battery which we 
had taken, which we did, with the greatest part of our 
men ; where, upon a consultation of officers present, it 
was the unanimous opinion, that it was impracticable to 
retreat, as we must have passed a great part of the way 
under the walls of the town, exposed to a line of fire for 
a quarter of a mile, and our rear exposed to the fire of 
the enemy at the same time, and the party that sallied 
through Palace gate to oppose in front. We maintained 
our ground till about ten o'clock, and no hopes of relief, 


as general Montgomery's party were gone, and were at 
last obliged to surrender prisoners of war, which we did 
with great reluctance. The firing continued from half 
past five till about ten o'clock, A. M. 

By the best account we can obtain, our loss in killed 
and wounded amounts to about one hundred. The loss, 
which the town sustained, we cannot obtain. It must 
be small in comparison of ours, owing to their advantage of 

We had one captain and two lieutenants killed. 

Wounded officers — Colonel Arnold, capt. Hubbard, 
capt. Lamb, lieutenant Steel, lieut. Tisdale, brigade ma- 
jor Ogden. 

The loss in that part of the army commanded by the 
general, beside the general, his aid de camp Mr. M'Pher- 
son, and capt. Cheeseman. 

Privates, the number unknown — about 4 or 5, I am 
since informed. 

His honour brigadier general Montgomery was shot 
through both his thighs, and through his head. His body 
was taken up the next day. An elegant coffin was pre- 
pared, and he was decently interred the next Thursday 

I am informed, that when his body was taken up, his 
features were not in the least distorted, but his counte- 
nance appeared regular, serene, and placid, like the soul 
that late had animated it. 

The general was tall and slender, well limbed, of gen- 
teel, easy, graceful, manly address. He had the volunta- 
ry love, esteem, and confidence of the whole army. 

His death, though honourable, is lamented, not only as 
the death of an amiable, worthy friend, but as an experi- 
enced, brave general, whose country suffers greatly by 
such a loss at this time. The native goodness and rec- 
titude of his heart might easily be seen in his actions. 
His sentiments, which appeared on every occasion, were 
fraught with that unaffected goodness, which plainly dis- 
covered the goodness of the heart from whence they 

In the afternoon the officers were confined in the Semi- 
nary, and well accommodated with bedding. The sol- 


diers were confined in the Recollets, or Jesuit's College. 
1 dined this day with capt. Law, the principal engineer, 
whom in the morning I made prisoner, but in a few hours 

I was, in my turn, made prisoner. Capt. Law has 
treated me 'with great politeness and ingenuity. In my 
return from capt. Law's quarters, I called at the house of 

Mr. Munroe, who politely invited me to live at his 

house, if 1 could have permission. 

January 1st, 177G. This whole day in the Seminary. 
The first day I knew confinement. 1 hope I shall hear 
it with becoming fortitude. Major M'Kenzie brought 
general Montgomery's kneebuckles and Mr. M'Pher- 
son's gold broach, and made a present of them to me, 
which 1 highly value for the sake of tlu ir late worthy 

Return J. Meigs. 


Situation and Boundaries. AMHERST, in the coun- 
ty of Hillsborough, is situated on Souhegan river, 
in north latitude 42° .5-1'; west longitude, 71° 33* ;* 
and is 380 miles from Philadelphia, 50 miles N. W. 
of Boston, and nearly the same distance from Ports- 
mouth, the capital of the state. It is hounded east 
by Merrimac, south by Hollis, south and southwest 
by Milford, northwest by Mount Vernon, north by 
New Boston, and northeast by Bedford. The limits of 
the town are thus defined in the charter granted by gov. 
Wentworth, viz. " Beginning at Souhegan river, thence 
running north one degree west, on the townships of .Mer- 
rimac and Bedford, six miles, thence running- west on 
Bedford, and a tract of land called New Boston six miles ; 
then south about five miles and an half to Souhegan river 
aforesaid ; then by said river to the place where it be- 
gan." The limits of the town were evidently more ex- 
tensive than represented by tile charter, as it was nearly 
ten miles in length, and about seven in width. f Its 

* According to Dr. Morse's Gazetteer.— This town was incorporated in . 
not in 170:2 as in said Gazetteer. 

t See a correction in Vol. IV. 74. 


size has been considerably curtailed bj detaching the 
towns of Milford and Mount Vernon, which formerly 
constituted part of this town. The former was incorpo- 
rated in 1794, and the latter in 1803. 

The compact part of the town contains about thirty 
houses, situated upon a level plain, about half a mile in 
length, and the same in breadth. The houses are mostly 
ranged in two rows, (though not straight) extending about 
N. E. to S. W. with a considerable space of ground be- 
tween. The meeting house, which has a clock, school- 
house, court-house, and jail are situated at the north and 
northeasterly part of the plain. The prospect is limited 
on every side, except to the N. W. where at the dis- 
tance of three miles, the pleasant and elevated town of 
Mount Vernon presents itself to view. 

Rivers. The only river which runs through this town 
is Souhegan, which is composed of several branches. 
The most considerable branch originates in Ashburnham 
in Massachusetts. From Ashburnham it runs northerly 
through Ashby, at the northwest angle of the county of 
Middlesex, into New Ipswich, through Mason, Milford, 
and this town, and empties into Merrimac river in the 
township of Merrimac. This is a considerable river, 
having its waters augmented by various streams before 
it falls into the Merrimac. The intervale lands, which 
border it in this town, are rich and fertile. There is a 
number of valuable mills and factories on this stream, in 
several towns through which it passes. 

Ponds. There are several natural ponds in this town. 
The only one of any considerable magnitude is situated 
in the northeasterly part of Amherst, and partly in the 
township of Merrimac. It is called Babboosuk, and is 
about three miles in length. Its breadth varies from one 
fourth of a mile to about a mile. This pond abounds with 
fish of various kinds, and is much resorted to by persons 
in the vicinity for amusement. The other ponds, which 
are small, are situated in different parts of the town, and 
hardly deserve particular notice. 

Societies. There are two incorporated societies in 
this town, instituted for the purpose of advancing indi- 
vidual and social happiness. These are the " Amherst 

in M.w HAMPSHIRE. 249 

Social Library" Society, and the " Handellian Musical 
Society." The first was incorporated June 20, 1797, 
and has a respectable library. The Handellian Musical 
Society was incorporated June 5, 1805, for the purpose 

of introducing a just tase for musick. Its professed ob- 
jects are, " to cultivate the art of musick — to collect and 
introduce into practice the best productions — to acquire 
and diffuse a correct taste, and to enjoy the refined 
pleasures of melody and harmony." These important 
objects have been obtained. The members have con- 
tributed their influence to effect a reformation of psalmo- 
dy in the vicinity, and have happily succeeded. The 
former depravity of taste, which prevailed, and which 
manifested itself in cherishing those light and frivolous 
compositions, which infested our churches, is checked. 

Academy. The Aurean academy was incorporated in 
1790, and was an useful and flourishing institution for 
several years. Under the superintendence of Messrs. 
Walker,* Staniford,f Freeman, Appleton,J M'Pherson 
and Cole, || it was, perhaps, rivalled by none in the State. 
It was discontinued in 1801, for want of efficient funds. 
This town is divided into nine school districts, and has 
about the same number of school houses. 

Bank. The Hillsborough Bank was incorporated 
June 18, 1806, for twenty years, cum privilegio, of a cap- 
ital from 50,000 to 200,000 dollars. The first bills were 
issued October, 1807. It has not been in operation for 
several years, having refused payment of bills in August, 

Population. The number of inhabitants in 1775, was 
1428 ; in 1790, 2369 ; and in 1800, 2152, not including 
about eighty families belonging to Mil ford, which were 
detached from Amherst in 1794. According to the cen- 
sus of 1810, the number of inhabitants was 1554; 598 
less than in 1800, by reason of Mount Vernon, which was 
taken from this town in 1803. The ancient limits of the 
town probably contain 3434 inhabitants. 

* Charles Walker, Esq. of Concord, (N U.) t Daniel Stamford, A. M. of 

Boston. I Rev. J. Appleton, D. D. Pres. of Bowd. Coll. || Thomas Cole, 

A. M. of Salem. 



Courts and Offices. The Supreme Judicial Court, and the 
Circuit Court of Common Pleas hold their sessions in this 
town twice a year. The offices of Probate, Clerk of Cir- 
cuit Court of Common Pleas, and Register of Deeds, are 
kept here. There are five attorneys' offices in this town. 

Historical Observations, Sketches of Biography, &c. 
The tract of land which constituted this town, was ori- 
ginally granted from Massachusetts, and remained under 
its jurisdiction till the boundary lines between Massachu- 
setts and New Hampshire were adjusted, when it was 
confirmed to the latter. Its original name was Souhegan, 
and this name it retained for many years after its first set- 
tlement. The present charter of the town was granted 
by Governour Benning Wentworth, January 18, 1760, 
when it assumed the name of Amherst. The first town 
meeting holden under this charter, was on the 20th Feb- 
ruary in the same year. The first settlement was made 
about the year 1733, by emigrants from Billerica and 
Middleton, in Massachusetts, who seated themselves not 
far from the present centre of the town. About seven 
years after this, the settlement contained fifteen families, 
and in 1749, this number had been considerably aug- 
mented by emigrations from several towns near, or con- 
tiguous to those above mentioned. In June, 1741, the 
Rev. Daniel Wilkins, the first pastor of the church in this 
place, was ordained. He was born in Middleton, and re- 
ceived his education at Harvard College, and was gradu- 
ated there in 1736. He first visited this town, when it 
contained only fourteen families, and lived to see it emerge 
from a wilderness, to a flourishing and populous town- 
ship, which at the time of his death, probably contained 
upwards of 2,000 inhabitants. The Rev. Mr. Wilkins 
was ordained September 23, 1741, O. S. and died 1783, 
at a considerably advanced age, having enjoyed the as- 
sistance of a colleague almost five years. One of his 
sons, John Wilkins, was graduated at Harvard College 
in 1764, and died at Athens, (Ohio,) in 1808. He was 
probably the first native of the town who received a lib- 
eral education. 

In 1752, there were seven garrisoned houses, which 
were resorted to by the inhabitants as places of refuge in 


times of alarm and danger. The Indians, at that period 
made frequent irruptions upon some of the frontiers, de- 
stroying the fruits of industry, and captivating the set- 
tlers. It is believed they never committed much mischief 

in this plaee, and there is no account of their killing any 
person within the precincts of the town. Several veins 

after the town was incorporated, it was classed with 
Bedford, an adjoining town, in their choosing a represent- 
ative to the General Court. In the time of the revolu- 
tion, it was entitled to two representatives. In 1773, 
the proportion which this town paid to 1000/. was 19/. 
7^. — It was more than either town in the county paid. 

In 1775 this town was deprived of a very useful citi- 
zen in the removal of Doct. Seth Ames, who had resided 
in this place several years, and practised phvsick with 
great reputation. He was brother to the celebrated 
Fisher Ames, and possessed a spark of that genius, which 
shone so conspicuously in him. He graduated at Har- 
vard College in 1764, and is represented by those who 
recollect him, as a person of brilliant talents, and emi- 
nently calculated to render much important service to the 
community. His removal from town, it is believed, was 
occasioned by a declension of his health. He went to 
his friends in Dedham, where he died in 1776. During 
the disturbances between Great Britain and this country, 
the state of New Hampshire was governed by committees 

and conventions, to which necessitv induced obedience. 


To the first convention, which assembled in 1774, Paul 
Dudley Sargent, Esq. was delegated from this town. A 
large proportion of the citizens of this town united in op- 
posing the oppressive measures of Great Britain during 
the revolution. Such was the temperament of the pub- 
lick mind in this vicinity, that the small number of per- 
sons who were suspected of favouring the royal cause, 
were treated with a severity which was considered repre- 
hensible by many good friends to their country. When 
war actually commenced, the inhabitants of this town 
manifested that spirit and patriotism, which freemen will 
ever manifest, when their rights are invaded. A compa- 
ny of soldiers was immediately raised, who repaired to 


the assistance of their brethren with alacrity. So prompt 
was the town in furnishing men for the military service 
of the United States, that previous to April 1, 1777, one 
hundred twenty persons had engaged in the army, among 
whom are recognized two colonels, one major, five cap- 
tains, and nine subaltern officers. 

March 3, 1780, the Rev. Jeremiah Barnard, present 
pastor of the church in this place, was ordained. He 
was graduated at Harvard College in 1773. The number 
of deaths in his parish for thirty-three years succeeding 
his settlement, was 529. In 1790, died the Hon. Moses 
Nichols of this town. Ardently attached to the princi- 
ples of liberty, he took a conspicuous part in the revolu- 
tion. He commanded a regiment under General Stark, 
and was in the engagement of Bennington. Besides his 
military services, he was eminently useful as a physician 
in this place, where he practised many jears. He held 
several offices of trust and responsibility, all of which it is 
believed he discharged with fidelity. In 1795, the pub- 
lication of a newspaper was commenced in this town, by 
Mr. Nathaniel Coverly. The first number was issued 
January 15, and was called the Amherst Journal and 
New Hampshire Advertiser. This was the first newspa- 
per published in the county of Hillsborough, and em- 
braced a period of nearly one year. It was succeeded 
January 6, 1796, by the Village Messenger, which was 
successively edited by William Biglow, A. M. Messrs. 
Cushing and Preston. This publication continued till 
December, 1801, and was succeeded, in November, 1803 
by the Farmer's Cabinet, which is now published. The 
Piscataqua Evangelical Magazine was published in this 
town in 1806, 1807, and 1808. These are all the peri- 
odical publications ever printed in this county. 

The number of rateable polls this year, (1795) was 
244, of which no more than 100 remain in town at this 
time. The rest have either died or removed from town. 
In 1798, died the Hon. Samuel Dana, Esq. of this town. 
From the oration at his interment, delivered by the Hon. 
Timothy Bigelow, the following sketch of his life and 
character, is extracted : " Our deceased friend, who has 


filled many active employments and dignified offices in 

life, was born January 14, 1789, (). S. and was educated 
at the University of Cambridge, in a class which is re- 
markable for having produced many great men. He ap- 
plied with diligence to his studies, acquitted himself with 
reputation in bis collegiate exercises, and, in 1755, re- 
ceived the honours of the University with applause. June 
3, 1761, he was ordained the minister of Groton, in Mas- 
sachusetts. He discharged all the duties of that sacred 
character with a sincerity, a zeal and ability highly exem- 
plary, and which not only secured the approbation and 
esteem of his brethren of the sacred order, but acquired 
him the respect and affection of the people of his charge. 
He probably might have continued in the pastoral office 
to the end of his life, but for some supposed political 
heresy, respecting our contest with Great Britain. This 
alienated the good will of his parishioners, and rendered a 
dissolution of his connexion indispensable. Accordingly, 
in 1775, he abdicated his charge. From this time, for 
some years, he was without any settled professional em- 
ployment or steady pursuit. But his talents were too well 
calculated for usefulness in life to suffer him long to con- 
tinue in obscurity. In 1783, he was admitted and sworn 
as a practising attorney in the courts of law. His emi- 
nence, his integrity, and his attachment to the interest of 
his employers are so fully known, as to render encomium 
superfluous. It is sufficient to say, that he continued in 
full practice till the time of his decease. In 1790, he 
was appointed by the supreme executive of this state to 
the office of judge of probate for the county of Hillsbor- 
ough. In 1793, he was elected senator in the state leg- 
islature. In domestic life, he was no less distinguished 
for his virtues ; serenity of mind, conjugal tenderness 
and parental affection, were eminent traits in his dispo- 

In 1802, the town sustained a loss in the death of the 
Hon. William Gordon, who died on a visit, at Boston, in 
May, aged 39 years. At an early age he entered Harvard 
College, and received its honours in 1779. He engaged 
in a learned and arduous profession, in which his talents 



and integrity soon procured him an ample portion of bu- 
siness and fame. He had been a senator in the state leg- 
islature, and a representative to Congress ; and, at the 
time of his death, was attorney general of the State of 
New-Hampshire. His character is thus delineated:* 
" His mind was not less adorned with learning, than his 
heart with every manly virtue. His friendship was sin- 
cere : his benevolence active. Integrity, constancy, and 
truth, marked his character. An independence of spirit, 
a purity of morals, and correctness of thought, raised him 
above the prejudices of party, the meanness of avarice, 
the frowns and flatteries of the world." 

In 1807, the Franklin Society, an association of liter- 
ary gentlemen, moral in its constitution, liberal in its prin- 
ciples, and literary in its objects, was formed in this town, 
for the diffusion of literary knowledge. A president, 
vice-president, two censors, secretary and librarian were 
its officers. These were chosen quarterly. The regular 
meetings were on every second Wednesday. Discussion 
of literary subjects, declamation, original composition, con- 
stituted the exercises. The neighboring clergy, several 
of whom were honourary members, frequently attended, 
and gave animation to their performances by their pres- 

From 200 to 300 valuable books constitute the library. 
The number of members, in toto, was about 60, of whom 
more than half were gentlemen of liberal education. At 
present the meetings are suspended. 

The number of voters this year [1795 or 1807 ?] w r as 
254 ; the number at present is 332. 

John Farmer, 

Amherst, N. H. 2 June, 1814. 
Rev. Abiel Holmes, D. D. 

* Portsmouth Oracle, Vol. xii. No. 33. 


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* Feb. 22, at 7, A. M. greatest degree of cold. 1 July 5th, greatesl degree of heat. 

Being destitute of a rain-gage I could not ascertain the 
quantity of rain which fell during the year. By the " No. 
of days fair" — is meant the days of prevailing fair weath- 
er, and so of the cloudy. 



id Di 

WE, your brethren of the colony of Connecticut, 
met by delegation from the several counties, in general 
association at our annual meeting, cannot but feel deeply 
impressed with the present melancholy threatened situa- 
tion of America in general, and the distressed state of the 
town of Boston in particular, suffering the severe resent- 
ment of the British parliament, by which the subsistence 
of thousands is taken away. We readily embrace this 
opportunity to manifest our hearty sympathy with you in 
your present distresses. We consider you as suffering 
in the common cause of America, in the cause ol civil 
liberty ; which, if taken away, we fear would involve the 
ruin of religious liberty also. Gladly would we contri- 


bute every thing in our power for your encouragement and 
relief; however, our situation enables us to do little more, 
than to express our sincere and affectionate concern ; and 
with fervent addresses, to commend your cause, and the 
cause of America; the cause of liberty, and, above all, 
the cause of religion, to the Father of mercies, who can 
easily afford effectual relief— who has the hearts of all at 
his disposal, and can turn them as he pleases. We feel 
deeply sensible, what a heavy load must lie upon the 
minds of the ministers of Boston ; enough to sink their 
spirits, unless armed with vigorous christian fortitude and 
resolution. In hopes it may afford you some consola- 
tion, we assure you of our sincere condolence and unre- 
mitting prayers in your behalf; and that we shall, in eve- 
ry way suitable to our character and station, use our in- 
fluence with the good people of this colony, to concur in 
every proper measure calculated to afford relief to Amer- 
ica in general, and to the distressed town of Boston in 
particular. We pray that the ministers of Boston may 
be inspired by the great Head of the Church with wisdom 
sufficient for their direction, in such a critical day as the 
present ; and that God would give them and their peo- 
ple, firmness, unanimity, patience, prudence, and every 
virtue, which they need to support them under their heavy 
trials, and enable them to stand firm in the glorious cause 
of liberty, and express such a temper, and exhibit such 
an example, as shall be well-pleasing to God, and recom- 
mend them to the favour and compassion of their fellow- 
men. We earnestly pray that God would humble us all 
under a deep sense of our numerous transgressions and 
criminal declensions ; shew us the absolute necessity of 
repentance and reformation ; humble us under his mighty 
hand ; and pour out a spirit of fervent supplication on 
you, on us, and all his people in this land ; and we can- 
not but hope the united prayers of America may obtain 
that audience in heaven, which will ensure salvation to us. 

Signed by order of the General Association. 

Benjamin Throop, Moderatqr. 
Mansfield, 22 June, 1774. 

To the Rev. Charles Chauncy, D. D. and the other 
■ministers of the town of Boston. 



From the General Association in Connecticut to the Associated Pas- 
tors in Huston ; prepared s but not sent through the confusion of 

the times. 

Rev. and dear Brethren, 

YOUR very affectionate and obliging letter 
of 24 June, 1774, was communicated to us at a time 
when we greatly needed the encouragement and support 
of our Christian friends. 

You justly suppose, that when Boston is treated with 
such unprecedented cruelty, and involved in the deepest 
distress, a heavy load must lie upon the ministers of re- 
ligion in that unhappy town. We have consoled our- 
selves with the thought, that we were suffering in the 
common cause of America, in the cause of civil liberty, 
with which religious liberty hath a very close connexion. 
All circumstances seemed to make it evident that we 
were not mistaken in this view of things. It gives us 
the highest satisfaction to find, that the sentiments of oth- 
ers are conformable to our own ; especially to know that 
this is the opinion of so wise and venerable a body, as 
the General Association of Connecticut. 

We sincerely thank you for your tender sympathy 
with us under our sufferings, and the very kind and 
obliging manner in which you express it. 

We present our particular acknowledgments for the 
great consolation you afford, in the assurance you give us 
of your sincere condolence and unremitting prayers in our 
behalf; and that you will, in every way suitable to your 
character and station, use your influence with the good 
people of your colony to concur in every proper measure 
calculated to afford relief to America in general, and to 
the distressed town of Boston in particular. We trust 
God hath heard your prayers, and the prayers of other 
friends to religion, and to America, and by his all power- 
ful influence hath supported our brethren in this town, 
under their heavy trials, enabled them to stand firm in 
the glorious cause of liberty, and hath given them some 
degree of that firmness, unanimity, patience, and prudence 


which jou so fervently implore for them in this critical 

We owe much to our brethren in the other colonies 
for the very generous assistance we have received. Such 
were the difficulties to which great numbers were reduced 
by the almost total stagnation of our trade, that it must 
have been impossible for this town to have subsisted to 
this day, if the inhabitants had not been favoured with 
such kind and generous relief from abroad. 

The colony of Connecticut distinguished themselves 
not only by the largeness of their donations, but by the 
seasonableness of their supplies, which were received and 
applied for the purpose of supporting those, who were 
suffering by means of the cruel bill which shut up 
our port, while the other colonies, by reason of their dis- 
tance, were not able to afford such immediate help. 

We think ourselves obliged on this occasion to testify, 
that your charities have been most faithfully applied to 
the purpose for which they were sent. The gentlemen 
who have undertaken this trust, are of the first character 
for probity and universal goodness. They generously 
employ a very great part of their time in this benevolent 
work, without the prospect of any reward, but what aris- 
eth from the pleasure of doing good, and the approbation 
of their great Master and Lord. 

While we think we have a right to complain to heaven 
and earth of the cruel oppression we are under, we ascribe 
righteousness to God. We deserve every thing from him, 
and he punishes us less than our iniquities deserve. We 
earnestly entreat the continuance of your addresses to 
him, who heareth prayer, that he would humble, pardon, 
and bless us. 

Our own distresses by no means employ all our atten- 
tion. We are more deeply affected with the general dan- 
ger of our country, than with our own difficulties. We 
encourage ourselves in that glorious Being, who hath ever 
been the hope of this Israel, and the Saviour thereof in 
time of trouble, and who hath so often and so wonder- 
fully appeared for this people. We are sinful and degen- 
erate, but we trust there are many who have not forsaken 
God, and for whose sake he will not forsake us. 


If there had been ten righteous found in Sodom, the city 
had not been destroyed. And will not God have regard 

to the many thousands in this land, who walk uprightly 
before him, and who continually implore his favour, to 
their distressed country ? 

The surprising union of the colonies at this day affords 
the strongest ground of encouragement ; and their spirit- 
ed measures cannot, according to a human view of things, 
fail of success sooner or later. We are sensible at the 
same time 1 , that all depends on him, who is the great Gov- 
ernour of the world. It is an inexhaustible source of 
comfort, that the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. To 
him we refer all, in full confidence, that he will do all 
things well. 

We devoutly wish you the presence of the great Head 
of the Church in all your labours for the honour of God 
and the good of men, and are 

With the sincerest gratitude, and respect, 

Your brethren, &c. 

Dear Sir, 

According to your desire, I send you a copy of 
the letter which was prepared in answer to that which was 
so kindly sent from the Association in Connecticut. It 
was owing to the for^etfulness of our dear brother Howe, 
that it was not finished and forwarded. It was read by 
most of the brethren : but as it was not formally voted 
it may not be best to take notice of it as an answer to 
yours. You may use it as you think proper. I send it 
in compliance with your desire, and it will, at least, show 
that we were not wholly unmindful of the affectionate re- 
gard expressed to us, though we have not made the re- 
turn we ought to have done. 

I am, Sir, your brother and servant, 

Andrew Eliot. 



" 1773, 10 June. JUDGE OLIVER came and drank 
tea with me. He has a copy of the Rev. Mr. Hubbard's 
MSS. of Ipswich, which he himself copied from a copy, 
which had corrections in Mr. Hubbard's own hand wri- 
ting. I think it contains 300 or 400 pages, folio. This, 
with Gov. Bradford's and Gov. Winthrop's MSS. are the 
three most considerable historical accounts of the first 
settlement of New England." 

" March, 1778. Reading a 4to. volume, entitled, 
The Gospel Covenant, or Covenant of Grace opened, by 
Rev. Peter Bulkeley, pastor of the church in Concord, 
in New England, and formerly fellow of St. John's Col- 
lege, in Cambridge. It was printed in a 2d edition in 
London, 1651, dedicated to the Right Hon. Oliver St. 
John, ambassador from the Commonwealth to Holland, 
dated April 15, 1651, and also to the church and congre- 
gation at Concord, in New England, with a preface by 
Rev. Thomas Shepard. Mr. Bulkeley was a masterly 
reasoner in theology. I consider him and President 
Chauncy, Mr. Hooker, Mr. Norton, and Mr. Davenport, 
as the greatest divines among the first ministers of New 
England, and equal to the first characters in theology in 
all Christendom and in all ages." 


Copied from the original, found among the papers of the late Thomas 
Fayerweather, Esq. of Cambridge. 

Kingfisher, off Nantasket, 19 Dec, 1686. 

BEING but just arrived, and afore I could send 
to you, as I was about to do, I have received yours pr. 
capt. George and Mr. Shrimpson, for which, and civili- 
ty's therein, 1 am obliged to you. I do not think it p'per 
(if I could) for to go on shore to day, but I intend it in 


the morning,* and desire; you to give notice to as main 
gentlemen of the council) as can conveniently come, to be 
with you then, or sonic time tomorrow, when I rna\ ac- 
quaint you with his majesty's commands in sending me to 
this government, and I am, sir, 

Your most affectionate, humble servant, 

E. Andros. 

To the Hon. Joseph Dudley, Esq. President of his 
Majesty's Council, $-c. at Boston, 

This is by capt. Nicolson, who hath the command of 
a eompagny now b't. with me. 



[IN vol. VIII. p. 79, first series, of these Collections, is a bill of 
mortality, by this same attentive correspondent, from 1779 to 1801. 
In vol. IX. p. 235, the bills for 1802 and 3, and in vol. X. p. 188, those 
for 1805 and 6 are inserted. The first of these should have pre- 
ceded those last mentioned, but was then mislaid. That for 1811, 
has not been found by the present committee.] 

Rev. Sir, 1 January, 1805. 

AGREEABLY to my former promise, I hereby 
inform you, that in the year of our Lord eighteen hun- 
dred and four, there died in the first precinct in Middle- 

Persons. Years of age. Persons, Years of age. 

1 over 90 1 between 40 and 50 

3 between 70 and 90 | and 7 under 10 

Total 12 

Which numbers added, is as small, or the smallest num- 
ber, that have died in that society, for upwards of thirty 
years past. I am, sir, yours, with respect, 

Isaac Thompson. 

Rev. John Eliot, 1). D. Corr. Sec. Mass. Hist. Soc. 

* " He landed at Boston the 20th. and his commission was published lh< None ila_\ . 



Rev. Sir, May 18th, 1808. 

THERE died in the first precinct in Middlebo- 
rough in 1807, 

Persons. Years of age. 

5 upward of 80 

2 between 70 and 80 
5 between 60 and 70 
4 between 40 and 60 

Persons. Years of age. 

2 between 20 and 40 
4 under 20 

22 persons died in all. 

Rev. Sir, 1 June, 1809. 

THE deaths in the first precinct in Middlebo- 
rough in 1808 were 

Persons. Years of age. 

2 between 80 and 90 
10 between 70 and 80 
7 between 50 and 70 

Persons. Years of age. 

4 between 20 and 50 

8 under 20 

Total 31 

Rev. Sir, 7 Sept. 1810. 

THE deaths in the first precinct in Middlebo- 
rough in 1809 were 

Persons. Years of age. 

2 between 80 and 90 
4 between 70 and 80 
7 between 50 and 70 

Persons. Years of age. 

4 between 20 and 50 
12 under 20 

Total 29 
The average of their ages is about thirty five years. 

Rev. Sir, 2 Feb. 1811. 

THE deaths in the first precinct in Middlebo- 
rough in 1810 were 

Persons. Years of age. 

2 between 80 and 90 

3 between 70 and 80 
3 between 60 and 70 
1 between 40 and 60 

Persons. Years of age. 

5 between 20 and 40 
and 6 under 20 

20 Total. 

The number of deaths in the said precinct was the 
smallest that has been for a number of years. The ave- 
rage of their ages is a little over forty years. 

Per pons. Years of agt 

~> between "2i) and 50 
7 under 20 


Rev. Sir, 15 Jan. 1813. 

THERE died in the first precinct in Middlc- 
borough the year past 

Persons. Years of cs^c. 

4 upwards of 90 

2 between 80 and 90 
4 between 70 and HO 

Total 22 

The average of their a^es was about 47 years. 

Sir, I subscribe myself yours in sincerity, 

Isaac Thompson, 

Rev. John Eliot, D. D. 
Corr. Sec. Hist. Soc. 

N. B. No person died between 50 and 70. 



Roxbury, 10 July, 1706. 

I WAS surprised a few days since with a pres- 
ent laid before me from Albany, by two honest Dutch- 
men, inhabitants of that city, which was a certain tooth, 
accompanied with some other pieces of bone, which be- 
ing but fragments, without any points whereby they 
might be determined to what animals they did belong, I 
could make nothing of them ; but the tooth was of the 
perfect form of the eye tooth of a man, with four prongs 
or roots, and six distinct faces or flats on the top, a little 
worn, and all perfectly smoothed with grinding. I sup- 
pose all the surgeons in town have seen it, and I am 
perfectly of opinion it was a human tooth. I measured 
it, and as it stood upright it was six inches high lacking J, 
and round thirteen inches lacking |. And its weight in 
the scale was two pounds and four ounces, Troy weight. 
One of the same growth, but not of equal weight was last 
year presented to my lord Cornbury, and one other of 
the same figure exactly was shewed at Hartford, of near 
a pound weight more than this. 


Upon examination of the two Dutchmen they tell me 
the said tooth and bones were taken up under the bank 
of Hudson's river, some miles below the city of Albany,, 

about fifty leagues from the sea, about foot below 

the surface of the earth, in a place where the freshet does 
every year rake and waste the bank, and that there is a 
plain discoloration of the ground, for seventy five foot 
long at least, different from the earth in colour and sub- 
stance, which is judged by every body that see it, to be 
the ruins and dust of the body that bore those teeth and 

1 am perfectly of opinion, that the tooth will agree only 
to a human body, for whom the flood only could prepare 
a funeral ; and without doubt he waded as long as he 
could to keep his head above the clouds, but must at 
length be confounded with all other creatures, and the 
new sediment after the flood gave him the depth we now 

I remember to have read somewhere a tradition of the 
Jewish rabbins, that the issues of those unequal matches 
between heaven and earth at the beginning were such 
whose heads reached the clouds, who are therefore called 
Nephelim, and their issue were Geborim, who shrunk 
away to the Raphaim, who were then found not to be in- 
vincible, but fell before less men, the sons of the east in 
several places besides Canaan. 

I am not presently satisfied of what rank or ctassis this 
fellow was, but I am sure not of the last, for Goliah was 
not half so many feet, as this was ells long. 

The distance from the sea takes away all pretension of 
its being a whale or animal of the sea, as well as the figure 
of the tooth, nor can it be any remains of an elephant, the 
shape of the tooth and admeasurement of the body in the 
ground will not allow that. 

There is nothing left but to repair to those antique 
doctors for his origin, and to allow Dr. Burnet and Dr. 
Whiston to bury him at the deluge, and, if he were what 
he shows, he will be seen again at or after the conflagra- 
tion, further to be examined. 

I am Sir, your humble servant, 

J. Dudley. 

LETTER TO REV. DR. OWEN 16*63. 265 


Reverend Sir, 

IT hath pleased the Most High God, possessor of 
Heaven and Earth, who giveth no account of his matters, 
to take unto himself that pious and eminent minister of 
the gospel, Mr. John Norton, late teacher of the church 
of Christ in Boston, whose praise is in all the churches ; 
the suitable and happy repair of which breach is of great 
concernment, not only to that church, but to the whole 
country. Now, although most of us are strangers to 
you, yet having seen your labors, and heard of the grace 
and wisdom communicated unto you from the Father of 
lights, we thought meet to write these, to second the call 
and invitation of that church unto yourself, to come over 
and help us ; assuring you that it will be very acceptable 
to this Court, and we hope to the whole country, if the 
Lord shall direct your way hither, and make your jour- 
ney prosperous to us. We confess the condition of this 
wilderness doth present little that is attractive, as to out- 
ward things ; neither are we unmindful that the under- 
taking is great, and trials many that accompany it ; the 
persons that call you, umvorthy and sinful men, of much 
infirmity, and may possibly fall short of your expectation 
(considering the long and liberal day of grace afforded to 
us;) — yet, as Abraham and Moses being called of God, 
by faith forsook their country and the pleasures thereof, 
and followed the Lord, the one not knowing w 7 hither he 
went, the other to suffer affliction with, and bear the 
manners of the people of God in the wilderness : and 
God was with them and honored them : so we desire 
that the Lord would clear your call, and give you his 
presence. You may please to consider those that give 
you this call are your brethren and companions in tribu- 
lation ; and are in the wilderness for the faith and testi- 
mony of Jesus; and that we yet enjoy, through the dis- 
tinguishing favor of God, the pleasant things of Zion in 
peace and liberty. And while the Lord shall see meet 
to betrust us with this mercy, we hope no due care will 


be found wanting in the government here established, to 
encourage and cherish the churches of Christ, and the 
Lord's faithful laborers in his vineyard. Thus praying to 
the God of the spirits of all flesh to set a man over this 
congregation of the Lord, that may go in and out before 
them, and make your call clear, and voyage successful to 
us ; that if the Lord should vouchsafe to us such a favour, 
you may come to us in the fullness of the blessing of the 
gospel of Christ ; with our very kind love and respects, 
We remain your very loving friends, 

John Endicot, 
In the name and by appointment of the General Court* 
sitting at Boston, in New England. Dated the 20th of 
October, 1663." 

[Extracted from the Public Records, 
Book C. p. 74 and 75.] 

Note. In consequence of this pressing invitation, 
Dr. Owen was induced, in the year 1665, to prepare for 
a voyage to Boston ; but was prevented from his design* 
first by the plague and fire of London which took place 
in the following year ; and next by the King's declara- 
tion of indulgence to the Dissenters, which opened to him 
a prospect of greater usefulness by remaining in Great 
Britain. In an interview also with the King himself, by 
his majesty's special request, at which they discoursed 
together about two hours, he received such assurances of 
royal favour and respect, as led him lay aside all purposes 
of quitting the country. Besides his kind professions, 
" the King gave him a thousand guineas to distribute 
among those who had suffered most by the late severities." 


From a letter of Rev. Timothy Alden, S. H. S. to the Corresponding 
Secretary. Portsmouth, 1806. 

I HAVE lately been informed, that the White Hills 
were called by one of the eastern tribes, I cannot ascer- 
tain which, PVaumbekketmethna. I have spelt it, as I 



think all aboriginal names ought to ho, as pronounced. 
Wavmbekkel signifies white, and methna, mountains, as 
I am told. The aboriginal name, in Belknap's History 
of Now Hampshire, is widely different. 

Piscataqna, so wo spell, at this day, tho aboriginal 
name of our river \ but in our most ancient records it is 
written Pascataquack, sometimes with a double /. 1 
presume that no method of spelling it, handed down to 
us, gives an accurate idea of the manner in which it was 
pronounced by the aborigines of this country. I suspect, 
from the small acquaintance I have had with the aborigi- 
nal mode of pronouncing, and from the circumstance that 
our forefathers spelt the word Pascataquack, that the last 
syllable had a strong aspirate. It was therefore proba- 
bly pronounced Pascataquah. 

" A part irufar of such necessaries as cither private families or single 
persons shall have cause to provide to goc to Virginia, whereby 
greater numbers may in part conceive the better hoiv to provide 
for themselves." 

[Extracted from " The generall historic of Virginia, New England, and the Summer 
Isles, &c. from their fir^t beginning 1534 to this present 1626. By Capt. John 
Smith." fol. Lond. 1632. pp. 243.] 

Apparell for one man, and so af- 
ter the rate for more. 

A monmouth cap 
3 falling bands 
3 shirts 
1 waste coat 
1 suit of canvase 
1 suit of frize 
1 suit of cloth 

3 paire of Irish stock 

4 paire of shoes 
1 paire of garters 
1 dozen of points 
1 pair of canvas sheets 8 
7 ells of canvas to 

make a bed and 




















boulster to be filled 
in Virginia, serving 
for two men 8 

5 ells of course canvas 
to make a bed at 
sea for two men 5 

1 course rug at sea for 
two men 6 

/. 4 

Victuall for a whole yeare for a 
man, and so after the rate for 

/. S. d. 

8 bushels of meale 2 
2 bushels of pease 6 

2 bushels of otemeale 9 



1 gallon of aquavitce 2 6 

1 gallon of oyle • 3 6 

2 gallons of vinegar 2 

1.3 3 

Armes for a man, but if halfe 
your men be armed it is well, 
so all have swords and peeces. 

. s. d. 

1 armor compleat, 

light 17 

1 long peece five foot 

and a halfe, neere 

musket bore 1 2 

1 sword 5 

1 belt 1 

1 bandilier 1 6 

20 pound of powder 1 8 

60 pound of shot, or 

lead, pistoll and 

goose shot 5 

1,3 9 6 

Tooles for a family of six persons, 
and so after the rate for more. 

S, d. 
5 broad howes at 2s. 

a peece 10 

5 narrow howes at 

16d. a peece 6 8 

2 broad axes at 3s. 

8c?. a peece 7 4 

5 felling axes at 18c?. 

a peece 7 6 

2 Steele handsawes 

at 16d. a peece 2 8 

2 handsawes at 5s. 

a peece 10 

1 whip saw, set and 

filed, with box, 

file, and wrest 10 

2 hammers at 12c?. 

a peece 2 

3 shovels at 18c?. a 
peece 4 6 

2 spades at 18c?. a 
peece 3 

2 augers at 6d. a 
peece 1 

6 chissels at 6c?. a 
peece 3 

2 percers stocked at 

4c?. a peece 8 

3 gimblets a 2c?. a 
peece 6 

2 hatchets at 21c?. a 

peece 3 6 

2 frowes to cleave 
pale, I8d. each 3 

2 handbills, 20d. a 

peece 3 4 

1 grindstone 4 
nailes of all sorts to 

the value of 2 

2 pick axes 3 

/. 6 2 8 

Household implements of a fami- 
ily of six persons, and so for 
more or less after the rate. 

S. d. 
1 iron pot 7 

1 kettele 6 

1 large frying pan 2 6 

1 gridiron 1 6 

2 skellets 5 
1 spit 2 
platters, dishes, spoones 

of wood 4 

/. 1 8 



The passage of each man 

is /. 6 

The fraught of these pro- 
visions for a man will be 
about half a tun, which is 
/. 12 10 10 

ror sugar, spice, 

and fruit, and at 

sea for 6 men 12 6 

So the full charge after tliis 
rate for each person will a- 
mount to about the summe 
of /. 1 10 i So the whole charge will 

i amount to about /. 20 

Now if the number be great, nets, hooks and lines, 
but* cheese, bacon, kine, and goats must be added. And 
this is the usual! proportion the Virginia Company doe 
bestow upon their tenents they send." p. 1G1 — 2. 

[* Butter.) 


In a letter from Ebenezer Hazard, Esq. to the Corresponding Sec- 

THE Loganian Library was begun by James Logan, 
who built an house for its reception, and vested it in 
trustees for the use of the publick forever. It consisted 
of more than 2000 volumes ; and he devised certain 
rents to increase the number and pay a librarian. About 
1300 volumes were afterwards devised to it by William 
Logan of Philadelphia, who acted as librarian, and died 
in 1776. The library remained unopened for several 
years after his death, until the legislature of Pennsylva- 
nia, at the request of James Logan, the only surviving 
trustee, passed an act for annexing the Loganian Libra- 
ry to that belonging to the Library Company of Phila- 
delphia, who made an addition to their building for the 
purpose of keeping the Loganian Library forever separ- 
ate from their other books. 

The act directs, that the Directors of the Library 
Company of Philadelphia for the time being, with James 
Logan, and such two other Trustees as he shall appoint, 
shall be Trustees of the Loganian Library, with power 
to make Rules and Bye-Laws : the books always to be 
kept separate from the other Library. The said James 
Logan dying, his nearest heir in the male line, or, in 
failure of male line, the eldest male heir in the female 


line, to be a Trustee and have power to supply vacancies 
in case of the death, &c. of the Associate Trustees. 

The Library is to be open every day (except Sunday) 
from 2 o'clock, P. M. till sunset. 

The Librarian is to deliver books to such persons as 
shall come to the Library to read, and receive them again 
before shutting up the room. He must enter in a book 
the name of the reader of the book delivered to him, 
and cancel the entry when the book is returned. No 
person may take a book out of the room before he has 
signed a promissory note to return it undefaced ; a folio 
in five weeks, a 4to. in three, and smaller sizes in two 
weeks ; and has deposited double the value of the book 
with the Librarian until it is returned. 

Persons residing out of the city of Philadelphia, who 
wish to take a book out, must obtain permission in writ- 
ing from at least one Trustee. 


of religious liberty in new york, 1773." See Histor. Coll 
vol. I. 2d series, p. 140. 

From a letter of Ebenczer Hazard, Esq. to the Corresponding Secreta- 
ry. Phila. February, 1808. 

" ON my return home, I called upon Dr. Rodgers,* 
and asked him if he could tell me who wrote the Brief 
View, &c. He said he believed that he did ; he recol- 
lected his having once written a pretty lengthy communi- 
cation upon that subject. I apprehend that was it ; for 
you may recollect my mentioning that the emendatory 
interlineations were in his handwriting. After my arrival 
at home, I turned to the Minutes of the Convention to 
which the communication was made, (yet in my posses- 
sion, and now before me,) and found that Dr. R. was ap- 
pointed to that service in 1771. In 1772 he reported Ex- 
tracts from the Laws of New York, as other members 
did from the laws of other colonies ; but as it was ap- 
prehended that the communications could be made more 
complete, if more time were allowed, this was granted, 
and the next year the Doctor, among others, delivered in 
a report, of which I suppose what you have to be a copy." 

* Rev. John Rodgers, D. D. of New York.— Died 7 May, 1811. Ed. 



NO man in our country was over more beloved in life 
and lamented in death by a large circle of friends, than 
our late associate, Mr. Buckminster. The services of 
him who descends to the grave, full of years as of hon- 
ours, must be remembered with gratitude; but a deeper 
and perhaps a more lasting sentiment is excited when 
such ardent anticipations are blasted, as all his acquaint- 
ance indulged of our young friend. In the bright morning 
of his virtues, his fame, and his usefulness, — " purpureus 
veluti cum ilos, succisus aratro," — his fall is more justly 
bewailed than that of those who perish in the usual course 
of nature after exhaling all their fragrance. 

Joseph Stevens Buckminster, son of the Rev. Joseph 
Buckminster, d. d. of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
was born 26th May, 1784, and died 9th June, 1312. In 
his earliest youth he discovered the marks of superiority. 
On account of weakness in his eyes, his father once de- 
nied him books, and his stolen converse with some old 
folios in the garret is the only act of disobedience recol- 
lected by his family. He was prepared for admission in- 
to the class of Freshmen at Cambridge, when only twelve 
years old ; but his father entered him the next year in an 
advanced standing. In 1800 he was graduated with un- 
usual honour. His oration, " On the literary characters 
of different nations," was equally distinguished for so- 
lidity of thought and splendour of imagination. The 
young lulus promised, that his steps should not long be 
unequal to his sire's. 

Mr. Buckminster, after leaving the College, was for 
some time an assistant at the Academy in Exeter, where 
his literary and theological inquiries were incited by free 
communication with Dr. Abbot, its distinguished princi- 
pal. After a diligent and elaborate preparation for the 
duties of a christian minister, his first services in Boston 
were at the Church in Brattle-square, where he soon re- 
ceived an invitation to become the pastor. lie was or- 
dained, 30th January, 1805. 

His faithful exertions were rewarded by the affection- 
ate assiduity of the people of his charge, but subjected 


him to frequent returns of a malady that threatened an 
early dissolution of their connexion. He was advised 
to cross the Atlantick, and in the spring of 1806 went to 
England. Having visited Holland, traversed Switzer- 
land, resided five months in Paris, and made the tour of 
England, Scotland and Wales, he returned home in Sep- 
tember, 1807. The disorder, under which he suffered, 
was mitigated in Europe, and some of his friends enter- 
tained hopes of his perfect deliverance from it ; but, be- 
ing seated in his frame, its violence recurred soon after 
the recommencement of the labours of his office. He 
dreaded the loss of his intellectual faculties, which is not 
unfrequently the consequence of epileptick attacks, but in 
this respect suffered only during their continuance. The 
last return terminated fatally, after a week's duration. It 
is observable that his father died the next day ; neither 
being informed of the sickness of the other. 

Mr. Buckminster's principal exertions, apart from 
those more imperiously required by his profession, were 
devoted to philology, especially as it facilitates the under- 
standing of the sacred scriptures. Young as he was, it 
may be said without hesitation, that no man in America 
equalled him in this important department of science. 
To his example must, in no small degree, be ascribed the 
new zeal for such inquiries that is diffused through our 
neighbourhood. He set on foot the republishing Gries- 
baeh's edition of the Greek Testament, and superintend- 
ed the execution, which has done honour to our country 
in the judgment of some foreigners of distinction. To 
prove the confidence that ought to be reposed in the talents 
and fidelity of the great German critic, several papers 
were published, at different times, by Mr. Buckminster. 
His own merit was acknowledged the year before his 
death by the appointment of lecturer on biblical criti- 
cism at the University, on the establishment just found- 
ed by the will of the late Honourable Mr. Dexter. His 
plan had been sketched, and its interruption was not the 
least cause for which the lovers of Harvard lamented his 

He had contributed nothing to our Collections except 
useful hints ; but he had been with us hardly a year, and 


had numerous avocations to justify him. lit; was a 
member of many societies, scientifick, charitable, and re- 
ligions, and his pastoral duties to one of the largest so- 
cieties in Boston made large deductions from the leisure 
he would have given to subjects of curious investigation, 
or antiquarian researches. 

The clergy of our country have usually felt, as good 
citizens, a deep interest in the affairs of its government, 
and have acquired considerable acquaintance with gene- 
ral and local politicks. Whether Mr. Buckminster thought 
himself too young, or was absorbed in pursuits of high- 
er nature, or was restrained by more delicate considera- 
tions, he certainly bestowed little attention on such sub- 
jects. He had, indeed, a decided opinion about men, 
and listened to the discussion of measures ; yet though 
he shewed plainly his preference among candidates, he 
seldom conversed or thought about the results of elec- 
tions or wars. On the only occasion of much political 
celebrity when he prepared a sermon, he thought his per- 
formance should not be printed, and threw it into the fire 
to avoid the inquiries of his friends. 

The only publications to which he gave his name 
were, " The right-hand of fellowship" at the ordination 
of the Rev. Charles Lowell, 1 January, 1606 ; a sermon 
on the death of Governour Sullivan, 1809 ; a sermon at 
the interment of the Rev. William Emerson, 1811 ; an 
address to the Society of C P. B. K. at Harvard College. The 
latter was printed in the Monthly Anthology, and can 
therefore be hardly so extensively circulated among the 
rising generation as its worth requires. The subject was 
" The duties and dangers of men of letters ;" and I know 
not how an ingenuous student can peruse it without some 
enlargement of mind and improvement in virtue. It 
certainly merits, together with the right-hand of fellow- 
ship at Mr. Lowell's ordination, which is affectionate, 
tender, and solemn, and possesses some fine expressions 
of his peculiar and sublime eloquence, to be appended 
to a second edition of the volume of Sermons, of which, 
since his decease, a large impression has been sold and 
distributed. This volume contains twenty-four dis- 



courses, and the highest applause has been bestowed 
upon them by those who said that their expectations had 
been satisfied. They were selected by two of his breth- 
ren in the ministry, of whom one has enriched the vol- 
ume with " A memoir of his life and character," with 
such happiness of execution, that, though I have bor- 
rowed from it the principal trait of his talents and virtues, 
it shall not be injured by the abridgment of an injudicious 
friend, who from his friendship had sufficient honour. I 
shall do no more than apply the language of Lselius : 
" Moveor enim tali amico orbatus, qualis, ut arbitror, nemo 
unquam erit ; et, ut confirmare possum, nemo certe fuit." 


GOVERNOUR Hutchinson, Hist. Mass. I. p. 164. ed. 
3. says, " It was thought necessary, for preventing fraud in 
money, to erect a mint for coining shillings, six-pences, 
and three-pences, with no other impression at first than 
N. E. on the one side, and xn. vi. or in. on the oth- 
er ; but in October, 1651, the Court ordered that all 
pieces of money should have a double ring with this in- 
scription, Massachusetts, and a tree in the centre on 
one side, and new-england and the year of our Lord 
on the other side." 

In his note on this passage, he says, " the first money 
being struck in 1652, the same date was continued upon 
all that was struck for 30 years after ; and although there 
are a great variety of dies, it cannot now be determined 
in what years the pieces were coined." 

In the above are several mistakes. The first act of 
the General Court, which provided that the impression 
should be N. E. was passed in May, 1652. Two pieces, 
having on one side N. E. and on the other xn. each im- 
pression very full and distinct, are in the possession of Wil- 
liam S. Shaw, Esq. among the collection of our late asso- 
ciate, Rev.Dr.John Eliot. They are not worthy of the name 
of money. It is probable that a very few of these coins 
were uttered, and that they continued but a very short 


time in circulation; for at the October session of the 
same year, the mint was regulated, as Hutchinson above 
represents. The subsequent issues, usually called pine 
trees, are respectable coins. 

Hutchinson takes no notice of the two-pences, which 
were not authorized to be coined, until ten years after. 
This fact, and the discovery of his mistake about the 
date of 1652 on all our money, I was led to the knowl- 
edge of, by seeing such a piece of our old money mark- 
ed 1GG2, which is in perfect preservation. But the old 
editions of our laws, 1658, and 1672, contain the same 
statutes about money, and Hutchinson, perhaps, thought, 
that none had been made in the interval. Where then 
did he imagine the authority existed for issuing two-pen- 
ny pieces, or had he never heard of any ? As the act 
has never, I believe, been printed, it may be thought 
worthy of insertion, for its existence is known to few. 

" It is ordered by this Court, and the mint-master is 
hereby enjoined, out of the first bullion that comes to 
his hand, to coyne two-penny pieces of silver in propor- 
tion to the full value and alloy of other money here, to 
answer the occasions of the country for exchange, that 
is, the first year, fifty pounds, in such small money, for 
every hundred pounds by him to be coyned, and for af- 
tertime twenty pounds in like small money, annually, for 
every hundred pounds that shall be coyned, and this or- 
der is to continue in force for seven years, any law to 
the contrary notwithstanding." 

The variety of the dies is remarked by Hutchinson. 
It may interest some to be informed of part of them. 
lnest sua gratia parvis. Of the shillings, one side is 
impressed with a pine tree and the letters masathv- 
sets in around it within the ring ; the other side has 
new England, an. dom. in the rin£ enclosing : 

o ^ / I 6 5: 

Some shillings omit the final m. The six-pences 
have a similar stamp on each side, excepting the 
substitution of VI instead of XII in the centre, and 
omission of d. as well as if. The three-penees are like 
the last, except that the a. n. o. are omitted, and the 
change in the centre to represent their value. The two- 
pences have not a pine tree, but a sort of shrub, spread- 


ing like a thistle. All of them, I presume, have the 
year* 1662. At least, of six that have come to my 
knowledge, two only are in this particular legible. They 
have the latter year, and may be seen in the collection of 
the Boston Athenaeum. One three-penny piece in Mr. 
Shaw's collection has the shrub instead of the pine tree. 



Explanation of plate xxx. New England.f 

SIXPENCE, No. 5, N. E. stamped on a piece of 
plate. Reverse vi. 

Shilling, No. 10, masathvsets in Pourtraiture of the 
good Samaritan. Over it fac simile. No Reverse. 

Peny, No. 14, . . sathvs ... A pine. Reverse. 
. . . . . gla . . In the area 1652. Below the date, 1. 

If the sixpence, No. 5, and shilling, No, 10, and peny, 
No. 14, [and the half-peny, if stricken] can be procured 
for T. H. in fair, unrubbed, uncleaned condition, he will 
be glad of them at any price. 

Pray forgive the liberty and trouble of this commission. 
Palmal, 18 Dec. 1767. 

Sir, Boston, 18 April, 1767* 

* * * * * # # * 

I am extremely sorry that I am not able at present 
to gratify you with respect to the New England coin. * * 

The portraiture of the good Samaritan no one among 
us ever heard of. I am persuaded it was not a current 
coin ; but a medal struck on some particular occasion. 

I have all the other New England coins. The small 
ones are scarce, but I have several very well preserved ; 
and they are entirely at your service." 

* It may be, the letters N. E. were in some of these pieces, instead of the date. 
The impression is not to be distinguished clearly ; but sometimes it resembles the 
letters more than the figures. 

t See " Tables of English silver and gold coins. First published by Martin 
Folkes, Esq. and now reprinted with plates and explanations by the Society of 
antiquaries." Printed, London, 1763, in 2 vol. quarto, p. 91. 

T. H. had the honor to present a copy of the above work to the public libra- 
ry of Harvard College. 


[THE following letter, intended for general circulation, among those 

whom it might interest and whose attention it might engage, IB in- 
serted, in the expectation that it may here ad(lr<'ss some friends to 
whom it lias not been communicated, and thus subserve the interests 
of the Institution. To the members of the Society, it has, as it ou<rht 
to have, a peculiar value, by its association with the loved memory 
of the late Corresponding Secretary, Rev. John Ki.iot, I). 1). His 
attention to this, was the last of the multiplied and important ser- 
vices, for which we are indebted to this most excellent associate. 


The Society, which now respectfully addresses you, 
was instituted in the year 1791, with the design of col- 
lecting, preserving, and communicating whatever relates 
to the natural, literary, civil, and ecclesiastical history of 
our country. In 1794 they obtained an Act of Incor- 
poration, and also obtained a deed of gift of a spacious 
and convenient apartment for their library and cabinet 
in Franklin Place, from the gentlemen who first improv- 
ed that spot in the town for useful and elegant buildings. 

The attention of the publick has been more than once 
invited to the objects of this institution ; and letters have 
been addressed to those, whose taste and studies were 
presumed to lead them to favour its interests. Many 
acknowledgments are due to numbers who have con- 
tributed Books, Pamphlets, Manuscripts, Indian 
Antiquities, Fossils, Minerals, Coins, and other 
valuable articles, which adorn and enrich the Society's 
room. Still they are solicitous to enlarge their collec- 
tions, for the benefit of themselves and posterity ; and 
they take the liberty of asking your aid and influence in 
the furtherance of a plan, as arduous as it is important. 
The least favour will be acceptable, the smallest docu- 
ment, illustrative of our history, will be gratefully ac- 
knowledged, and carefully preserved. 

The Society hope they have been instrumental of some 
valuable accessions to the means of information. A se- 
ries of publications has been given to the community, 
comprising, in ten volumes, much original matter, and 
a great variety of curious and valuable papers, found 
amidst the dust of old libraries, and which otherwise 


would have been lost. Many topographical accounts, 
biographical notices, journals of the American war, an- 
ecdotes of persons who were active in publick life, and 
several laboured disquisitions concerning the aboriginals, 
with other manuscripts, records, letters, and registers of 
events, have been diffused. These publications they 
propose to continue, as their literary materials and pecu- 
niary means enable them to carry into effect the various 
objects of the Institution. It is one object of their care 
and attention to select rare and ancient tracts ; to reprint 
such as will be useful to writers of history, or may gratify 
the taste of those, w T ho love the things of former times, or 
venerate the memory of their forefathers. They desire 
also still more to enrich their library with modern histo- 
ries, travels, &c. especially those which give a fair and 
impartial view of the United States. 

The members of the Historical Society derive peculiar 
satisfaction from the belief, that their attempts to excite 
and promote a zeal for ascertaining the origin, and tracing 
the progress of the American plantations, and perpetua- 
ting in detail, principles and facts relative to the founda- 
tion of these republicks, have stimulated similar associa- 
tions in other States, and have led to the formation of 
libraries on a more extensive, though not more liberal 
plan, in various parts of our own Commonwealth. While 
these several establishments for the advancement of his- 
torical and general information have our cordial wishes 
for their success, still we cannot but desire and strive to 
advance the prosperity and usefulness of our own. For 
this reason we solicit the continued attention and increas- 
ed patronage of our friends and the publick. We re- 
quest gentlemen to forward to us copies of their sermons, 
orations, or discourses on publick occasions ; and all 
pamphlets of an historical, ecclesiastical, political, or sta- 
tistical nature. By the liberality of publishers of news- 
papers, in our capital, we have a series of their several 
Gazettes for a number of years. Ancient papers of this 
kind, and those printed in other parts of the Common- 
wealth, and in other States, would be highly gratifying. 
All periodical works are greatly desired in such a repos- 
itory as ours ; and the editors of such are specially re- 


quested to furnish them. Authors and publishers are 
also solicited to bestow a copy of their works on everj 

subject. To collect the various productions of our 
countrymen in all branches of science and literature, has 

been one prominent part of our design. Many of our 
divines and statesmen would have adorned any country, 
and added lustre to any age, by their character and writ- 
ings. We have been so fortunate as to collect a great 
proportion of the ancient authors of our country. For 
these we acknowledge ourselves much indebted to Mr. 
Ebeling professor of history in Hamburg, who wrote the 
Geography of the United States in the German language, 
and collected every thing which could be obtained con- 
cerning the European settlements ; many of which doc- 
uments he sent over to our library, with a complete col- 
lection of his own works. We are also indebted to sev- 
eral gentlemen in our vicinity for modern accounts con- 
tained in their valuable productions. We entreat to be 
remembered by clerical gentlemen in all the States, es- 
pecially when their labours include historical and bio- 
graphical sketches, and are exerted on publick occasions, 
as at elections, assizes, conventions, ordinations, funerals, 
fasts, thanksgivings, &c. &c. 

The characters, habits, customs, languages, progress 
and decline of those who occupied these regions before 
us, form most curious and interesting subjects of con- 
templation. All authenticated accounts of these people, 
their numbers at different periods, their removals, their 
wars among themselves, or with the European settlers, 
are most eagerly sought by the historian, and the moral- 
ist. It has been, and continues to be a primary wish and 
effort of this Society, to collect and preserve particular 
information of a race of men so different in their com- 
plexion and character from other nations ; and all rec- 
ords of the various attempts to civilize them, and bring 
them acquainted with the sublime truths of religion. 
Posterity will seize with avidity every narrative of a peo- 
ple, so original and so numerous, who have so rapidly 
disappeared, who have fled from civilized society and 
cultivated fields, and could no longer exist, than while 
permitted to roam at large through the forests. In the 


Society's Collections they have published much valua- 
ble matter concerning the natives, and hope to be assisted 
in further prosecuting this favourite investigation. 

Another main design of our Institution has been, and 
is, " the forming an extensive cabinet, comprising the 
various natural productions of our country, the adjacent 
isles, and neighbouring seas." It is not only pleasing 
and advantageous to students in chymistry and mineral- 
ogy, but may prove of immense publick benefit, to have 
specimens of clay, marl, lime, coals, metals, and all min- 
eral substances deposited in publick collections. Here 
artists and manufacturers may examine and compare the 
specimens found among us with those of the old world, 
and thus be often led to explore those regions in which 
probably treasures abound of curious and valuable mate- 
rials in the various arts. Those who may be pleased to 
contribute to this part of our Institution, are requested 
to accompany every article with a notice of the place 
where it is found, the nature of the soil, and all the pecu- 
liarities which distinguish its locality. 

To these several particulars the Society beg leave to 
call the attention of their resident and corresponding 
members, and of all their fellow citizens, who are dispos- 
ed to patronize diligent efforts to advance the knowl- 
edge of American history. If any think our past labours 
trivial, or hesitate to lend their aid to our future exer- 
tions, because they have only a trifle to bestow, as an 
apology for ourselves, and an encouragement to our 
friends, we quote from the imperishable lexicographer of 
our language, and the profound moralist of our race — 
" Although no terrestrial greatness is more than the ag- 
gregate of little things, yet drops added to drops consti- 
tute the ocean." 

In the name and behalf of the Society. 

Corresponding Secretary. 

N. B. Articles for the library or museum should be 
sent by some careful hand to the Librarian or Cabinet- 
keeper, or either of the Secretaries. The Society's room 
is over the arched-way in the Crescent, Franklin Place, 



THE Historical Society consider it to be one impor- 
tant object of their Institution, to multiply copies of rare 
and valuable works relative to our Country. The Histo- 
ry, to which they DOW invite the attention of their friends, 
was never published. Many of their associates and 
others have expressed a wish, that it might be; given to 
the publick; as it is the original source from which sev- 
eral of our earliest historians derived much of their in- 

The Society acknowledge 1 , with gratitude to the mem- 
ory of their most valued and respected associate, that 
this precious relick was among the rich contributions, 
furnished by Rev. Dr. John Eliot from his invaluable 
collection of the treasures of American history and an- 
tiquities. It is believed to have been rescued by his ex- 
cellent father from the fury of the mob in their depreda- 
tions on the house, furniture, and library of govcrnour 

The General Court, 11 Oct. 1682, granted fifty pounds 
to the author, " as a manifestation of thankfulness" for 
this history, " he transcribing it fairly, that it may be the 
more easily perused." The copy, from which this first 
edition will be printed, was probably taken for the pur- 
pose of securing the benefits of this grant. On the ap- 
plication of the Society, the legislature in June last, 
voted to encourage the printing by subscribing for sev- 
eral hundred copies for the use of the Commonwealth. 

Of the author, the late Rev. John Eliot, D.D. has given 
a very interesting, though not minute account, in The 
New England Biographical Dictionary. The same is 
also published in the first Series of the Historical Col- 
lections. [Vol. x. 32, 35 — note.] He Avas born in 1621 ; 
— was one of the first class of graduates, at Harvard Col- 
lege, 1642; was settled in the ministry at Ipswich, a col- 
league of Rev. Thomas Cobbet, about 1666 or 1667; 
and died, 1704. Of his publications the following are 
all that are known ; A Sermon, " among the very good 
ones,"* on the General Election, 1676, 4° ; Narrative of 



Indian wars, 4°, 1677, republished 12°, Boston, 1775; 
Fast sermon, 24 June 1682; Sermon and Memoirs on 
Maj. Gen. Denison, published with Irenicon, 12°, 1684; 
Testimony (with Rev. John Higginson) to the order of 
the gospel in the churches, 1701. 

Of this history, the following testimonials are among 
those that have readily occurred. 

In John Dunton's Journal of his visit to New Eng- 
land, 1685, a very interesting notice is taken of the Min- 
ister of Ipswich. See " Extracts from the life, &c. 
of J. D." Hist. Col. vol. ii. 2d Ser. p. 121. 

Rev. Thomas Prince, in " A Chronological History 
of New England in the form of Annals;" Vol. i. 12°. 
pp. 254, Boston, 1736. — Preface, p. vii. — has in his list 
of folio MSS.— « 12. The Rev. Mr. William Hub- 
bard's General History of New England from the Dis- 
covery to 1680, in 338 pages ; And though not in his 
own hand-writing, yet having several corrections made 
thereby." — Again, p. 10, 11. "And whereas I observe 
some mistakes in Mr. Hubbard's History of New Eng- 
land ; the reader may consider, that as we have only a 
copy of that valuable work, the substance whereof 
! propose to give the Publick : some of these mistakes 
may be owing to the Transcriber only, and some that 
learned and ingenious author fell into for want 
of Gov. Bradford's History and some other materials, 
which I happen to be favoured with." * 

His Excellency Thomas Hutchinson, in " The His- 
tory of Massachusetts-Bay, &c 8vo. 2 vols. Lond. 1765. 
Pref. to vol. i. says, "Many such [materials for an history 
of the Colony] came to me from my ancestors, who, for 
four successive generations had been principal actors in 
publick affairs : among the rest a manuscript history of 
Mr. William Hubbard, which is carried down to the 
year 1680, but after 1650 contains but few facts. The 
former part has been of great use to me : it was so to 
Dr. Mather in his history, of which Mr. Neal's is little 
more than an abridgment." The opinion of his biogra- 

* Mr. Prince's few corrections — for he brought down his annals only to 1633— 
will be given in the notes, marked P. That the copy from which this edition is 
to be printed, is the same which he consulted, is little doubted. This is not in 
Mr. Hubbard's hand writing, yet has his emendations. 


pher, our late excellent and never to be forgotten asso- 
ciate, than whom no one was better able to appreciate 
duly the relative as well as absolute merit of our early 
writers, is »iven in the prefatory remarks to his valuable 
ecclesiastical history. First series Hist. Collections, vol. 
vii. p. 263. 

Of the MS. copy a few of the pages are mutilated, and 
the writing, in some portions that remain, is obliterated. 
These will be given, as far as the editors could spell them 
out. Where they shall supply words, or portions of 
words, conjecturally, such will be printed in italicks. 
Where they are at a loss, they will leave a blank. From 
the ninth page, the manuscript is entire ; pages 7 and 8 
are nearly so ; 3, 4, 5, and 6, considerably torn and ef- 
faced ; 1 and 2 appear to be wanting. 

It is their hope to obtain an entire copy of this defect- 
ive portion when the desirable event, of a free renewal 
of intercourse between Great Britain and this country, 
shall take place. The foundation of this fond expecta- 
tion is derived from their knowledge that a transcript was 
made by lion. Peter Oliver, Esq. LL. D. Chief Justice 
of Massachusetts.* They have applied to the family for 
a part or the whole of this precious document. If they 
obtain it, an impression of the first eight pages shall be 
furnished gratis to the purchasers of this volume. 

Cambridge, 1st August, 1814. 

Conditions of Publii at ion. 

The work shall be printed on paper of the same quality with this, 
and with the same type and size of page. 

It is expected to make between 500 and 600 pages, and will be 
delivered in boards at the rate of fifty cents for every 100 pages. 

But 200 copies will be printed above the number wanted by the 
Commonwealth and Society. To non-subscribers the price will be 
considerably advanced. Those therefore who wish for this valuable 
work, had best subscribe in season. Papers, for the purpose, will be 
lodged with the members of the Society, with the printers, Ililliard 
and Metcalf, Cambridge, with J. Eliot, No. 5, Court-street, and at 
several of the book-stores, Boston. 

* See extracts from President Stiles' Literary Diary— 1773, June 10. Hist. Coll. 
vol. II. 2d ser. p. 260. 

" Every relick or document which related t<> the settlement of the country nr was 
curious, had a value stamped upon it. He collected many papers and records, ami 
even transcribed William Hubbard's MS. history with his own hand. All these, ex- 
cept such as Hutchinson made use of, were carried away with him when he went to 
England." Eliot's N. E. Biog. Did. p. 350. Art. Oliver, P. 



THE attention of the publick is invited, and the pat- 
ronage of the liberal is solicited to the publications of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, which, excluding po- 
litical and theological controversy, are devoted to the 
civil, natural, and ecclesiastical history of America, par- 
ticularly of New England. One important object is the 
multiplication of copies of rare and curious ancient docu- 
ments, both in manuscript and print, for the use of the 
future historian and biographer. It is also a repository 
for topographical descriptions of the country, and bio- 
graphical memoirs of our most distinguished worthies ; 
and various similar articles, for the gratification of the 
antiquarian as well as of the general reader. The Soci- 
ety have on hand abundant materials, and if their pecu- 
niary means were adequate, would publish a volume an- 
nually. It is not expected, nor particularly desired, to 
derive any profit from the work. Such a sale only is 
wanted, as shall, with the assessment on the members of 
the Society, indemnify them for the actual expenses of 
the publication. It is believed to be a work peculiarly 
adapted to the Social Libraries, which are now generally 
established among us ; and those interested in them are 
respectfully desired to examine it, and see if it be not 
well worthy of a place in the libraries of the several 
towns in the commonwealth. 

The first series, consisting of ten volumes, was com- 
menced in 1792, and closed in 1809. It is enriched, 
among other valuable articles, with many from the pens 
of Belknap and Eliot, the founders of the Society- 
names, which, while they are the pride of our country, 
must secure immortality to any literary work, with which 
they are connected. The latter was by far the largest 
original contributor to the former series. Of the de- 
ceased, of whom alone it is judged proper to speak, 
Lincoln and Sullivan also furnished several valua- 
ble articles. The tenth volume contains a most minute 
and accurate index aud chronological table. Two of 
the volumes are out of print; but the Society pro- 
pose to reprint them, if a subscription can be obtained, 


sufficient to defray the expense. The volumes contain 
from 290 to 300 pages, 8vo. and are sold at the very 
moderate price of S 1 ^0 each, $ 15 the set, in hds. Any 
single volume may be had on application to James 
Savage, Esq. the librarian, or of the printer, No. 5, 
Court Street, when; subscriptions are received, and eight 
volumes of the series will be delivered, with an obliga- 
tion to furnish tin 1 two deficient volumes, when reprint- 
ed. As soon as fifty sets are subscribed for, the repub- 
lication w ill commence, and the deficient volumes may 
be expected at intervals of two months. 
1 August, 1814. 


[The Historical Society have occasionally returned thanks to their 
patrons and friends, by their Corresponding Secretary, through the 
medium of the publick papers.* The Committee for publishing this 
volume, have judged it expedient to commence a more permanent, 
record of benefactors. If their successors concur in the plan, the 
volumes xv" ill in future exhibit the evidences of publick attention, 
and of their gratitude for the favours they receive. The following 
comprises the donations for the period embraced by the former vol- 
ume, as well as the present of this second series, i. e. 1813 and 1814. 

THE thanks of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
are presented for the following donations. 

A. Holmes, Corresponding Secretary, 

A large trunk of books and pamphlets, chiefly of ancient 
date, among which are many valuable tracts concerning 
the early History of New England. 

Francis Bayard lllnthrop, Esq. of New York, by his 
brother Thomas L. Winthrop, Esq. of Boston. 

* The fir^t expression of their gratitude, in this way, is believed to be in the 
American Apollo, Svo. Vol. I. No. 19, 11 May, 1792. In this the contributions 
of the several members, to the library and cabinet, are not included. A continu- 
ation of these notices may be found in the same vol. No. 24, 15 June; No. 31, 
3 August, ami No. 34. 24 Augdst. Those who may wish to trace the progress of 
our collection, are referred to the following papers; which however do not prob- 
ably contain a complete series of these publick acknowledgments; but are all that 
re;- lily occur A mere entire li^t may afterwards be prepared. 

Columbian Centinel, Vol. XXVIII. No. H, 3 February, 1798. 

Massachusetts Mercury, " XIII. " 23, 9 March, 1799. 

11 XV. " 20, 1 Aprd, l-oo. 

New England Palladium, ) „ VTV - „ , r Q „ i?^ r „ n „ r 1Qn o 

M. Mercury, cont. \ XlX ' 1G > 23 February, 1802. 



Tyng's Mass. Reports from vol. II. to vol. IX. Acts 
passed at the 3d session of the 1 1th Congress of the U. S. 
Laws and Resolves of the General Court of Massachu- 
setts ; Jenkins' Art of Writing ; Ancient Charters and 
Laws ; Collection of Documents, Reports, Bills, Rules ; 
Repository of Massachusetts Agricultural Society. 

By Resolve of General Court* 

Census of the U. States, 1810. Hon. James Lloyd. 

Picture of Philadelphia, by J. Mease, M. D. 

The Author, 

Sermons on particular occasions, 8vo. Boston, 1812. 

Rev. Dr. Freeman. 

Institution and proceedings of the Society of the Cin- 
cinnati of U. S. and Mass. 8vo. Mass. Soc. Cincinnati. 

Addresses from Common Council to the Kins on his 
accession to the Throne. Hon. Thomas H. Perkins. 

Collections of the New York Historical Society, for 
1809, vol. 1st. The Society. 

Religious Tracts, No. 1, 2, 3, published in Boston by 
a Society for promoting christian knowledge, piety, and 
charity. The Society. 

Bill of Mortality for the town of Boston, for 1812. 

Board of Health. 

History of North Carolina, by Hugh Williamson, 
M. D. LL. D. 2 vols. 8vo. The Author. 

N. Boone's Military Discipline, published in 1705. 

A. Cunningham, Esq. 

Episcopal Journals and Sermons, 2 vols. 8vo. un- 
bound ; The Churchman's Magazine, 8 vols, unbound, 

Boston Weekly Magazine, Vol. I. No. 29 14 May, 1803. 

Gazette, " XVI. " 37 5 July, 1804. 

Repertory, " II. " 59 23 1805. 

Portsmouth Oracle, " XVIII. " 7 15 November, 1806. 

Repertory, " V. " 15 19 February, 1808. 

New England Palladium, " XXXIV." 15 22 August, 1809. 

Repertory, " VII. " 78 28 September, 1810. 

It is presumed, that these articles were inserted in other papers, near to the 
•above specified times. 

* Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 8 June, 1809. "Ordered, that the Sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth, or the Clerks of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, be respectively authorized and directed to furnish the President of the His- 
torical Society with two copies of any publication, the property of the Common- 
wealth, which they may now have, or which may be made hereafter by each 
branch of the legislature ; provided a sufficient number be reserved in all cases for 
the use of the government." 


from 1 804 to 1811; Bowden (John, I). I).) Essentials 
ol Ordination; Defence of the Essentials of Ordination. 

Bishop Hobart. 
Tracts published in the Controversy in Episcopal 

Church, New York, 1811, 12. 

Bishop Hobart and Rcr. ('arc Jones. 

Earl of Buchan's Address to the Americans in Edin- 
burgh, on Washington's birth day, February 22, 1811. 

The Author, 

Palmer (Rev. Stephen) Sermon, delivered in Needham, 
Nov. 10, 1811, on the termination of a century from its 
incorporation ; on dedication of a meeting house in Do- 
ver ; on death of Rev. Mr. Sears, Caryl, and Chickering, 
1812 ; at the funeral of Rev. Thomas Thacher, 1812. 

The Author. 

Preston (William) Epistle to Robert Anderson. 

Robert Anderson, M. D. 

Stanford's Speech, January 6, 1812, on bill to raise an 
additional military force ; Speech of Hon. William Gas- 
ton, Feb. 1814, in House of Rep. U. S. Ryan (Edw. 
D. D.) Letter to George Enson, Esq. Dublin, 1811; 
sundry congressional documents. Hon. Jos. Quincy. 

The Satirist. The Editor. 

Constitution of Grand Lodge, Mass. ; Channing (Rev. 
William E.) Fast Sermon, July 23, 1812; Allyn (Rev. 
John) Election Sermon, 1813; Report of Executive 
Committee of Bible Society, 1812 ; Address of President 
•and Fellows of Harvard College to Legislature, 1812 ; 
sundry documents Mass. Legislature; Seeger (C. L. ; 
M. D.) Oration, 4 July, 1810, Northampton ; Smith N. 
Ruggles, do. 4 July, 1808, Roxbury ; False Alarm (by 
Dr. S. Johnson ;) Lathrop (John D. D.) Sermon on Ep- 
idemic in Boston, 1809; Austin's Sermon before Mass. 
Missionary Soc. 1803; Tudor (Win. jun.) Oration in 
July, 1809 ; Beecher (Lyman) Sermon ; History E. 
Hampton, L. I. 1805 ; Osgood (David, D. D.) Sermon 
in hearing of University of Cambridge, 1810 ; Foxcroft 
(Thos.) Observations on primitive state of New Eng- 
land, 1730; Mass. Charter (Charles) 1689; Trial- 
Thomas Barnes vs. inhabitants of 1st Parish in Fal- 
mouth. J. M. A Friend. 


Kendal (Rev. Dr.) Century Sermon, at Weston, Jan. 
12, 1813. The Author. 

Williams (Avery) Century Sermon at Lexington, 
Mareh 31, 1813. The Author. 

Holmes' Sermon at Dudleian Lecture, 1810 ; do. at 
Inauguration of Rev. E. Porter, Prof. Sac. Rhet. Andov. 
1812; do. before Society for Foreign Missions, 1813; 
Address before the Washington Benevolent Society at 
Cambridge, 1813. The Author. 

Pearson (Rev. Eliph. LL. D.) Sermon before Society 
for promoting Christian Knowledge, 1811 ; Dana (Rev. 
Dr.) do. do. 1812; Prentiss (Rev. Dr.) do. do. 1813. 

The Society. 

Sumner, (Rev. Joseph) Sermon at Shrewsbury, 50 
years after his settlement in the ministry, 1812. 

The Author. 

Spalding, (L. ; M. D.) Portsmouth, N. H. bill of mor- 
tality for 1811. The Author, 

Address to citizens of Plymouth County, relating to 
County Treasurer, &c. Hon. William Spooner. 

Report of the proceedings of the Ninth General Synod 
of the Ass. Reformed' Church of N. America, 1812 ; Ex- 
tracts from Minutes of Gen. Assembly of the Presbyte- 
rian Church in U. S. 1812 ; Report of the Watering 
Committee upon the state of the works for supplying the 
city (Philad.) with water, &c. 1812; Rules of the Phi- 
ladelphia Dispensary, for the medical relief of the poor, 
&c. ; Annual report for 1812 ; Plan of the city of Phila- 
delphia. Ebenezer Hazard, Esq. 

Sullivan (J. L.) on Middlesex Canal, 1813; Mass. 
Medical Society, Address of Counsellors to Fellows, 
1813; Quincy (Hon. Josiah) Speech in House of Repre- 
sentatives, U. S. on a bill to raise an additional military 
force ; Col man (Henry) Discourse before Humane Soci- 
ety, 1812 ; Address of Members of House of Represent- 
atives U. S. on the war with Great Britain, 1812; Whit- 
ney (Peter) Sermon at interment of Hon. Richard 
Cranch, 1811 ; Letter to republican member of House 
of Representatives of Mass. on College of Physicians, 
1812 ; Kendall (James) Sermon before Society for pro- 
pagating Gospel, 1812; Catechism for children of New 


South and Federal stieel Societies; Tracts published bj 
the Society for the religious improvement of Seamen, 
No. 1 to 6 ; Report of the Executive Committee of the 
Mass. Bible Society, 1813 and 1814; Woodward (James 
W.) Sermon at the funeral of Rev. Eden Burroughs, 
D. D. Hartford, Vermont, 24 May, 1813; Parker (Isaac) 
Sketch of the character of Chief Justice Parsons, 1813. 

Mr. John Eliot. 

General Repository and Review, Nos. 7 and 8. 

Mr. Wm. Billiard. 

Message of President of the U. States, 1 June. 

Hon. James Lloyd. 

Constitution, &:c. of the Middlesex Bible Society, 
1814 ; a plea for Friendship and Patriotism, in two dis- 
courses at First Church, Boston, 1814 ; Sketch of the 
character of Hon. Robert Treat Paine, LL. D. from a 
sermon at First Church, 1814; Sacred Extracts from 
the Scriptures, for the use of schools, 12mo. 1814. 

From a Friend. J. M. 

Memoirs of Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, D. D. By Da- 
vid McClure, D. D. and Elijah Parish, D. D. 8vo. 181 1 ; 
Lee (Chauncy) Election Sermon Connecticut, 1813. 

Rev. Dr. McClure. 

Eddy (Thomas) Account of the State Prison in New 
York, 8vo. 1801. The Author. 

Account of the New York Hospital, 8vo. 1811. 

Thomas Eddy, Esq. 

Eulogy on Hon. James Bowdoin. By Rev. William 
Jenks. 4to. 1812. The Author. 

C nickering (Joseph) Discourse to the Congregational 
Society in Woburn — ded. of meeting house, 1809. 

The Author. 

Pillars of Priestcraft and Orthodoxy shaken, 4 vols. 
12mo. 1768; Bishop of Landaff's Sermon before Soci- 
ety for propagating Gospel, and Society's proceedings, 
1767; Calamy (Edmund,) Account of Ejected Minis- 
ters, 2 vols. 8vo. 1727; 13 vols. 8vo. Sermons; Gen- 
eral Repository and Review, 6 first nos. — purchased at the 
sale of the late Dr. Eliot's Library ; (amount £23,40.) 
A few Members of the Historical Society. 

Bailey (Kiah) Sermon before Maine Missionary So- 


ciety, 1812; Appleton (Jesse D. D.) Discourse before 
the Society for discountenancing and suppressing publick 
vices, 1813. Rev. Wm. Jenks. 

Welsteed (Wm.) Election Sermon, 1751. 

Miss Prout. 

Gleason (B.) Oration at Charlestown, 1813 ; do. Ora- 
tion delivered, 1812, at Montreal (Masonic.) The Author. 

Kingdom of Christ, a Sermon by E. D. Griffin, 1805 ; 
Sermon of do. on death of Dr. Macwhorter, 1807 ; Cat- 
alogue of the Library of N. York Historical Society ; 
Constitution and Bye Laws of that Society, 5 copies ; 
Historical Sketch of the College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, N. York ; J. L. Wilson, Sermon, War the work 
of the Lord, and the coward cursed ; Hieronymus (Rev. 
C. Jones) Serious Thoughts on Episcopal orders ; Ken- 
tucky Revival, by Richard McNamur ; Burke (Wm.) 
Methodist Episcopal Church ; Ordinances of College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, N. York ; Collection of Amer- 
ican Epitaphs; N. Jersey Register, 1811, 12; Cata- 
logue of Pupils ; Wilson (Josiah L.) Episcopal Method- 
ism, or Dagonism Exhibited ; Browne (J. W.) on dying 
experience of his Father ; Browne's Western Calen- 
dar, and Cincinnati Almanack, for 1806, 9—13; Citizen 
and Farmer's Almanack, 1812 ; Return of deaths in the 
city of N. York for 1804—8. Rev. Timothy Alden,jun. 

Massachusetts Medical Society, Transactions of. 2 
vols. 8vo. The Society. 

Volume of old Tracts unbound, 4to. Rev. Dr. Harris. 

American Medical and Philosophical Register, by a 
Society of Gentlemen in N. York, 3 vols. 8vo. ; Hortus 
Elginensis ; Hosack's (David, M. D.) statement of facts 
relative to Elgin Botanic Garden ; Anderson (Andrew) 
Inaugural Dissertation on the Eupatorium Perforatum of 
Linnasus. Doctor Hosack. 

Bogart (Henry) Inaugural Dissertation on Angina 
Pectoris. The Author. 

Francis (John W.) Inaugural Dissertation on Mercury; 
Anderson's Inaugural Dissertation. Doctor Francis. 

An ancient plan of New Haven. Rev. Dr. Dwight. 

A bundle of pamphlets, chiefly Election Sermons, from 
the collection of the late Judge Fuller. Mrs. Hull 


Abbot (Abiel) Sermon on Plymouth anniversary, 1812. 

The Author. 
Morse (Jed. D. D.) Sermon before the Society lor 

propagating the Gospel among the Indians and others in 
North America, 1810 5 Kendall (.lames) do. do. 1811; 

Bates (Joshua) do. do. 1813. The Society. 

Coffin (John G.) M. D. Address before the contribu- 
tors to the Boston Dispensary, 1813. The Author. 

Declaration of Independence, draughted by Thos. 
Jefferson, reported to Congress, June 28, 1776, M. S. 

Hon. Timo. Pickering, 

Thaxter's ( Rev. Jos.) Revival of religion, on Martha's 
Vineyard, M. S. The Author. 

Sundry MSS. viz. Esau and Jacob's Mystical Har- 
mony, &c. 1666, a lair MS. 4to. 106 pp. with a memo, 
in Dr. Stiles' hand writing, " I suppose Roger Wil- 
liams' ;" Letters and Papers relating to the family of Col. 
Church, 1772 ; Acts and orders of General Assembly at 
Newport, 26 Feb. 1689, 90, folio sheet; Lord's Com- 
missioners Queries, relating to Colony of Connecticut, 
and Answers, 1762 ; List of Meetings and Ministers of 
Dissenters in London, 1766 ; Letters from St. John 
Crevecoeur to Dr. Stiles, 1785 ; Memo, about Orphan 
House, Georgia, 1769; Hebrew Inscription on a moun- 
tain in Kent (now Washington) Connecticut, 1789 ; Ser- 
mon of Rev. Mr. Wheelright, 1636 or 7 ; Letter from 
Committee of Congress to Dr. Stiles, 1775; do. from 
Dr. Stiles to Thos. Jefferson about fossil bones, 1784; 
do. from A. Browne, Trin. Coll. Dublin, to Dr. Stiles, 
1793. Caleb Gannct, Esq. 

The MS. of the Version of the Psalms, beautifully 
written in a neat 8vo. vol. 276 pages, with original re- 
commendations, by S. Mather, M. Byles, and Samuel 
Cooper, 1751 ; " The Preacher," minutes of texts, 
places, &c. of preaching during a ministry of 68 years — 
(2 February 1702 — January 1770) in a neat 8vo. vol. — 
Both by Rev. John Barnard of Marblehead. Presented 
by his successour, Rev. Samuel Da tut. 

Brief memorial of matters and methods of Pastoral 
Visits ; A Direction for a Publick Profession in the 
Church Assembly, after private examination by the El- 


ders ; being the same for substance, which was propound- 
ed to, and agreed upon by the Church of Salem, at their 
beginning, the sixth of the sixth month, 1629 ; Copy of 
a MS. Essay of Mr. Higginson, on qualifications for ad- 
mission into a church; Original letter from Rev. Charles 
Morton, and several other ministers, on " the reformation 
of those evils, which have brought the many and heavy 
judgments of God upon the people," dated " Charles- 
town, 13 day, 8 month, 1690 ;" and an anonymous MS. 
on the same subject ; Table of Chances and Probabilities 
in human life ; and Analysis of a bill of Mortality. 

Isaac Mansfield, Esq. 

MS. Discourses from Psalms cxxx, 4th, 5th, and 6th 
verses, supposed to be the Rev. Jonathan Mitchel's of 
Cambridge ; and a MS. Sermon of Rev. John Chandler, 
of Billerica, 1749. Mr. John Farmer. 

Extract from a MS. of John Rogers of Ipswich, relat- 
ing to the dismission of Rev. Jabez Fitch from the 
church in Ipswich. Rev. Timothy Alden, jun. 

Besides the above MSS. the several original articles 
in this and the preceding volume, are gratefully acknow- 

The Columbian Centinel. B. Russell, Esq. 

The Chronicle. Messrs. Adams, Rhoades & Co. 

The Palladium. Messrs. Young #• Minns. 

The Boston Gazette. Messrs. Russell 8f Cutler. 

The Repertory &, Gen. Advertiser. W. W. Clapp. 

The Repertory & Daily Advertiser. Clapp & Biglow. 

The Patriot. The Editors. 

The Spectator. (N. York.) E. Belden, fy Co. 

Fifty dollars. Samuel Eliot, Esq. of Boston. 

Fifty dollars. Hon. Elias Boudinot, LL. D. 


An elegant Medallion of Arthur, Earl of Wellington, 
(cost in London one guinea.) Mr. George Eliot. 

80 coins— a few ancient, the rest current copper coins 
of Europe and America. Mr. John Freeman Dana. 

A collection of minerals from Sicily. Donor unknown. 


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